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Aircraft manufacturing materials around the world.
Last Updated: October 24, 2015
What are examples of aircraft manufacturing materials around the world?
Aircraft Materials, Processes, & Hardware
Aluminum
Acrylic (Aircraft windows)
Aircraft composites around the world.
Graphite-epoxy
Plastic
Rubber
(Rubber, Nylon Cord, Steel)
Aircraft Tyre Technology
Steel
Titanium (Jet engines)

Aircraft Materials, Processes, & Hardware
Aircraft Materials
Aircraft
What are the various types of aircraft?
1. Airplane heavy (passenger cargo)
2. Airplane medium (passenger cargo)
3. Airplane light (passenger cargo)
4. Airplane heavy with defense systems (passenger cargo)
5. Airplane medium with defense systems (passenger cargo)
6. Fighter aircraft (air-to-air combat) (only for combat)
7. Attack aircraft (attack ground targets) (only for combat)
8. Airship
9. Amphibious aircraft (only for combat)
10. Bomber (only for combat)
11. Electric aircraft
12. Glider
13. Helicopter for transportation of people and cargo
14. Helicopter for construction (skycrane lifting)
15. Helicopter for dropping water on fire or water supply
16. Helicopter for combat (missiles, guns, bombs)
17. Helicopter for search and rescue
18. Helicopter for medical transport (air ambulance)
19. Helicopter for reconaissance
20. Helicopter for aerial observation
21. Interceptor aircraft
22. R/C (remote controlled) aircraft
23. Seaplane (only for combat)
What would you like to manufacture?
Do you know any other type of aircraft?
A kite is not an aircraft.

What should be included in specifications of an aircraft?

A minimum of 33 specifications about an aircraft are required.
1. Category: Heavy, medium, light, very light.
2. Type: More than 23 types of aircraft.
3. Crew:
4. Payload:
5. Door:
6. Dimensions:
7. Length:
8. Wingspan:
9. Height:
10. Wing area:
11. Aspect ratio:
12. Cargo volume:
13. Empty weight:
14. Fuel Capacity Fuel System:
15. Power plant:
16. Takeoff run with maximum payload:
17. Maximum speed:
18. Cruise speed:
19. Range: With maximum fuel, with maximum payload:
20. Service ceiling:
21. Wing load:
22. Thrust/weight:
23. Flight deck or full authority digital engine control: (FADEC)
24. Auxiliary power unit:
25. Aircraft emergency power unit (EPU):
26. Materials for specific aircraft parts:
27. Passengers:
28. Radar:
29. Armament, if military:
30. Maximum takeoff weight (MTOW):
31. Aircraft Electrical Systems:
32. Auxiliary Systems:
33. Other accessories:
What are the categories of aircrafts as per certified maximum takeoff weight (MTOW)?
VL: Very light aircraft MTOW less than 10,000 pounds (4,540 kg).
L: Light aircraft 7,000 kg
M: Medium aircraft 7,000136,000 kg
H: Heavy aircraft >136,000 kg
Each aircraft type can be very light, light, medium, or heavy.
Aviation Topics
Aircraft Engine
Air Safety
Adverse Yaw
Aerobatics
Aerodrome
Aerodrome Mapping Database (AMDB)
Aerodynamics
Aerofoil
Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM)
Aeronautical chart
Aeronautics
Aerospace
Aerospace engineering
Aileron
Air Charter
Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ)
Air Freight Terminal
Air traffic flow management
Airband
Aircraft Maintenance Engineer (AME)
Aircraft Maintenance Technician (AMT)
Aircraft registration
Aircraft
Aircraft engine controls
Aircraft lavatory
Aircraft noise
Airfoil
Airline Transport Pilot License
Airline
Airliner
Air navigation
Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD)
Airport
Air safety
Airship
Airshow
Airspace classes
Airspeed
Airspeed indicator
Air traffic control
Air traffic controllers
Altimeter
Altitude
Angel Flight
Angle of attack
Angle of incidence
Anhedral
Anti-torque pedals (Helicopter rudder pedals)
Artificial horizon
Aspect ratio (wing)
Assisted take off
Attitude indicator
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast
Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)
Autorotation (helicopter)
Autorotation (fixed-wing aircraft)
Autopilot
Aviation
Aviation Archaeology
Aviation History
Aviation Medical Examiner (AME)
Aviation Safety
Aviation System
Aviator
Avionics
Aviation law
Aircraft Batteries
Aircraft Hydraulic Systems
Aircraft Electrical Systems
Aeronautics and Space Audit
Aviation topics
Aircraft Engines

