Testing for Human Blood

Who has established these guidelines?
Doctor Asif Qureshi

What is the title of this resource?
Medical Biochemistry
Clinical Biochemistry
Last Updated: October 31, 2015
Human Blood Tests
What should a physician, biomedical engineer, or biochemist know of human blood tests?
Annotation or definition
Blood tests A to Z of human
Blood chemistry analyzer for human blood tests
Blood Chemistry Analyzer / Blood Analyzers
Blood Components
Blood Types
Blood Tests A to Z
Blood Sugar Tests
Blood Types Tutorial
Blood Collection Tube Top Colors
Blood components of human.
Blood Types
Chemistry Panels
Common Medical Tests
Controversies relevant to human blood tests and normal range.
Donating Blood
False positive, false negative, true positive, and true negative human blood tests results.
Hospital Blood Transfusion Services
Human blood serum chemistry normal values
Human blood chemistry analyzer manufacturing guidelines.
Human blood chemistry panels
How To Understand Your Blood Tests & Biochemistry
Interpretation of human blood tests results by a physician
Low or high medical lab results
Normal lab values of human blood tests
Practice Quiz for Blood Components
Pulse Oximeter
Staff required in various biochemistry laboratories
Staff required in various biochemistry laboratories in every state
The 10 Most Common Blood Tests (And What They’re Used For)
Tables of Normal Values
Types of blood tests
Venipuncture procedure

Annotation or definition
What is Medical Biochemistry?
What are human blood tests?
What are the types of human body fluids?
Why have human blood tests been mainly elaborated at this resource?
What is Blood?
What is plasma?
What is Blood Serum?
Why use Serum for Studies?
What is the function of blood?
What are the components of blood?
Where are blood cells made?
What are the functions of blood cells?
What is a complete blood cell count (CBC)?
What is blood made up of?
What are blood types?
How common is your blood type?
How have human blood tests been elaborated?
What is Medical Biochemistry?
Chemistry is a science of matter. Biochemistry focuses on the studies of biological matter.

Medical biochemistry is biochemistry related to human health and disease. Its applicative arm is clinical chemistry, a field that focuses on the methodology and interpretation of chemical tests performed to support diagnosis and treatment.

Clinical biochemistry is an important applied sub-discipline of medical biochemistry, also known under the names of clinical chemistry, pathological biochemistry or chemical pathology. Clinical biochemistry is concerned with methodology and interpretation of biochemical tests performed on body fluids and tissues, to support diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of disease.

Clinical biochemistry refers to the analysis of the blood plasma (or serum) for a wide variety of substances—substrates, enzymes, hormones, etc—and their use in diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Analysis of other body fluids (eg, urine, ascitic fluids, CSF) is also included. One test is very seldom specific to one clinical condition, and basic checklists of factors affecting the most commonly requested analytes are given below. Thus, rather than six tests that merely confirm or deny six possibilities, a well-chosen group of six tests can provide information pointing to a wide variety of different conditions by a process of pattern recognition. Biochemistry tests should be accompanied by full hematology, because evaluation of both together is essential for optimal recognition of many of the most characteristic disease patterns

Before samples are collected, a list of differential diagnoses should already be established based on the history and clinical examination. Then, additional appropriate tests can be added to the basic panel below.

Making a diagnosis entails establishing a list of differential diagnoses based on the history and clinical examination. Based on this list, tests can be selected to include or exclude as many of the differentials as possible.

What are human blood tests?
There are many types of human blood tests.
A human blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a needle, or via finger prick. In rare situations, arterial blood gas tests can be asked; that is considered an invasive blood test.
Human blood tests help physicians reach correct diagnoses in various healthcare settings.

What are the types of human body fluids?
Take a look at this.
List of body fluids

Amniotic fluid
Aqueous humour and vitreous humour
Breast milk
Cerebrospinal fluid
Cerumen (earwax)
Endolymph and perilymph
Feces - see diarrhea
Gastric juice
Human Blood
Mucus (including nasal drainage and phlegm)
Pericardial fluid
Peritoneal fluid
Pleural fluid
Sebum (skin oil)
Serous fluid
Synovial fluid
Vaginal secretion

Why have human blood tests been mainly elaborated at this resource?
Human blood tests are mostly done compared to other human body fluids.

What is Blood?
Blood is a living tissue composed of blood cells suspended in plasma.
The cellular elements, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets -- make up about 45% of the volume of whole blood. Plasma, which is 92% water, makes up the remaining 55%.

Blood accounts for approximately 7% of a person's weight. An average sized man has about 12 pints of blood, and an average sized woman has about 9 pints. When you donate blood, your body immediately begins replacing the donated blood volume, so you can safely donate as often as 6 times a year.

Blood is the life-maintaining fluid that circulates through the body's:

What is plasma?
Plasma is the largest component of blood, making up about 55% of its overall content. It's mainly made of water and surrounds the blood cells, carrying them around the body.

Plasma helps maintain blood pressure and regulates body temperature. It contains a complex mix of substances used by the body to perform important functions.

These substances include minerals, salts, hormones and proteins.

Three important proteins found in plasma are:
•clotting (coagulation) factors

Plasma is the liquid portion of blood – a protein-salt solution in which red and white blood cells and platelets are suspended. Plasma, which is 92 percent water, constitutes 55 percent of blood volume. Plasma contains albumin (the chief protein constituent), fibrinogen (responsible, in part, for the clotting of blood) and globulins (including antibodies). Plasma serves a variety of functions, from maintaining a satisfactory blood pressure and volume to supplying critical proteins for blood clotting and immunity.
It also serves as the medium for exchange of vital minerals such as sodium and potassium and helps to maintain a proper pH (acid-base) balance in the body, which is critical to cell function. Plasma is obtained by separating the liquid portion of blood from the cells.

Plasma is frozen quickly after donation (up to 24 hours) to preserve clotting factors, stored up to one year, and thawed shortly before use. It is commonly transfused to trauma patients and patients with severe liver disease or multiple clotting factor deficiencies.

Plasma derivatives are concentrates of specific plasma proteins prepared from pools (many donor units) of plasma. Plasma derivatives are obtained through a process known as fractionation. The derivatives are treated with heat and/or solvent detergent to kill certain viruses like those that cause HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C.

Along with water, salt, and enzymes, human plasma also contains important components, such as immunoglobulins (antibodies), clotting factors, and the proteins albumin and fibrinogen. When you donate blood, health professionals can isolate these vital ingredients from your plasma and concentrate them into various products. These products are then used as treatments that can potentially help save the lives of people suffering from burns, shock, trauma, and other medical emergencies.

The proteins and antibodies in plasma are also used to create therapies for rare chronic conditions, such as autoimmune disorders and hemophilia. With access to these treatments, people with these conditions can live long and productive lives. In fact, some health organizations call plasma "the gift of life."

What is Blood Serum?
Difference Between Plasma And Serum

Plasma and serum are two frequent terms which are used alternately. It is believed that 8% of total body weight is due to blood. Blood is mainly composed of plasma, serum, white blood cells and red blood cells. White blood cells play very important role in immune system (Body’s defense system) whereas red blood cells involve in transportation of oxygen.


Plasma and serum are components of blood and routinely used for blood testing. Serology is the branch of medical science that is involved in study of blood serum. Following are the key points that could be helpful in understanding the difference between plasma and serum.

Difference in Definition:

Serum is that part of blood which is similar in composition with plasma but exclude clotting factors of blood. Fibrinogen is a protein that is involved in blood coagulation. Fibrinogen is an inactive protein and it performs its functions by converting into fibrin (active form of fibrinogen). Plasma is considered as the medium of blood in which RBCs (Red Blood Cells), WBC (White Blood Cells) and other components of blood are suspended.

Difference in Composition:

The components of plasma and serum are similar as both contain hormones, glucose, electrolytes, antibodies, antigens, nutrients and certain other particles except clotting factors which are present only in plasma. So we can say that Plasma – clotting factors = Serum

Difference in Percentage Volume:

Blood plasma is a clear yellow liquid which is 55% of total volume of blood. The major portion of plasma is water i.g 93% and 7% to is composed of blood cell and other parts. It has a density of 1025 kg/ m3. The percentage volume of serum is less in comparison to plasma it also lack fibrinogen.

Difference in Isolation Procedure:

It is more difficult and time consuming to separate serum than plasma.

Difference in Medical Use:

Serum is the most preferred part of blood used in checking blood groups and diagnosis of diseases whereas plasma is delivered to the patients who lack blood cells. Like fresh frozen plasma is used in Hemophilia B. It can also be used for diagnosis of diseases.

Why use Serum for Studies?

The serum chemistry profile is one of the most important initial tests that are commonly performed. The functions of various organs and body systems can be assessed by using these measurements. Sometimes a specific diagnosis may be made on the basis of a blood chemistry profile alone. More often than not, however, the profile provides information on a variety of body organs and systems, giving the doctor an indication of where a problem might be located. The profile can be extremely helpful in determining which of the many other diagnostic tests might be beneficial. Tests are performed to check Glucose, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Calcium, Total Protein, Cholesterol, Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Chloride, Potassium, Sodium levels, etc.

