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Energy
State Department of Energy
What should the head of state, for example California, North America, know about energy?
Annotation or definition of energy.
Annotation or definition of oil.
Chemistry
Derivatives of Hydrocarbons
Differences between oil and fuel.
Differences between various oils.
Energy Jobs
Energy types.
Energy Sources
Essential commodities act, essential services maintenance act, and oil in the state.
Fuel regulators in the state.
Hydrocarbons
Issues relevant to oil production, distribution, import, and export in various states.
List of states and continents by oil production.
Nuclear Energy
Oil
Oil and types of oil.
Oil tankers via oceans routes.
Organic Chemistry
Physics
Plant Oils
Questions the governor of a state must be able to answer publicly.
State Department of Energy.

Annotation or definition of energy.
What is Energy?
What are the two main categories of energy?
What are the types of energy?
What is heat?
How does heat move?
What are possible power sources for satellites?
What is electromagnetic radiation?
What is thrust?
Does heat travel differently in space than it does on Earth?
Where does energy come from and go?
What makes EM radiation?
What is Energy?
Energy is the ability to cause change in an object.
Energy is the ability to do work.

Energy comes in different forms:
Heat (thermal)
Light (radiant)
Motion (kinetic)
Electrical
Chemical
Nuclear energy
Gravitational

Renewable energy

There are five main renewable energy sources:
Solar energy from the sun, which can be turned into electricity and heat
Wind energy
Geothermal energy from heat inside the earth
Biomass from plants, which includes firewood from trees, ethanol from corn, and biodiesel from vegetable oil
Hydropower from hydroelectric turbines

The universe is made up of matter and energy. Matter — anything that has mass and takes up space — is pretty straightforward and easy to grasp, but energy is a bit more abstract.

In physics, energy is the ability to do work, or the ability to move or elicit change in matter. In effect, the amount of energy something has refers to its capacity to cause things to happen.

Physicists, who are scientists who study force, motion and energy, say that energy is the ability to do work, and work is moving something against a force, like gravity. There are a lot of different kinds of energy in the universe, and that energy can do different things.

What are the two main categories of energy?
Kinetic energy
Potential energy

Energy types.

What are the types of energy?
Mechanical energy
Radiant (light energy); Sun is an example.
Sound energy; Trumpet is an example.
Chemical Energy; for example, food, fuel, chemicals, batteries, gasoline.
Heat or thermal energy; for example, hot objects, fire. Subcategory of kinetic energy.
Electrical energy. Subcategory of kinetic energy.
Nuclear Energy. For example fission, fusion, nuclear power plants. Sun is an example.
Acrunym is mrschen.

What is Mechanical Energy?
Energy due to a object’s motion (kinetic) or position (potential).
The bowling ball has mechanical energy.
When the ball strikes the pins, mechanical energy is transferred to the pins!

Examples of Mechanical Energy
A demolition machine is a great example of both potential and kinetic mechanical energy.

What is Electromagnetic Energy?
Light energy
Includes energy from gamma rays, xrays, ultraviolet rays, visible light, infrared rays, microwave and radio bands

What is Electrical Energy?
Energy caused by the movement of electrons
Easily transported through power lines and converted into other forms of energy

What is Chemical Energy?
Energy that is available for release from chemical reactions.
The chemical bonds in a matchstick store energy that is transformed into thermal energy when the match is struck.

Examples of Chemical Energy

What is Thermal Energy?
Heat energy

The heat energy of an object determines how active its atoms are.

A hot object is one whose atoms and molecules are excited and show rapid movement.

A cooler object's molecules and atoms will show less movement.

What type of energy cooks food in a microwave oven?
Electromagnetic energy

What type of energy is the spinning plate inside of a microwave oven?
Mechanical energy

Electrical energy is transported to your house through power lines.

When you plug an electric fan to a power outlet, electrical energy is transform into what type of energy?

Mechanical energy

What energy transformation occurs when an electric lamp is turned on?
Electrical energy
Electromagnetic energy

What is electromagnetic radiation?
Gamma Rays
Heat (infrared radiation)
Light
Microwaves, like in a microwave oven
Radar waves
Radio Waves
Short waves
TV waves
Ultraviolet Light (This is what causes Sunburns)
X-rays (Just like the kind you get at the doctor's office)

All these waves do different things (for example, light waves make things visible to the human eye, while heat waves make molecules move and warm up, and x rays can pass through a person and land on film, allowing us to take a picture inside someone's body) but they have some things in common.
They all travel in waves, like the waves at a beach or like sound waves, and also are made of tiny particles.

What is wavelength?
Forms of electromagnetic radiation like radio waves, light waves or infrared (heat) waves make characteristic patterns as they travel through space. Each wave has a certain shape and length. The distance between peaks (high points) is called wavelength.