What questions should you answer before you manufacture an aircraft engine?
    Here are further guidelines.
Airframe
    Fuselage
    Wings
    Undercarriage
    Aerodynamics
    Materials technology
    Manufacturing methods
Aircraft engine controls
Air Conditioning & Pressurisation
Air Traffic Organization
Air Safety
Abbreviations and symbols.
Aerospace Engineers

Q: What do aerospace engineers do?
A: Aerospace engineers design, test, and supervise the manufacture of aircraft, spacecraft, and missiles. Those who work with aircraft are called aeronautical engineers, and those working specifically with spacecraft are astronautical engineers. Aerospace engineers develop new technologies for use in aviation, defense systems, and space exploration, often specializing in areas such as structural design, guidance, navigation and control, instrumentation and communication, and production methods. They also may specialize in a particular type of aerospace product, such as commercial aircraft, military fighter jets, helicopters, spacecraft, or missiles and rockets, and may become experts in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, celestial mechanics, propulsion, acoustics, or guidance and control systems.

Q: What various roles do aerospace engineers have?
A: An aerospace team is made up of engineers, scientists, and technicians. Examples of major engineering roles in the aerospace industry include:
    State Planning and Development
    Intercontinental Flight Operations
    Analysis
    Design
    Materials and Processes
    Systems Engineering
    Software Development
    Manufacturing
    Flight Research
    Field Service
Aircraft Materials, Processes, & Hardware
Aircraft manufacture
Aircraft Manufacturing
Large aircraft engines

What do you understand by a large aircraft engine?
What should you know about a large aircraft engine?
How is an aircraft built?
What are the types of aircraft engines?
How do you manufacture a large aircraft engine?
Who are various manufacturers of large aircraft engines in the world?
Who among them is fairly enhancing the economy of every state?
Who among them is involved in unfair practices harming the economy of various states?
What are 66 essential subassemblies of a large cargo or passenger aircraft?
What should you inspect and test in an aircraft engine to certify it is safe?
How often should you inspect and test an aircraft engine?
Aircraft Specifications
Aviation Weather - Principles
Aviation Weather Products
Aircraft Inspections

What should you know about aircraft inspections?
What questions should be answered in an aircraft inspection?
Who should do an aircraft inspection?
What should be included in a Standard Airworthiness Certificate of an aircraft?
Aerospace Security

How many aircraft crashes were reported in 2010?
Aerospace workers

What workers are required to manufacture, maintain, repair, and operate aerospace products and services?
1. Aerospace engineer
2. Astronaut
3. Air Force Pilot
4. Aircraft and Avionics Equipment Mechanics and Service Technicians
5. Airport station manager
6. Airport security
7. Aircraft Cleaners
8. First officer (The second in command sits on the right side of the cockpit)
9. Flight engineer (also called second officer)
10. Flight attendants.
11. Flight Test Engineer
12. Pilot
    Q: Is flying an aircraft one person's task or an aviation operation?
    Q: How is flying an aircraft different than flying a helicopter?
13. Other
Aircraft Electrical and Electronic Systems
Aircraft Specifications
Airspace Classifications
Air Route Traffic Control Center

What is an Air Route Traffic Control Center?
What equipment does an Air Route Traffic Control Center have?
What are Air Route Traffic Control Centers located worldwide?
How many Air Route Traffic Control Centers were there in the world as of March 15, 2011?
Do submarines at sea have Air Route Traffic Control equipment?
Aerospace Medicine
Airports
Aerodynamics
Aircraft flight control system
Aircraft Weight Estimation
Aircraft, Aviation safety, Signs and symbols.
Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.
Aircraft Hydraulic Systems
Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)
Airplane Fuel System
Aviation Maintenance
Air Traffic Procedures
Automatic Flight
Aircraft Noise Levels
Aircraft Speed
Air Cargo
Air Pressure / Under (Cabin) Pressure
Aircraft Parts
Aircraft Structure - An introduction to major airplane components
What will the aircraft look like?
How many workers are required to build this aircraft?
Existing workers at the airports. Part of your time you need to focus on manufacture of aircraft.
What are the specifications of the aircraft?
Here are further guidelines.

Air Traffic Controllers
International

What is Air Traffic Control?
How do ATC tower facilities work?
How is talking to a tower for air traffic control different than having a conversation with someone?
What does it sound like when pilots and air traffic control towers talk to each other?
What is Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR)?
What is Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR)?
What is Instrument Landing System (ILS)?
What is Doppler Very High Frequency Omni-directional Range and Distance Measuring Equipment (DVOR/DME) System?
What's an Air Traffic Controller?
What Does an Air Traffic Controller Do?
What does it take to be an ATC?