Serum Collection

Blood sampling-

Blood obtained from the patient should be handled extremely carefully. Normally, blood is collected from the Intravenous route. It is directly transferred to a sterile container that is stoppered and also has a label on it. It depends on the purpose of collection whether the blood has been Heparinised (anti-coagulant) or not. When serum is desired to be collected, it is not heparenised, since we want the clot to form and remove the clotting factors from the sample!

The simplest method is refrigeration. Even though this is acceptable when the application is in a clinical and diagnostic lab, this is not a fool proof method. Due to the activity of the various substances present, the sample can either become inactive, or improper functioning may not occur during reuse. Thus the result cannot be completely trusted or dependable, neither might it be reproducible! Thus direct refrigeration method is not acceptable in terms of research applications. The chances of generating false, unreproducible data are very high.

Thus purification processes, prior to storage are recommended. Filter sterilization is the most commonly used method. Filters of various pore sizes are available. There are chances for the filter getting clogged. The filter can be fitted onto a sterile collection container, onto this filter; the container into which the sample will be poured is attached. At the side of the filter there is an outlet to which a vacuum pump is attached. After transferring the sample into the top container, the lid is sealed and the vacuum pump is turned on. Gradually, filtered serum gets collected at the bottom container. This can either be directly stored in the refrigerator or other preservative methods can be carried out using it.

Merthiolate is an organomercury compound. It is used as a well established antiseptic and antifungal agent. Also used as a used as a preservative in vaccines, immunoglobulin preparations, skin test antigens, antivenins, ophthalmic and nasal products, etc. It is very toxic by inhalation, ingestion, and in contact with skin, with a danger of cumulative effects. For aquatic organisms also, it is a very toxic agent and may cause long-term adverse effects in aquatic environments. when merthiolate reaches the body, it is metabolized to thiosalicylate and ethylmercury (C2H5Hg+). Thus, the chemical should be handled only in the fume hood and the user should always wear disposable gloves.

Glycerol stocks are prepared for transportation purposes. This is because, glycerol acts as an inherit layer between the fluid and the atmosphere. It thus preserves the cells, and also acts as a shock absorber, preventing damage of cells due to physical stress.

What is the function of blood?
Blood carries the following to the body tissues:

Blood carries the following away from the body tissues:
•Waste matter.
•Carbon dioxide.

What are the components of blood?
Human blood consists of about 22 percent solids and 78 percent water. The components of human blood are: •Plasma, in which the blood cells are suspended, including: ?Red blood cells (erythrocytes) - carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.
?White blood cells (leukocytes) - help fight infections and aid in the immune process. Types of white blood cells include:
?Neutrophils (granulocytes).

?Platelets (thrombocytes) - help in blood clotting.
?Fat globules.
?Chemical substances, including: ?Carbohydrates.
?Gases, including: ?Oxygen.
?Carbon dioxide.

Where are blood cells made?
Blood cells are made in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the spongy material in the center of the bones that produces about 95 percent of the body's blood cells.

There are other organs and systems in our bodies that help regulate blood cells. The lymph nodes, spleen, and liver help regulate the production, destruction, and differentiation (developing a specific function) of cells. The production and development of new cells is a process called hematopoiesis.

Blood cells formed in the bone marrow start out as a stem cell. A "stem cell" (or hematopoietic cell) is the initial phase of all blood cells. As the stem cell matures, several distinct cells evolve such as the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Immature blood cells are also called blasts. Some blasts stay in the marrow to mature and others travel to other parts of the body to develop into mature, functioning blood cells.

What are the functions of blood cells?
The primary function of red blood cells, or erythrocytes, is to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide. Hemoglobin (Hgb) is an important protein in the red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to all parts of our body.

The primary function of white blood cells, or leukocytes, is to fight infection. There are several types of white blood cells and each has its own role in fighting bacterial, viral, fungi, and parasitic infections. Types of white blood cells that are most important for helping protect the body from infection and foreign cells include the following:

White blood cells:
•Help heal wounds not only by fighting infection but also by ingesting matter such as dead cells, tissue debris and old red blood cells.
•Are our protection from foreign bodies that enter the blood stream, such as allergens.
•Are involved in the protection against mutated cells, such as cancer.

The primary function of platelets, or thrombocytes, is blood clotting. Platelets are much smaller in size than the other blood cells. They group together to form clumps, or a plug, in the hole of a vessel to stop bleeding.

What is a complete blood cell count (CBC)?
A complete blood cell count is a measurement of size, number and maturity of the different blood cells in a specific volume of blood. A complete blood cell count can be used to determine many abnormalities with either the production or destruction of blood cells. Variations from the normal number, size, or maturity of the blood cells can be used to indicate an infection or disease process. Often with an infection, the number of white blood cells will be elevated. Many forms of cancer can affect the bone marrow production of blood cells. An increase in the immature white blood cells in a complete blood cell count can be associated with leukemia. Anemia and sickle cell disease will have abnormally low hemoglobin.

Common hematology tests:
Some common hematology tests include the following:
Test Uses
Complete blood count (CBC), which includes:
  • white blood cell count (WBC) >
  • red blood cell count (RBC)
  • platelet count
  • hematocrit red blood cell volume (HCT)
  • hemoglobin concentration (HB) - the oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells
  • differential blood count
To aid in diagnosing anemia and other blood disorders and certain cancers of the blood; to monitor blood loss and infection; to monitor a patient's response to cancer therapy, such as chemotherapy and radiation.
Platelet count To diagnose and/or monitor bleeding and clotting disorders.
Prothrombin time (PT) To evaluate bleeding and clotting disorders and to monitor anticoagulation (anti-clotting) therapies.

What is blood made up of?

Blood is made up of the following four components:
1. Red blood cells. These make up 40-50% of blood by volume. Their function is to carry oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body.
2. White blood cells. These make up only about 1% of a healthy person's blood by volume. But they are very important in that they help rid the body of harmful organisms like bacteria.
3. Platelets. These are the part of blood that allows it to clot at the site of a wound.
4. Plasma. This is made up mostly of water. It helps bring nutrients to the cells and to carry waste away from them. About 55% of blood (by volume) is plasma.

What are blood types?

How have human blood tests been elaborated?
Alphabetical A to Z list of human blood test.
Categories of human blood test.
Here are further guidelines.

Blood Types
Which blood type is the rarest?
Type AB is the rarest because its only about 4% of the worldwide population

Which blood type is the best?
There is really no blood type which is better than others but type O- can be distributed to any blood type in case of an emergency.

Which is the oldest blood type?
Type O has been proven to be the oldest blood type.

Can your blood type change?
It is extremely rare, but there has been at least one case. A young girl from australia received a liver transplant which changed her blood type from O- to O+.

Do we need 1 blood type more than we need others?
Yes, in emergency situations if your blood type is unknown hospitals will give you O- blood in order to save your life. O- blood is needed by blood centers and hospitals.

Who needs blood?
Anyone who needs a blood transfusion—accident and burn victims; surgery, cancer, transplant, and sickle-cell anemia patients; etc.—needs blood.

What makes up blood?
It is made up of red cells, platelets, plasma, and cryoprecipitate.

Does What's My Blood Type accept donated blood?
We are not a blood center. Please visit your local blood center to donate blood.

How many blood types are there?
There are 8 blood types: types A, B, AB, and O, each being either rh plus or negative.

What is apheresis?
Apheresis, an increasingly common procedure, is the process of removing a specific component of the blood, such as platelets, and returning the remaining components, such as red blood cells and plasma, to the donor.

How important is knowing my blood type?
Knowing your blood type can save you life and the lives of loved ones. Blood transfusions of the wrong type can cause anaphylactic shock, possibly leading to death.

Does Rh (+/-) factor matter?
At this time, few significant differences have been noted with regard to the Rh blood type and diet. One note, O- individuals often need slightly more protein, less grain, and more careful avoidance of avoids, especially potential mold carriers.

Are there exercises which focus on an individuals blood type?
Yes. Certain exercise recommendations are focused on improving total systemic health, mainly the functioning of the organs, glands, immune and circulatory systems of the body. If I lose weight with certain foods that are recommended for my blood type but not with others, what should I do? You should eat more of the foods that help you lose weight until you get to your ideal weight.

Should I avoid genetically engineered foods?
Yes! Genetic engineering moves lectin molecules from one species to another. Since lectins are the molecules that interact with our blood types, an OK food can easily become an avoid. Try to focus on more organic products which does not have the extra additives.

What are the chances that I or my loved ones will need blood?
Studies have estimated that 60 percent of the population will need blood or blood components sometime during their lives.

I am blood type O and I get really tired at the end of the day, what should I do?
Blood type O relies heavily on protein and exercise. Try to ad more protein to your diet and exercise in the mornings before work.

Does eating right for your blood type actually work?
Studies have shown that this diet has worked in most cases. As in most diets if you do it for a short period of time it will work but if you don't completely change your eating habits, you will gain your weight back and even put on more pounds. Going on a diet is more mental than anything else. If you tell yourself that you are going to lose the weight then you will lose as much as you want.

Is someone's personality really affected by their blood type?
Each blood type has different personality characteristics that influence individuals to some extent. If you are the same blood type as a friend then there's a good chance you act similar.

Why is the blood type system not more widely known?
The blood type system has been around for years but there has not been a lot of time spent focusing on it. With the health waves now being in the mainstream, more and more people are finding out their blood types in order to live healthier lives.

What does Rh- mean?
Rh- means the blood group whose red cells lack the Rh factor (rh antigen).

How do I find out my blood type?
Here are further guidelines.

Common Medical Tests
Tests are done for a variety of reasons, including

Diagnosing a disorder
Evaluating the severity of a disorder so that treatment can be planned
Monitoring the response to treatment

Types of Tests

Analysis of Body Fluids
Measurement of Body Functions
Analysis of Genetic Material (Genetic Testing)

Normal Laboratory Values

Blood Tests: Normal Values

Urine Tests: Normal Values
CSF Tests: Normal Values
Stool Tests: Normal Values
Other Tests: Normal Values
Commonly Used Panels
Blood Tests: Normal Values

What are the most common human blood tests?
10 most common human blood tests.
Take a look at this.

The 10 Most Common Blood Tests (And What They’re Used For)
1. FBC
2. Blood Glucose
3. Electrolyte Blood Test
4. Gene test
5. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
7. Blood Cholesterol
8. Chromosome testing
9. Blood culture
10. Blood Typing

1. FBC

A full blood count (or FBC) test is taken for most general health screenings—such as anemia, internal bleeding, poor diet, low white blood cells (which could indicate viral infections or bone marrow issues), high white blood cells (could indicate leukaemia), autoimmune conditions, or inflammation. It’s taken via a small sample of blood from a vein, typically in the arm.

2. Blood Glucose

Commonly referred to as a blood sugar test, this sample is taken to diagnose and monitor diabetes patients, or more specifically, high levels of glucose, which can lead to kidney disease or nerve damage. It’s taken via a tiny “pin prick” in the finger and can be done by the patient at home.

3. Electrolyte Blood Test

4. Gene test

This test is used to find gene mutations in cases of suspected haemophilia, polycystic kidney disease, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anaemia and other gene mutation issues. It’s taken via a small sample of DNA via the blood.

5. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate

An erythrocyte sedimentation rate (or ESR) blood test screens for inflammation issues, such as arthritis, and Crohn’s disease. It typically monitors how fast the red blood cells in the sample fall to the bottom of a test tube—more quickly indicates inflammation.


It takes a small blood sample and measures for specific antibodies related to the infection or allergy.

7. Blood Cholesterol

A blood cholesterol test measures a small blood sample (following a short 12-hour fast) for fatty lipids, or the substance produced by the liver from fatty foods.

8. Chromosome testing

9. Blood culture

10. Blood Typing

Chemistry Panels
Chemistry panels are groups of tests that are routinely ordered to determine a person's general health status. They help evaluate, for example, the body's electrolyte balance and/or the status of several major body organs. The tests are performed on a blood sample, usually drawn from a vein in the arm.
Some of the number and type of tests contained in specific panels, and the names of the panels, have been standardized nationally. Examples of common chemistry panels include:
•Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) – usually contains 8 tests, all of which are found in the CMP (below); provides information about the current status of a person's kidneys and respiratory system as well as electrolyte and acid/base balance and level of blood glucose
•Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) – usually includes 14 tests; provides the same information as the BMP with the addition of the status of a person's liver and important blood proteins
•Electrolyte Panel – helpful for detecting a problem with the body's fluid and electrolyte balance •Lipid Profile – used to assess a person's risk of developing cardiovascular disease
•Liver Panel (also called Hepatic Function Panel) – used to screen for, detect, evaluate, and monitor actue and chronic liver inflammation (hepatitis), liver disease and/or damage
•Renal Panel (also called Kidney Function Panel) – contains tests such as albumin, creatinine, BUN, eGFR to evaluate kidney function
•Thyroid Function Panel – to help evaluate thyroid gland function and to help diagnose thyroid disorders

While most laboratories offer the same set of CMP and BMP tests, some of these other panels may be tailored to meet the needs of the health practitioner ordering the tests. (If a laboratory changes the tests in a CMP or BMP, it will usually also change the name of the panel to avoid confusion.)

What is a photometer?
A photometer is an instrument for measuring light intensity or optical properties of solutions or surfaces.

What is the difference between a photometer and a spectrophotometer?
A spectrophotometer is much more complex then a photometer, the may contain more mirros, slits, a grating filter. Photometers can be simpler to use.

Are reagents included with your photometers?
No, reagents are sold separately on all photometers.


What is a Spectrophotometer?
The use of spectrophotometers spans various scientific fields, such as physics, materials science, chemistry, biochemistry, and molecular biology. They are widely used in many industries including semiconductors, laser and optical manufacturing, printing and forensic examination, as well in laboratories for the study of chemical substances. Ultimately, a spectrophotometer is able to determine, depending on the control or calibration, what substances are present in a target and exactly how much through calculations of observed wavelengths.

Spectrophotometry is a method to measure how much a chemical substance absorbs light by measuring the intensity of light as a beam of light passes through sample solution.

What is Spectroscopy?
Spectroscopy pertains to the dispersion of an object's light into its component colors (i.e. energies). By performing this dissection and analysis of an object's light, astronomers can infer the physical properties of that object (such as temperature, mass, luminosity and composition).

Spectrometry is the spectroscopic technique used to assess the concentration or amount of a given chemical (atomic, molecular, or ionic) species. In this case, the instrument that performs such measurements is a spectrometer, spectrophotometer, or spectrograph.

Spectroscopy/spectrometry is often used in physical and analytical chemistry for the identification of substances through the spectrum emitted from or absorbed by them.

Spectroscopy/spectrometry is also heavily used in astronomy and remote sensing. Most large telescopes have spectrometers, which are used either to measure the chemical composition and physical properties of astronomical objects or to measure their velocities from the Doppler shift of their spectral lines.

What Are Some Types of Spectroscopy?
There are as many different types of spectroscopy as there are energy sources! Here are some examples:

Astronomical Spectroscopy
Energy from celestial objects is used to analyze their chemical composition, density, pressure, temperature, magnetic fields, velocity, and other characteristics. There are many energy types (spectroscopies) that may be used in astronomical spectroscopy.

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
Energy absorbed by the sample is used to assess its characteristics.

Sometimes absorbed energy causes light to be released from the sample, which may be measured by a technique such as fluorescence spectroscopy.

Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy
This is the study of substances in thin films or on surfaces. The sample is penetrated by an energy beam one or more times and the reflected energy is analyzed. Attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy and the related technique called frustrated multiple internal reflection spectroscopy are used to analyze coatings and opaque liquids.

Electron Paramagnetic Spectroscopy
This is a microwave technique based on splitting electronic energy fields in a magnetic field.

It is used to determine structures of samples containing unpaired electrons.

Electron Spectroscopy
There are several types of electron spectroscopy, all associated with measuring changes in electronic energy levels.

Fourier Transform Spectrosopy
This is a family of spectroscopic techniques in which the sample is irradiated by all relevant wavelengths simultaneously for a short period of time. The absorption spectrum is obtained by applying a mathematical analysis to the resulting energy pattern.

Gamma-ray Spectroscopy
Gamma radiation is the energy source in this type of spectroscopy, which includes activation analysis and Mossbauer spectroscopy.

Infrared Spectroscopy
The infrared absorption spectrum of a substance is sometimes called its molecular fingerprint. Although frequently used to identify materials, infrared spectroscopy also may be used to quantify the number of absorbing molecules.

Laser Spectroscopy
Absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy commonly use laser light as an energy source. Laser spectroscopies provide information about the interaction of coherent light with matter. Laser spectrocopy generally has high resolution and sensitivity.

Mass Spectrometry
A mass spectrometer source produces ions. Information about a sample may be obtained by analyzing the dispersion of ions when they interact with the sample, generally using the mass-to-charge ratio.

Multiplex or Frequency-Modulated Spectroscopy
In this type of spectroscopy, each optical wavelength that is recorded is encoded with an audio frequency containing the original wavelength information. A wavelength analyzer can then reconstruct the original spectrum.

Raman Spectroscopy
Raman scattering of light by molecules may be used to provide information on a sample's chemical composition and molecular structure.

X-ray Spectroscopy
This technique involves excitation of inner electrons of atoms, which may be seen as x-ray absorption. An x-ray fluorescence emission spectrum may be produced when an electron falls from a higher energy state into the vacancy created by the absorbed energy.

Devices and mechanism

Figure 1 illustrates the basic structure of spectrophotometers. It consists of a light source, a collimator, a monochromator, a wavelength selector, a cuvette for sample solution, a photoelectric detector, and a digital display or a meter.

Unicam 5625 UV/Vis Spectrophotometer
Unicam 5625 Uv/Vis Spectrophotometer
Digital Programmable Unit.
Parent Category: Lab Testing Measurement
Sub-Category: Spectrophotometer
Stock Ref#: N10064-51

Single beam spectrophotometer

How To Understand Your Blood Tests & Biochemistry
Do you understand your blood results?
Why do doctors need to know what's in your blood?
Why the blood test is being carried out?
What the blood test is looking for?