Domestic
Airlines
    The Airline Codes
    Airport Code
    Aircraft Codes
    Callsigns
Asian Airlines
North American Airlines
South American Airlines
African Airlines
Australian Airlines
or

Airlines
Coming soon
Do you have any recommendations?
B
Balloon (aircraft)
Bird strike
Blast pad
Blimp
Bypass ratio
C
Canard
Center of gravity (aircraft)
Chord (aircraft)
Circuit (airfield)
Cockpit
Cockpit voice recorder
Coefficient of lift
Collective
Common Use Self Service (CUSS)
Compass
Compressor stall
Controlled airspace
CVFR
Crab landing
CTAF
Cyclic
Communications
Communication in the Skies
Cabin Air Systems
Criminal activity involving aircraft operations.

What are reported criminal activities involving aircraft operations?
D
Deep stall
Delta wing
Dihedral
Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)
Drag
Ducted fan - dumb-bell
Dutch roll
E
Elevator
Elevon
Emergency locator transmitter ELT
Empennage (tail section)
ETOPS
Experimental Aircraft
Empty weight
Environmental and climate impacts of aviation
Electric aircraft
Ejection Seats, Escape Pods and Evacuation Slides
Emergency

Who should do emergency monitoring, reporting, and dispatch of emergency in intercontinental and interstate flights?
Who should do emergency monitoring, reporting, and dispatch of emergency of ships at sea?
What is the best way to stay informed during an emergency?
What emergency can an aircraft have?
F
Fixed base operator
Flame holder
Flap
Flight
Flight control surfaces
Flight data recorder
Flight envelope protection
Flight instruments
Flight level
Flight management system
Flight plan
Flight planning
Flight simulator
Flight training
Fly-by-wire
Flying
Flying car (aircraft)
Flying wing
Form drag
Flight Deck
Flight Crew
Fuel
Fuel injection
Flight Instruments
Flight Management Computer

How do you set up the flight management computer (FMC) from Chicago, Illinois, in North America to Srinagar, Kashmir, in Asia?
Fixed-wing aircraft
Fuel Tanks
Fuels and Fuel Additives
Fire Protection
Fractional Distillation
Fluid Dynamics
Flight test
G
General aviation
Glass cockpit
Glider aircraft
Glider (sailplane)
Glider pilot certificate
Gliding
Go around
GPS
Great-circle distance
Ground effect
General Aviation
H
Helicopter
Heading indicator
Hold (aviation)
History of aviation
Helicopter
Helicopter flight controls
Hypermobility
Human Resources Management
Hangars
Helicopter engines
Helicopter
IATA Codes
    What is IATA
    What does IATA do?
I
ICAO spelling alphabet
Instrument flight rules (IFR)
Instrument landing system (ILS)
Instrument rating
Indicated airspeed
Integrated engine pressure ratio (IEPR)
Information Services
Instrument landing system
Ice & Rain Protection
J
Jet Airliner
Jet engine
Jetliner
Jetway
Joystick
Jet engine
L
Landing
Landing T
Leading edge extension
Lift (force)
Lift-induced drag
Logistics Center
Largest Aircraft
Landing Gear
Limitations
M
Maintenance
METAR
Meteorology
Maintenance, repair and overhaul
Missile

It may be easy for some to fire a missile or missiles, but it is a criminal offense. You have to use aerospace technology and aerospace products and services to enhance essential needs of the people. You should focus on high resolution space radar.
Military Aviation
N
Nautical airmile
Navigation
Non-directional beacon (NDB)
Non-towered airport
Night aviation regulations
Navigation
O
Oshkosh Airshow
Overhead join
P
Performance envelope
Pilot
Pilot Controlled Lighting
Pilot licenses
Pilot licensing and certification
Pilot reports (PIREPS)
Precision approach path indicator
Propeller
Pushback
Parts of an airplane
Parts of the cockpit - airplane
Pneumatics
Power Plant
Q
Q code
R
Radar
Reciprocating engines
Red square
Relaxed stability
RIAT
Roadable aircraft
Rogallo wing
Rudder
Ruddervator
Rule of three (aviation)
Runway
Run-up (aviation)
S
Sectional chart
Signal square
Spatial disorientation
Spar
Spin (flight)
Spoiler (aeronautics)
Slats
Slip landing - specific fuel consumption (propeller engines)
Specific fuel consumption (thrust) (jet engines)
Stall (flight)
Standard day
Stick shaker
Swing-wing
Security and Hazardous Materials
Structure and Principle of Engines
Safety