There are hundreds of different blood tests carried out - some for general tests others are more specialised.

A test tube sample showing the different components of human blood.

Human blood - the basic compilation

The blood has two main components:
2.blood cells.

This texture allows substances such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, enzymes and other products to be carried to all organs, tissues and cells of the body. •Plasma is made up of approximately 91-92% water. The other 8% consists of blood plasma proteins and traces of other elements. Not only does the plasma transport blood cells but it also acts as a conductor of heat. Plasma is not a clear liquid but is more straw coloured.

•Within the blood there are three kinds of blood cells - red cells, white cells and platelets.

•Red blood cells, (RBC) account for approximately 99% of all the blood cell categories. The scientific name for a red blood cell is - erythrocyte

•The red colouring comes from haemoglobin. This is a red pigment that carries oxygen in the blood.

•White blood cells, (WBC), fight disease and infections within the body by producing anti-bodies that destroy harmful organisms.

•Platelets form clots when there is injury in order to prevent blood loss from the body. However, if clots develop inside the body for some reason - due to disease for example - then the clots are called a thrombosis and can be dangerous.

A modern laboratory showing the machines that analyse all the components of human blood.

Low or high medical lab results
Guidelines on Professional Training.
Guidelines on Continuous Professional Training.

What should a physician do if low or high medical lab results are reported?
Do not panic.
Analyze and interpret results in a reasonable scientific manner.
Correlate with medical history and clinical findings.
Start with normal value ranges.
Consider blood collection error, storage error, lab error, life style changes like diet and exercise, medications, and other reasons.
Last of all, interpret low to high value medical lab results with any specific diagnosis after evaluating all of the above reasons.

Answer relevant questions.

What standard of human blood serum chemistry normal values do you follow?

What standard of human blood serum chemistry normal values do I follow?

What are the sources of these human blood serum chemistry normal values?
Food and Drug Administration
10903 New Hampshire Avenue
Silver Spring, MD 20993

Primary care physician training program

What is the difference between a primary care physician training program and a primary care physician on duty at a location?
Establishing a training program for primary care physicians and working at a specific location 9-5 as a primary care physician are two different services.

Medical Records Technician Training

Medical Assistant

Medical Laboratory Technician

Biochemistry lab errors verification

What are the most common reasons lab values of biochemistry result are low or high?
Improperly collected blood samples.
Improper tube in which human blood was collected.
Improper storage of blood samples.
Wrong machine analysis or sample.
Transient low or high values caused by lifestyle, like diet, exercise, medication, other reasons.
At the end, you should consider other medical reasons.

How do you collect samples for human blood chemistry analysis?
How many tubes and types of tubes do you utilize in collecting samples for biochemistry analysis?
How do you verify that the biochemistry lab is not giving any errors?
Where do you forward the blood samples for biochemistry analysis?
What types of machines in biochemistry do analysis of human blood samples?

Low or high medical lab results
Here are further guidelines.

Donating Blood
What is blood?
Who needs blood?
What are the types of blood and who has them?
How much blood does a human body have?
How does the body make blood?
What is whole blood?
What are red blood cells?
How are red blood cells used?
What is plasma?
How is plasma used?
What are platelets?
How are platelets used?
What are white blood cells?
How are white blood cells used?
What is the complete blood count test (CBC)?
How is the complete blood count test (CBC) done?
What are the components of the complete blood count (CBC)?
What are values for a complete blood count (CBC)?
What are the functions of the cells in a complete blood count (CBC)?
What is the complete blood count (CBC) used for?
Multiple Choice QUestions

What is blood?
Blood is a living tissue that circulates through the heart, arteries, veins and organs carrying nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat and oxygen to the body’s tissues.

Who needs blood?
The need for blood is great. Blood transfusions often are needed for trauma victims — due to accidents and burns — heart surgery, organ transplants, and patients receiving treatment for leukemia, cancer or other diseases, such as sickle cell disease and thalassemia. An aging population and advances in medical treatments and procedures requiring blood transfusions also continue to increase the demand for blood.

What are the types of blood and who has them?
Blood types by percentage of population are as follows:
* O positive, 37 percent
* O negative, 7 percent
* A positive, 36 percent
* A negative, 6 percent
* B positive, 8 percent
* B negative, 2 percent
* AB positive, 3 percent
* AB negative, 1 percent

In an emergency, anyone can receive O negative blood, and those with O negative blood are known as “universal donors.”

How much blood does a human body have?
An average size female has about nine pints of blood, while an average size male has about 12 pints of blood.

How does the body make blood?
Red cells, platelets and white cells are made in the bone marrow. Coagulation proteins (clotting factors) are made in the liver and water comes from the body’s general ?uid content.

What is whole blood?
Whole blood is just as it sounds – it is blood with all of its components intact. Whole blood is comprised of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets suspended in a proteinaceous ?uid called plasma. These parts can be separated from whole blood in order to provide patients with superior treatment by giving them the speci?c elements they need. Whole blood donations can be made every eight weeks (56 days).

What are red blood cells?
Red blood cells are perhaps the most recognizable component of whole blood. Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, a complex iron-containing protein that carries oxygen throughout the body and gives blood its red color. The percentage of blood volume composed of red blood cells is called the hematocrit. The average hematocrit in an adult male is 47 percent. There are about one billion red blood cells in two to three drops of blood, and, for every 600 red blood cells, there are about 40 platelets and one white cell.

Manufactured in the bone marrow, red blood cells are continuously being produced and broken down. They live for approximately 120 days in the circulatory system and are eventually removed by the spleen. Red blood cells are prepared from whole blood by removing the plasma, or the liquid portion of the blood, and can raise the patient’s hematocrit and hemoglobin levels while minimizing an increase in blood volume.

How are red blood cells used?
Patients who bene?t most from transfusions of red blood cells include those with chronic anemia resulting from disorders such as kidney failure, malignancies, or gastrointestinal bleeding and those with acute blood loss resulting from trauma or surgery. Since red blood cells have reduced amounts of plasma, they are well-suited for treating anemia patients who would not tolerate the increased volume provided by whole blood, such as patients with congestive heart failure or those who are elderly or debilitated.

What is plasma?
Plasma is the liquid portion of the blood – a protein-salt solution in which red and white blood cells and platelets are suspended. Plasma, which is 90 percent water, constitutes about 55 percent of blood volume. Plasma contains albumin (the chief protein constituent), ?brinogen (responsible, in part, for the clotting of blood), globulins (including antibodies) and other clotting proteins.

Plasma serves a variety of functions, from maintaining satisfactory blood pressure and volume to supplying critical proteins for blood clotting and immunity. It also serves as the medium of exchange for vital minerals such as sodium and potassium, thus helping maintain a proper balance in the body, which is critical to cell function.

How is plasma used?
Plasma is most often used to treat certain bleeding disorders when a clotting factor or multiple factors are de?cient and no factor-speci?c concentrate is available. It can also be used for plasma replacement through a process called plasma exchange.

What are platelets?
Platelets (or thrombocytes) are very small cellular components of blood that help the clotting process by sticking to the lining of blood vessels (basically, they form scabs). Platelets are made in the bone marrow and survive in the circulatory system for an average of 9-10 days before being removed from the body by the spleen. The platelet is vital to life, because it helps prevent both massive blood loss resulting from trauma and blood vessel leakage that would otherwise occur in the course of normal, day-to-day activity. Units of platelets are prepared by using a centrifuge to separate the platelet-rich plasma from the donated unit of whole blood. The platelet-rich plasma is then centrifuged again to concentrate the platelets further.

Platelets may also be obtained from a donor through a process known as automation. In this process, blood is drawn from the donor into an automation instrument, which, using centrifugation, separates the blood into its components, retains the platelets, and returns the remainder of the blood to the donor. The resulting component contains about six times as many platelets as a unit of platelets obtained from whole blood. Platelets are stored at room temperature for up to ?ve days.

How are platelets used?
Principally patients with different forms of cancer and leukemia. Chemotherapy helps save lives but it destroys healthy platelets at the same time. Without platelet transfusions, these patients could bleed to death. Patients suffering from leukemia and other cancers of the blood are doubly affected. In addition to the effects of chemotherapy, their disease may crowd out or destroy the bone marrow cells that make healthy platelets.

Despite advances in medical technology, there is still no substitute for platelets... they must come from dedicated volunteer donors.

What are white blood cells?
White blood cells are responsible for protecting the body from invasion by foreign substances such as bacteria, fungi and viruses. The majority of white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow, where they outnumber red blood cells by two to one. However, in the blood stream, there are about 600 red blood cells for every white blood cell. There are several types of white blood cells. Granulocytes and macrophages protect against infection by surrounding and destroying invading bacteria and viruses, and lymphocytes aid in the immune defense. Granulocytes can be collected through automation or by centrifugation of whole blood and are transfused within 24 hours after collection.

How are white blood cells used?
White blood cells are used to ?ght infections that are unresponsive to antibiotic therapy and to produce interferon. The effectiveness of white blood cell transfusion is still being investigated.

How is the complete blood count test (CBC) done?
The complete blood count (CBC) test is performed by obtaining a few milliliters (one to two teaspoons) of blood sample directly form the patient. It can be done in many settings including the doctor's office, laboratories, and hospitals. The skin is wiped clean with an alcohol pad, and then a needle is inserted through the area of cleansed skin into to patient's vein (one that can be visualized from the skin.) The blood is then pulled from the needle by a syringe or by a connection to a special vacuumed vial where it is collected. This sample is then taken to the laboratory for analysis.

What are the components of the complete blood count (CBC)?
The complete blood count, or CBC, lists a number of many important values. Typically, it includes the following:
* White blood cell count (WBC or leukocyte count)
* WBC differential count
* Red blood cell count (RBC or erythrocyte count)
* Hematocrit (Hct)
* Hemoglobin (Hbg)
* Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
* Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)
* Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)
* Red cell distribution width (RDW)
* Platelet count
* Mean Platelet Volume (MPV)

What are values for a complete blood count (CBC)?
The values generally included are the following:
* White blood cell count (WBC) is the number of white blood cells in a volume of blood. Normal range varies slightly between laboratories but is generally between 4,300 and 10,800 cells per cubic millimeter (cmm). This can also be referred to as the leukocyte count and can be expressed in international units as 4.3 to 10.8 x 109 cells per liter.

* White blood cell (WBC) differential count. White blood count is comprised of several different types that are differentiated, or distinguished, based on their size and shape. The cells in a differential count are granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils.

A machine generated percentage of the different types of white blood cells is called the automated WBC differential. These components can also be counted under the microscope on a glass slide by a trained laboratory technician or a doctor and referred to as the manual WBC differential.

* Red cell count (RBC) signifies the number of red blood cells in a volume of blood. Normal range varies slightly between laboratories but is generally between 4.2 to 5.9 million cells/cmm. This can also be referred to as the erythrocyte count and can be expressed in international units as 4.2 to 5.9 x 1012 cells per liter.

Red blood cells are the most common cell type in blood and people have millions of them in their blood circulation. They are smaller than white blood cells, but larger than platelets.

* Hemoglobin (Hb). This is the amount of hemoglobin in a volume of blood. Hemoglobin is the protein molecule within red blood cells that carries oxygen and gives blood its red color. Normal range for hemoglobin is different between the sexes and is approximately 13 to 18 grams per deciliter for men and 12 to 16 for women (international units 8.1 to 11.2 millimoles/liter for men, 7.4 to 9.9 for women).

* Hematocrit (Hct). This is the ratio of the volume of red cells to the volume of whole blood. Normal range for hematocrit is different between the sexes and is approximately 45% to 52% for men and 37% to 48% for women. This is usually measured by spinning down a sample of blood in a test tube, which causes the red blood cells to pack at the bottom of the tube.

* Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is the average volume of a red blood cell. This is a calculated value derived from the hematocrit and red cell count. Normal range may fall between 80 to 100 femtoliters (a fraction of one millionth of a liter).

* Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) is the average amount of hemoglobin in the average red cell. This is a calculated value derived from the measurement of hemoglobin and the red cell count. Normal range is 27 to 32 picograms.

* Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) is the average concentration of hemoglobin in a given volume of red cells. This is a calculated volume derived from the hemoglobin measurement and the hematocrit. Normal range is 32% to 36%.

* Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) is a measurement of the variability of red cell size and shape. Higher numbers indicate greater variation in size. Normal range is 11 to 15.

* Platelet count. The number of platelets in a specified volume of blood. Platelets are not complete cells, but actually fragments of cytoplasm (part of a cell without its nucleus or the body of a cell) from a cell found in the bone marrow called a megakaryocyte. Platelets play a vital role in blood clotting. Normal range varies slightly between laboratories but is in the range of 150,000 to 400,000/ cmm (150 to 400 x 109/liter).

* Mean Platelet Volume (MPV). The average size of platelets in a volume of blood.

What are the functions of the cells in a complete blood count (CBC)?
The cells in the CBC (white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets) have unique functions. Generally speaking, white blood cells are an essential part of the immune system and help the body fight infections. Each different component of the white blood cell (the WBC differential) plays a specific role in the immune system.

Red blood cells are essential in transporting oxygen to all the cells in the body to serve their functions. The hemoglobin molecule in the red blood cell is the vehicle for the transportation of oxygen. Platelets are a part of the blood clotting system in the body and help in preventing bleeding.

What is the complete blood count (CBC) used for?
Your doctor may order this test for a variety of reasons. It may be a part of a routine check-up or screening, or as a follow-up test to monitor certain treatments. It can also be done as a part of an evaluation based on a patient's symptoms.

For example, a high WBC count (leukocytosis) may signify an infection somewhere in the body or, less commonly, it may signify an underlying malignancy. A low WBC count (leukopenia) may point toward a bone marrow problem or related to some medications, such as chemotherapy. A doctor may order the test to follow the WBC count in order to monitor the response to a treatment for an infection. The components in the differential of the WBC count also have specific functions and if altered, they may provide clues for particular conditions.

A low red blood cell count or low hemoglobin may suggest anemia, which can have many causes. Possible causes of high red blood cell count or hemoglobin (erythrocytosis) may include bone marrow disease or low blood oxygen levels (hypoxia).

A low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) may be the cause of prolonged bleeding or other medical conditions. Conversely, a high platelet count (thrombocytosis) may point toward a bone marrow problem or severe inflammation.

Functions of blood

* It supplies oxygen to cells and tissues.
* It supplies essential nutrients to cells, such as amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose.
* It removes carbon dioxide, urea and lactic acid (waste products)
* Its white blood cells have antibodies which defend us from infection and foreign bodies.
* It has specialized cells, such as platelets, which help the blood to clot (coagulate) when we are bleeding.
* It transports hormones - chemicals released by a cell in one part of the body that sends out messages that affect cells elsewhere in the body.
* It regulates our acidity (pH) levels.
* It regulates our body temperature. When the weather is very warm or during strenuous exercise there will be increased blood flow to the surface, resulting in warmer skin and faster heat loss. When environmental temperatures drop, blood flow focuses more on the important organs deep inside the body.
* It also has hydraulic functions - when a human is sexually aroused, engorgement (filling the area with blood) will result in a male erection and swelling of the female's clitoris.

Blood cells are produced in the bone marrow
White cells, red cells and platelets are made in the bone marrow - a jellylike substance that fills the cavities of bones. Bone marrow consists of fat, blood, and special cells (stem cells) that turn into the various kinds of blood cells. The main areas of bone marrow involved in the formation of blood cells are in the vertebrae, ribs, sternum, skull and hips.

* Red Blood Cells
* White Blood Cells
* Platelets
* Plasma
* Lymph
* Blood Types
* Rh Factors

Human blood is the body fluid circulated by the heart through the vascular system of the human body to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the body's cells and to transport waste products away from these cells. Blood is considered as a specialized form of connective tissue that is produces by the bones by a process called hematopoiesis. Human blood is red in color due to the presence of red blood cells containing the pigment hemoglobin. An average adult has about five liters of blood in his body, which accounts for seven percent of his body weight. Other functions of blood include providing immunity, coagulation, transport of hormones and regulating body temperature and pH. The constituents of blood are blood cells suspended in the fluid called blood plasma.

Blood cells include erythrocytes or red blood cells, leukocytes or white blood cells and thrombocytes or platelets. All blood cells are produced in the bone marrow from a single cell called hematopoietic stem cell. Erythrocytes are the most numerous cells of all blood cells and range from 4.7 to 6.1 million cells per millimeter cube in males and from 4.2 to 5.4 million cells per millimeter cube in females. Red blood cells (RBCs) are biconcave in shape and contain no nucleus or organelles. They contain hemoglobin and their function is oxygen transport to body cells and carrying back carbon dioxide from these cells to the lungs.

White Blood Cells (WBCs) constitute the immune system and range from 4,000 to 11,000 cells per millimeter cube. They are white in color and are much larger in size than the more numerous erythrocytes. They consist of granulocytes and agranulocytes. Granulocytes include neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils. Agranulocytes include lymphocytes and monocytes. Lymphocytes are of two types- B and T lymphocytes which produce antibodies against bacteria, toxins and other infectious agents and regulate immunity. Monocytes are the largest of all WBCs and become tissue macrophages to remove foreign particles and protect against them. Hence they are known as phagocytes. Granulocytes are named after the staining characteristics of their granules. Neutrophils have segmented nuclei, eosinophils have two to four lobes nuclei whereas basophils have two lobed nuclei.

Platelets range from 150,000 to 400,000 per micro liter. They help in formation of blood clot and prevent excessive bleeding. Plasma is the liquid component of blood in which blood cells are suspended. It is straw colored and makes up 55% of total blood volume. It is composed of mainly water with dissolved proteins, glucose, clotting factors, hormones, minerals and carbon dioxide. Serum proteins constitute serum albumin serum globulin, fibrinogen and prothrombin which can be separated by electrophoresis.