    When is an aircraft too old?
    Here are further guidelines.
T
T-tail
Takeoff
Taxiing
Taxiway
Terminal area chart
Thrust vectoring
Traffic pattern indicator
Transatlantic flight
True airspeed
Turbine engine
Turn and bank indicator
Thermodynamics
Test Facilities and Test Stands for Aerospace
The Refining Process
The Biggest Airplane in the World
U
Uncontrolled airspace
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)
V
V speeds
V-tail
Vertical speed indicator
Vertical stabilizer (fin)
Visual flight rules (VFR)
VNE
VOR VHF omni- range (type of navigational beacon)
W
Waverider
Wide-body aircraft
Wind shear
Wing
Winglet
World aeronautical chart
Wing configuration
Does accepting money by airlines enhance the economy?
A: No.
How should intercontinental airline operations go ahead?
How should interstate airline operations go ahead?
When are intercontinental and interstate airline operations good for the economy?

Here are further guidelines.
Which aircraft model is the safest?
What is an aviation safety audit?
What tools do you use to quantify the audit results?
Who has the duty and responsibility to answer?

To Explore Electric Airplane
Do you have a question?
Do you have any questions for me?
Do you have better answer?
Does anyone else have a better answer?
Does anyone else have an answer better than the answers I already have, we have?
Would you like to add anything?
Do you have any recommendations?
If you would like to enhance or sponsor this program, nominate intelligent workers and forward required resources.
How is an aircraft built? How does an Airplane Fly?
How Does an Airplane Produce Thrust?
Q. How safe is flying?
A. Flying on a modern jet aircraft such as any member of the Airbus family is amongst the safest and most reliable forms of travel. All Airbus aircraft meet the certification requirements of aviation authorities worldwide. Airbus works hand in hand with these authorities to ensure standards are maintained and enhanced.

How does an engine work?
A. Why do Airplane Seats Have to be Upright for Takeoff and Landing?

FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT METALLIC MATERIALS
The most common metals used in aircraft construction are aluminum, magnesium, titanium, steel, and their alloys.

Aluminum

Aluminum alloys are widely used in modern aircraft construction. Aluminum alloys are valuable because they have a high strength-to-weight ratio. Aluminum alloys are corrosion resistant and comparatively easy to fabricate. The outstanding characteristic of aluminum is its lightweight.

Magnesium

Magnesium is the world's lightest structural metal. It is a silvery-white material that weighs two-thirds as much as aluminum. Magnesium is used to make helicopters. Magnesium's low resistance to corrosion has limited its use in conventional aircraft. Titanium Titanium is a lightweight, strong, corrosion- resistant metal. Recent developments make titanium ideal for applications where aluminum alloys are too weak and stainless steel is too heavy. Additionally, titanium is unaffected by long exposure to seawater and marine atmosphere.

Alloys

An alloy is composed of two or more metals. The metal present in the alloy in the largest amount is called the base metal. All other metals added to the base metal are called alloying elements. Adding the alloying elements may result in a change in the properties of the base metal. For example, pure aluminum is relatively soft and weak. However, adding small amounts or copper, manganese, and magnesium will increase aluminum's strength many times. Heat treatment can increase or decrease an alloy's strength and hardness. Alloys are important to the aircraft industry. They provide materials with properties that pure metals do not possess.

Steel Alloys

Alloy steels used in aircraft construction have great strength, more so than other fields of engineering would require. These materials must withstand the forces that occur on today's modern aircraft. These steels contain small percentages of carbon, nickel, chromium, vanadium, and molybdenum. High-tensile steels will stand stress of 50 to 150 tons per square inch without failing. Such steels are made into tubes, rods, and wires. Another type of steel used extensively is stainless steel. Stainless steel resists corrosion and is particularly valuable for use in or near water.

NONMETALLIC MATERIALS

In addition to metals, various types of plastic materials are found in aircraft construction. Some of these plastics include transparent plastic, reinforced plastic, composite, and carbon-fiber materials.

Transparent Plastic

Transparent plastic is used in canopies, windshields, and other transparent enclosures. You need to handle transparent plastic surfaces carefully because they are relatively soft and scratch easily. At approximately 225°F, transparent plastic becomes soft and pliable.

Reinforced Plastic

Reinforced plastic is used in the construction of radomes, wingtips, stabilizer tips, antenna covers, and flight controls. Reinforced plastic has a high strength-to-weight ratio and is resistant to mildew and rot. Because it is easy to fabricate, it is equally suitable for other parts of the aircraft. Reinforced plastic is a sandwich-type material (fig. 4-4). It is made up of two outer facings and a center layer. The facings are made up of several layers of glass cloth, bonded together with a liquid resin. The core material (center layer) consists of a honeycomb 4-4 HONEYCOMB CORE FACINGS