Blood is a connective tissue containing suspended cells in its liquid component called plasma. Plasma constitutes 55% of blood volume and blood cells make up the remaining 45%.The types of Blood cells are red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets out of which RBCs are the most numerous and responsible for the red color of blood. Each component of blood has a specific function vital to life.

1. Which of the following statements is true concerning human blood?
a) The blood of all normal humans contains red and white cells, platelets, and plasma.
b) Some human populations normally lack the ability to produce plasma.
c) Proteins are not normal components of human blood.
Correct:The blood of all normal humans contains red and white cells, platelets, and plasma.
## CORRECT --> There are no populational or regional differences. All healthy people produce these 4 main blood components.

2. Erythrocyte is another name for a:
a) red cell
b) white cell
c) platelet
Correct: red cell
## CORRECT --> Erythrocyte literally means red cell in Greek.

3. Which of the following blood components provide the major defense for our bodies against invading bacteria and viruses?
a) red cells
b) white cells
c) platelets
Correct:white cells
## CORRECT --> There are numerous types of white cells, many of which function to seek out and destroy alien microbes in our bodies. Some other types of white cells have the function of getting rid of old unneeded blood cells.

4. The relatively clear liquid medium which carries the other cells of blood is called:
a) lipid
b) antibody
c) plasma
## CORRECT --> Most of blood`s volume is made up of plasma. As the heart pumps blood to cells throughout the body, the plasma brings them nourishment and removes the waste products of metabolism. It also transports the red and white cells as well as the platelets.

5. Which of the following are likely to increase in quantities when the body is under attack from bacteria?
a) erythrocytes
b) leukocytes
c) thrombocytes
## CORRECT --> In response to such an attack, the leukocytes, or white cells, normally appear at the site of infections in increasing numbers. They attack the invading bacteria and ultimately get rid of them if they are successful.

6. When blood clumps or forms visible islands in the still liquid plasma, it is called:
a) clotting
b) agglutination
c) none of the above
## CORRECT --> Agglutination is the result of red cells being stuck together by antibodies attaching on to antigens on the alien red cells. Within the body, this recognition-rejection process results in the bursting of alien red cells rather than agglutination.

7. Antigens are:
a) found on the surface of red cells
b) kinds of red cells that identify a blood type
c) relatively large carbohydrate molecules
d) a and b
Correct:found on the surface of red cells
## CORRECT --> They are relatively large protein molecules that identify a blood type. Each antigen type has unique traits that, in a sense, make it like a lock that only a specific antibody key can fit.

8. Which of the following statements is true of antigen-antibody interactions?
a) They are used by our bodies only to identify blood types.
b) They are used to identify and reject microorganisms, such as viruses and bacteria, that invade our bodies.
c) They are the way our blood clots when we are bleeding from an open wound.
d) b and c
Correct:They are used to identify and reject microorganisms, such as viruses and bacteria, that invade our bodies. ## CORRECT --> Microorganisms carry foreign antigens on their surfaces which stimulate the production of white cell antibodies that attack the antigens as a way of getting rid of the invading parasites and subsequently develop an immunity to future attacks.

9. Most of the volume of normal human blood is composed of:
a) red cells
b) hemoglobin
c) plasma
d) white cells
CORRECT --> The liquid component of blood that we call plasma is the most abundant substance in blood. However, red cells are a close second.

Practice Quiz for ABO blood types

1. In the ABO blood system, you normally can be type:
a) A
b) B
c) ABO
d) A, B, AB, or O
e) all of the above
Correct: A, B, AB, or O
## CORRECT --> You can be type A, B, AB, or O but not ABO.

2. Which of the following statements is true regarding the ABO blood system?
a) People who have the A antigen normally would not produce the anti-A antibody.
b) People who are type AB normally produce both anti-A and anti-B antibodies.
c) The only ABO type blood that normally does not have either A or B antigens is AB.
Correct: People who have the A antigen normally would not produce the anti-A antibody.
## CORRECT --> If they produced anti-A antibodies, it would destroy their own blood. However, they do normally produce anti-B antibodies since B type blood would be alien to them.

3. The universal blood donors for the ABO system are type:
a) A
b) B
c) O
d) AB
Correct: O
## CORRECT --> Since type O blood normally lacks both A and B antigens, it will not be recognized as an alien type by the blood of anyone. As a result, anyone usually can be transfused with O blood without concern about rejection for this blood group.

4. Which of the following statements is true about the ABO blood system?
a) It was discovered in the 1950's.
b) It was discovered by Karl Landsteiner
c) Few people are actually typed for this system because of the difficulty of the procedure and high cost. d) a and b
Correct:It was discovered by Karl Landsteiner
## CORRECT --> Karl Landsteiner discovered the ABO system in 1900 and 1901 while trying to understand why blood transfusions sometimes saved lives and at other times caused death.

5. An individual's ABO blood type is normally determined by:
a) Genetic inheritance and environmental influences during life
b) Environmental influences alone
c) The inheritance of 1 of 3 possible alleles (A, B, or O) from each parent
Correct:The inheritance of 1 of 3 possible alleles (A, B, or O) from each parent
## CORRECT --> In most cases these alleles are totally responsible for determining blood type phenotypes. The inheritance usually follows simple Mendelian patterns. However, there are rare exceptions such as the Bombay Phenotype described in the tutorial.

6. In determining the phenotype for the ABO blood system:
a) O is dominant over A
b) B is dominant over A
c) O is recessive
d) all of the above
Correct: O is recessive
## CORRECT --> The rules of dominance for the ABO system are that A and B are both dominant over O (i.e., O is recessive) and A and B are codominant.

7. If one of your parents is blood type A and the other is type B, which of the following blood types would you likely be?
a) A
b) B
c) O
d) AB
e) any of the above
Correct:any of the above
## CORRECT --> Since you could inherit A or O alleles from one parent and B or O alleles from the other, you could be any of the 4 ABO types. Look at the other answers to see how this could be true.

Tables of Normal Values
Table 1: Vital Signs and Body Mass Index
Adult & Children Normal Vital Signs
Adult Normal Vital Signs
Blood Pressure (Systolic / Diastolic)
At physicians office (average 5 measurements) < 140 / 90 mmHg
Ambulatory BP monitor < 135 / 85
With diabetes < 130 / 80
Heart Rate (HR) or Pulse
Bradycardia < 60 beats per minute
Normal 60 – 80
Tachycardia > 100
Respiration Rate (RR)
Bradypnea < 12 breaths per minute
Normal (eupnea) 12 – 18
Tachypnea > 18
Body Temperature
Fever > 37.5 ° C
Normal 36.5 – 37.5 ° C (approximate)
Hypothermia < 35.0 ° C
Hypothermia <35.0 °C (95.0 °F)
Normal 36.5–37.5 °C (97.7–99.5 °F)
Fever >37.5 or 38.3 °C (99.5 or 100.9 °F)
Hyperthermia >37.5 or 38.3 °C (99.5 or 100.9 °F)
Hyperpyrexia >40.0 or 41.5 °C (104.0 or 106.7 °F)
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Underweight < 18.5 kg/m2
Normal 18.5 – 24.9 Caucasian
Overweight 25.0 – 29.9
Obesity class I 30.0 – 34.9
Obesity class II 35.0 – 39.9
Obesity class III (extreme, morbid) = 40.0

Children Normal Vital Signs
Section 1
Parameter Normal Values
Newborn: Respiratory Rate 30 - 60bpm
Newborn Heart Rate 120 - 160bpm
Newborn Blood Pressure 65/41mmHg
Newborn Temperature 97.7 -99.7 axillary
Section 2
Parameter Normal Values
1 - 4yr old - Respiratory Rate 20 -40bpm
1 - 4 yr old - Heart Rate 80 - 140bpm
1-4yr old - Blood Pressure Systolic 90 - 99mmHg Diastolic 60 -65mmHg
5 - 12 yr old - Respiratory Rate 15 - 25bpm
5 - 12yr old - Heart Rate 70 - 115bpm
5 - 12 yr old - Blood Pressure Systolic 100 - 100mmHg Diastolic 56 - 60mmHg
Section 3
Parameter Normal Values
Adult Respiratory Rate 12 - 20bpm
Adult Heart Rate 60 - 100bpm
Adult Blood Pressure 120/80mmHg
Adult Temperature

Alphabetical A to Z list of human blood test.
Normal Lab Values
Laboratory Reference Ranges in Healthy Adults
The values listed below are generalizations. Each laboratory has specific reference ranges.
Test Reference Range (conventional units*)
17 Hydroxyprogesterone (Men) 0.06-3.0 mg/L
17 Hydroxyprogesterone (Women) Follicular phase 0.2-1.0 mg/L
25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) 8-80 ng/mL
Acetoacetate <3 mg/dL
Acidity (pH) 7.35 - 7.45
Alcohol 0 mg/dL (more than 0.1 mg/dL normally indicates intoxication) (ethanol)
Ammonia 15 - 50 µg of nitrogen/dL
Amylase 53 - 123 units/L
Ascorbic Acid 0.4 - 1.5 mg/dL
Bicarbonate 18 - 23 mEq/L (carbon dioxide content)
Bilirubin Direct: up to 0.4 mg/dL
Total: up to 1.0 mg/dL
Blood Volume 8.5 - 9.1% of total body weight
Calcium 8.2 - 10.6 mg/dL (normally slightly higher in children)
Carbon Dioxide Pressure 35 - 45 mm Hg
Carbon Monoxide Less than 5% of total hemoglobin
CD4 Cell Count 500 - 1500 cells/µL
Ceruloplasmin 15 - 60 mg/dL
Chloride 98 - 106 mEq/L
Complete Blood Cell Count (CBC) Tests include: hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, platelet count, white Blood cell count Please click each to view an individual test value.
Copper Total: 70 - 150 µg/dL
Creatine Kinase (CK or CPK) Male: 38 - 174 units/L
Female: 96 - 140 units/L
Creatine Kinase Isoenzymes 5% MB or less
Creatinine 0.6 - 1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes Test includes: calcium, chloride, magnesium, potassium, sodium Please click each to view an individual test value.
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR or Sed-Rate) Male: 1 - 13 mm/hr
Female: 1 - 20 mm/hr
Glucose Tested after fasting: 70 - 110 mg/dL
Hematocrit Male: 45 - 62%
Female: 37 - 48%
Hemoglobin Male: 13 - 18 gm/dL
Female: 12 - 16 gm/dL
Iron 60 - 160 µg/dL (normally higher in males)
Iron-binding Capacity 250 - 460 µg/dL
Lactate (lactic acid) Venous: 4.5 - 19.8 mg/dL
Arterial: 4.5 - 14.4 mg/dL
Lactic Dehydrogenase 50 - 150 units/L
Lead 40 µg/dL or less (normally much lower in children)
Lipase 10 - 150 units/L
Zinc B-Zn 70 - 102 µmol/L
Lipids: Cholesterol Less than 225 mg/dL (for age 40-49 yr; increases with age)
Triglycerides 10 - 29 years 53 - 104 mg/dL
30 - 39 years 55 - 115 mg/dL
40 - 49 years 66 - 139 mg/dL
50 - 59 years 75 - 163 mg/dL
60 - 69 years 78 - 158 mg/dL
> 70 years 83 - 141 mg/dL
Liver Function Tests Tests include bilirubin (total), phosphatase (alkaline), protein (total and albumin), transaminases (alanine and aspartate), prothrombin (PTT) Please click each to view an individual test value.
Magnesium 1.9 - 2.7 mEq/L
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) 27 - 32 pg/cell
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) 32 - 36% hemoglobin/cell
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) 76 - 100 cu µm
Osmolality 280 - 296 mOsm/kg water
Oxygen Pressure 83 - 100 mm Hg
Oxygen Saturation (arterial) 96 - 100%
Phosphatase, Prostatic 0 - 3 units/dL (Bodansky units) (acid)
Phosphatase 50 - 160 units/L (normally higher in infants and adolescents) (alkaline)
Phosphorus 3.0 - 4.5 mg/dL (inorganic)
Platelet Count 150,000 - 350,000/mL
Potassium 3.5 - 5.4 mEq/L
Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) 0 - 4 ng/mL (likely higher with age)
Proteins: Total 6.0 - 8.4 gm/dL
Albumin 3.5 - 5.0 gm/dL
Globulin 2.3 - 3.5 gm/dL
Prothrombin (PTT) 25 - 41 sec
Pyruvic Acid 0.3 - 0.9 mg/dL
Red Blood Cell Count (RBC) 4.2 - 6.9 million/µL/cu mm
Sodium 133 - 146 mEq/L
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) 0.5 - 6.0 µ units/mL
Transaminase: Alanine (ALT) 1 - 21 units/L
Aspartate (AST) 7 - 27 units/L
Urea Nitrogen (BUN) 7 - 18 mg/dL
BUN/Creatinine Ratio 5 - 35
Uric Acid Male 2.1 to 8.5 mg/dL (likely higher with age)
Female 2.0 to 7.0 mg/dL (likely higher with age)
Vitamin A 30 - 65 µg/dL
WBC (leukocyte count and white Blood cell count) 4.3-10.8 × 103/mm3
White Blood Cell Count (WBC) 4,300 - 10,800 cells/µL/cu mm

Categories of human blood test.
Parameter Normal Values
See the list below:
Ammonia: 15-50 µmol/L
Ceruloplasmin: 15-60 mg/dL
Chloride: 95-105 mmol/L
Copper: 70-150 µg/dL
Creatinine: 1.0-2.0 mg/dL
Blood urea nitrogen: 8-21 mg/dL
Ferritin: 12-300 ng/mL (men), 12-150 ng/mL (women)
Glucose: 65-110 mg/dL
Inorganic phosphorous: 1-1.5 mmol/L
Ionized calcium: 1.03-1.23 mmol/L
Magnesium: 1.5-2 mEq/L
Phosphate: 0.8-1.5 mmol/L
Potassium: 3.5-5 mmol/L
Pyruvate: 300-900 µg/dL
Sodium: 135-145 mmol/L
Total calcium: 2-2.6 mmol/L
Total iron-binding capacity: 45-85 µmol/L
Total serum iron: 65-180 µg/dL (men), 30-170 µg/dL (women)
Transferrin: 200-350 mg/dL
Urea: 1.2-3 mmol/L
Uric acid: 0.18-0.48 mmol/L
Zinc: 70-100 µmol/L
Hematology See the list below:
Hemoglobin: 13-17 g/dL (men), 12-15 g/dL (women)
Hematocrit 40%-52% (men), 36%-47%
Glycosylated hemoglobin 4%-6%
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV): 80-100 fL
Red blood cell distribution width (RDW): 11.5%-14.5%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH): 0.4-0.5 fmol/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC): 30-35 g/dL
Reticulocytes 0.5%-1.5%
White blood cells (WBC) 4-10 x 10^9/L
Neutrophils: 2-8 x 10^9/L
Bands: < 1 x 10^9/L
Lymphocytes: 1-4 x 10^9/L
Monocytes: 0.2-0.8 x 10^9/L
Eosinophils: < 0.5 x 10^9/L
Platelets: 150-400 x 10^9/L
Prothrombin time: 11-14 sec
International normalized ratio (INR): 0.9-1.2
Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT): 20-40 sec
Fibrinogen: 1.8-4 g/L
Bleeding time: 2-9 min
See the list below:
Triglycerides: 50-150 mg/dL
Total cholesterol: 3-5.5 mmol/L
High-density lipoprotein (HDL): 40-80 mg/dL
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL): 85-125 mg/dL
Acid base
See the list below:
pH: 7.35-7.45
Base excess: (-3)-(+3)
•H+: 36-44 nmol/L
Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2): 75-100 mm Hg
Oxygen saturation: 96%-100%
Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2): 35-45 mm Hg
Bicarbonate (HCO3): 18-22 mmol/L
Gastrointestinal function
See the list below:
Albumin: 35-50 g/L
Alkaline phosphatase: 50-100 U/L
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT): 5-30 U/L
Amylase: 30-125 U/L
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST): 5-30 U/L
Direct bilirubin: 0-6 µmol/L
Gamma glutamyl transferase: 6-50 U/L
Lipase: 10-150 U/L
Total bilirubin: 2-20 µmol/L
Total protein: 60-80 g/L
Cardiac enzymes
See the list below:
Creatine kinase: 25-200 U/L
Creatine kinase MB (CKMB): 0-4 ng/mL
Troponin: 0-0.4 ng/mL
See the list below:
17 hydroxyprogesterone (female, follicular): 0.2-1 mg/L
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): 4.5-20 pmol/L
Estradiol: 1.5-5 ng/dL (male), 2-14 ng/dL (female, follicular), 2-16 ng/dL (female, luteal), < 3.5 ng/dL (postmenopausal)
Free T3: 0.2-0.5 ng/dL
Free T4: 10-20 pmol/L
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): 1-10 IU/L (male), 1-10 IU/L (female, follicular/luteal), 5-25 IU/L (female, ovulation), 30-110 IU/L (postmenopause)
Growth hormone (fasting) : 0-5 ng/mL
Progesterone: 70-280 (ovulation), ng/dL
Prolactin: < 14 ng/mL
Testosterone (male): 10-25 nmol/L
Thyroxine-binding globulin: 12-30 mg/L
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): 0.5-5 mIU/L
Total T4: 4.9-11.7 mg/dL
Total T3: 0.7-1.5 ng/dL
Free T3: 0.6-1.6 ng/mL
See the list below:
Folate (serum) : 7-36 nmol/L
Vitamin A: 30-65 µg/dL
Vitamin B12: 130-700 ng/L
Vitamin C: 0.4-1.5 mg/dL
Vitamin D: 5-75 ng/mL
Tumor markers
See the list below:
Alpha fetoprotein: 0-44 ng/mL
Beta human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG): < 5 IU/I
CA19.9: < 40 U/mL
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA): < 4 ug/L
Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP): 0-3 U/dL
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA): < 4 ug/L
See the list below:
Alpha 1-antitrypsin: 20-50 µmol/L
Angiotensin-converting enzyme: 23-57 U/L
C-reactive protein: < 5 mg/L
D-dimer: < 500 ng/mL
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR): Less than age/2 mm/hour
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH): 50-150 U/L
Lead: < 40 µg/dL
Rheumatoid factor: < 25 IU/ml
Blood Serum Chemistry - Normal Values
Blood Hematology - Normal Value
Here are further guidelines.

Blood Collection Tube Top Colors
A Vacutainer blood collection tube is a sterile glass or plastic tube with a closure that is evacuated to create a vacuum inside the tube facilitating the draw of a predetermined volume of liquid. Most commonly used to collect blood samples in venipuncture, they are also used as urine collection tubes and as serum separator tubes. Vacutainer tubes may contain additives designed to stabilize and preserve the specimen prior to analytical testing. Tubes are available with or without a safety-engineered closure, with a variety of labeling options and closure colors as well as a range of draw volumes.

A range of Vacutainer tubes containing blood.

Blood collection tubes are among the basic medical supplies taken by disaster relief programs to affected areas.

Blood Collection Tube Top Colors

Click on the stopper to get additional information /tr>
Light Blue top
Red top tube - Serology and Immunohematology

Red top tube - Chemistry

Light Green top or Green top
Lavender top
Pink top tube (Blood Bank EDTA)
Gray top
Yellow top tube (ACD solution A) or (ACD solution B)
Royal Blue top; serum, no additive or sodium heparin
White top
Order of the Draw
To prevent contamination of tubes with additives from other tubes it is important to draw the tubes in a SPECIFIC order called "the order of the draw". For example, if the additive in the purple stopper tube contaminates the green stopper tube this would cause a falseley decreased calcium and increased potassium. Please, JUST DO IT. The sequence of collection of evacuated tubes in a multi-draw should be in this order:
1. Sterile/Blood cultures (yellow stopper or bottles, most institutions use bottles)
2. Light Blue coagulation tube -NOTE: If coagulation tests only are ordered AND you are using a butterfly, draw a discard tube to collect the air in the tubing into the discard tube. Failure to do so will result in a short draw which will be rejected by the lab.
3. Red - Non-Additive - has clot activator
4. Red Gel separator tube (speckled or “tiger” top or gold)
5.Green (heparin)
6. Green/Gray mottled Plasma Separator Tube (PST) with heparin
7. Lavender/purple and/or pink (EDTA)
8. Gray top (Potassium Oxalate/sodium fluoride tube)

Drawing of blood by venipuncture
Drawing of blood by venipuncture for human blood Chemistry Panel & Complete Blood Count (CBC)
Venipuncture procedure
How many steps are there in drawing of blood by venipuncture for human blood Chemistry Panel & Complete Blood Count (CBC)?

What steps are required for drawing of blood by venipuncture for human blood Chemistry Panel & Complete Blood Count (CBC)?
Practice Universal Precautions using gloves, eye protection, and lab coats.
Always use sterile, single-use, disposable supplies for sample collection.

Venipuncture procedure
1. Patient Position:
Supine (laying down) position is preferred, flat on the back with both ventral (front) surfaces of the arm up.
Patient can sit in a comfortable, sturdy chair with a stable arm rest. The arm is turned with the ventral surface up.
NEVER allow the patient to sit upright on a high stool or standing due to the possibility of syncope (fainting).
Make sure participant is sitting comfortably.
2. Lay out all blood collection supplies and necessary labels. Assemble needle or butterfly needle into Vacutainer holder being sure that it is firmly seated into threads. Loosely place Vacutainer tube into holder, but do not puncture top.
3. Examine both arms to find the best vein. Locate the puncture site; apply the tourniquet.
4. Locate the vein and cleanse the area with an alcohol wipe. Wipe the area in a circular motion making sure the area is thoroughly cleaned. Repeat with a second wipe, if necessary.
5. Dry with gauze.
6. If it is necessary to feel the vein again, do so, but cleanse the area again with an alcohol wipe and dry with gauze.
7. Fix the vein by pressing down on the vein about 1 inch below the proposed point of entry and pull the skin taut.
8. Remove the needle shield.
9. Approach the vein in the same direction the vein is running, holding the needle so that it is at an approximately 15° angle with the participant's arm.
10. Push the needle, with bevel facing up, firmly and deliberately into the vein. Activate the vacuum collection tube by pushing the tube onto the needle and puncturing the tube top. If the needle is in the vein, blood will flow freely into the tube. If no blood enters the tube, probe for the vein once or twice until entry is indicated by blood flowing into the tube.
11. For collection, loosen the tourniquet immediately after blood flow is established and release entirely as the last tube fills.
12. If a syringe is required to obtain the blood, attach it to the appropriate size butterfly needle and withdraw 2-3 mL blood. After withdrawing the needle from the arm, quickly change the needle on the syringe and transfer blood from the syringe by puncturing the top of the tube with the new needle and allowing the vacuum to draw the blood into the tube. Mix well with the anticoagulant.
13. Withdraw the tube, then the needle. Heavy pressure as the needle is being withdrawn should be avoided.
14. When the needle is out of the arm, press gauze firmly on the puncture.
15. Have the participant raise his arm (not bend it) and continue to hold the gauze in place for several minutes. This will help prevent hematomas.
16. Report to the supervisor any reaction experienced by the participant during the venipuncture procedure.
17. Place a bandage on the participant's arm.
18. Label all tubes with the preprinted labels provided. Write date on label with permanent marker (if not preprinted).
19. You may resheath the needle, but only with proper technique. With the needle top on the absorbent pad, slowly slide the needle into the needle top.
20. The needle should be discarded into a sharps container. Place all labeled tubes in a cool box, and discard waste into biohazard container.

Here are further guidelines.

Staff required in various biochemistry laboratories
What staff is required in various biochemistry laboratories?
Physician who can supervise subordinates (most important)
Biomedical engineer (Individual or individuals who manufacture, maintain analyzers)
Biochemist or technologists.
Physician assistant or nurse who collects samples.

What is a biomedical engineer in this context?
A professional who manufactures and maintains human blood chemistry analyzers.

What is a biochemist?
A biochemist is a scientist trained in biochemistry.
A person who places blood test tubes in biochemistry analyzer in biochemistry lab is a biochemist.
In some regions, a biochemist has a job title of laboratory technologist.

Does anyone else need to be added?

Biochemistry lab audit
What are directives for supervisors of all biochemistry laboratories in every state around the world?
All biochemistry laboratories in every state around the world doing human blood tests must answer these questions publicly.

What are the specifications of the human blood chemistry analyzer in your laboratory?
Who is the manufacturer of the human blood chemistry analyzer in your laboratory?
Has the manufacturer answered all relevant questions?

These are basic questions.
There are many more.

Interpretation of human blood tests results by a physician
Why is knowing about interpretation of human blood tests by a physician essential?

These examples will make you understand.
If a person has higher blood urea, does that mean person has kidney disease?

What are the most common causes of high human blood urea?
Dehydration can cause high blood urea.
Consuming enough water values will be normal.
Lab error can give high blood urea.

If a person has higher blood creatinine with normal urea and hemoglobin, does that mean the person has kidney disease?

Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism.
A person weight lifting more than 40 pounds for 120 repetitions to maintain good health everyday has increased muscle metabolism and increased production of creatinine. Increased blood creatinine can occur in body builders with normal urea and hemoglobin. Kidney functions normal.

What are the most common causes of high human blood creatinine?
Dehydration can cause high blood creatinine.
Consuming enough water values will be normal.
Lab error can give high blood creatinine.
A person does 120 repetitions daily of heavy weight bodybuilding exercise.
Naturally, muscles are involved so creatinine is from muscles. Occasional high creatinine can be due to exercise.

If a person has low blood sugar, does that mean person has hypoglycemia?

What can be causes of low blood sugar?
Lab error.

On September 9, 2015, a person in Chicago, Illinois, walked to a primary health center for routine health assessment.
Routine blood tests were done.
He got a phone call that the blood test revealed hypoglycemia.
He does not have any symptoms or signs. Repeated tests revealed lab error.
His blood sugar was normal.
On October 28, 2015, at 5:30 PM, his random blood sugar was 87mg/dl (Normal 80–120 mg dl)

Physicians must always correlate lab test results with symptoms, signs, exact diagnosis for the individual. Always keep existence of false positive, false negative, true positive, true negative test results in mind.

Human blood chemistry analyzer manufacturing guidelines.
How does a blood chemistry analyzer for human blood tests look?
Take a look at this.

A modern laboratory showing the machines that analyses all the components of human blood.

Is it possible for every state to manufacture its own human blood chemistry analyzer?

How is it possible for every state to manufacture its own human blood chemistry analyzer?
Here are manufacturing guidelines.
Annotation or definition of human blood chemistry analyzer
Materials for manufacture
Process of manufacture.
Other resource required for manufacturing

How many human blood samples can a human blood chemistry analyzer process per day?
In certain situations, more than 10,000 human blood samples per day have been reported to be processed. This is done by automated systems.
If there are few dozen samples, manual methods are utilized compared to automated methods.

In what states should such products be manufactured?
Take a look at this.
Here are further guidelines.
Last Updated: October 31, 2015