Annotation or definition of oil.
What is Oil?
Oil is always a liquid.
Fuel can be solid, liquid, or gas.
Oil is immiscible with water and miscible with other oils.
An oil is any neutral, nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally "fat loving"). Oils have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are usually flammable and slippery.

What is the plural of oil?
The plural form of oil is oils.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/oil.html

Oil and Types of Oil.
Difference between oil and fuel.
Is there a difference between oil and fuel?
Yes.

What is the difference between oil and fuel?
Oil is always a liquid.
Fuel can be solid, liquid, or gas.
Oil is immiscible with water and miscible with other oils.

What are the different types of oil?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/fuelsworld.html

List of states, continents by oil production

What is on the list of states, continents by oil production?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/states.html


Issues relevant to oil production, distribution, import, and export in various states.
What should executives in oil production, distribution, import, and export in various states know?
Essential commodities act.
Essential services maintenance act.

Fuel regulators in the state.
What are duties of fuel regulators in the state?
www.qureshiuniversity.com/fuelworld.html

Derivatives of Hydrocarbons
An almost unlimited number of carbon compounds can be formed by the addition of a functional group to a hydrocarbon.

Naturally Occurrig Hydrocarbons and their Derivatives

Complex hydrocarbons and their derivatives are found throughout nature. Natural rubber, for example, is a hydrocarbon that contains long chains of alternating C=C double bonds and CC single bonds.

Chemistry
Chemistry is the study of matter, including its composition and structure, its physical properties, and its reactivity. There are many ways to study chemistry, but we traditionally divide it into five fields: organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, physical chemistry, and analytical chemistry.

Analytical Chemistry

Analytical chemistry spans nearly all areas of chemistry but involves the development of tools and methods to measure physical properties of substances and apply those techniques to the identification of their presence (qualitative analysis) and quantify the amount present (quantitative analysis) of species in a wide variety of settings.

Biological Chemistry

Chemical Biology research uses the tools of chemistry and synthesis to understand biology and disease pathways at the molecular level. Advanced Biological Chemistry interests include diverse topics such as nucleic acids, DNA repair, bioconjugate chemistry, peptides and peptidomimetics, glycoscience, biomolecular structure and function, imaging, and biological catalysis. Biophysical Chemistry represents the union of Chemistry, Physics, and Biology using a variety of experimental and theoretical approaches to understand the structure and function of biological systems.

Inorganic Chemistry

Inorganic chemistry is concerned with the properties and reactivity of all chemical elements. Advanced interests focus on understanding the role of metals in biology and the environment, the design and properties of materials for energy and information technology, fundamental studies on the reactivity of main group and transition elements, and nanotechnology. Synthetic efforts are directed at hydrogen storage materials and thermoelectrics, catalysts for solar hydrogen generation, fullerenes and metal porphyrins, metal clusters and compounds with element-element bonds, as well as nanowires and nanoparticles.

Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry research involves the synthesis of organic molecules and the study of their reaction paths, interactions, and applications. Advanced interests include diverse topics such as the development of new synthetic methods for the assembly of complex organic molecules and polymeric materials, organometallic catalysis, organocatalysis, the synthesis of natural and non-natural products with unique biological and physical properties, structure and mechanistic analysis, natural product biosynthesis, theoretical chemistry and molecular modeling, diversity-oriented synthesis, and carbohydrate synthesis.

Acid Halides
Alcohols
Aldehydes and Ketones
Alkyl Halides
Amides
Amines
Anhydrides
Aryl Halides
Azides
Carbohydrates
Carboxylic Acids
Case Studies
Chirality
Conjugation
Esters
Ethers
Fundamentals
Glossary
Hydrocarbons
Lipids
Logic of Organic Synthesis
Nitriles
Organic Chemistry With a Biological Emphasis
Organo- phosphorus Compounds
Pericyclic Reactions
Phenols
Phenylamine and Diazonium Compounds
Polymers
Reactions
Reactivity of Alpha Hydrogens
Spectroscopy
Thiols and Sulfides

Why organic chemistry: we can find organic compounds everywhere around us (foods, flavors, fragrances, medicines, toiletries, cosmetics, plastic, paints, our body, and etc.). Chemist have discovered or synthesized more than 10 million of organic compounds. However, 1.7 million inorganic compounds are discovered or synthesized (85% of all known compounds are organic compounds).
Typical properties of organic compounds: 1. They contain carbon atom. 2. Bonding is almost entirely covalent (covalent compounds). 3. They have low boiling points and low melting points. 4. They are flammable (almost all burn). 5. They are soluble in nonpolar compounds and most are insoluble in water. 6. Many are gases, liquids, or solids.

It is important to know:
Carbon: : normally forms four covalent bonds and has no unshared pairs of electrons.
Hydrogen: forms one covalent bond and has no unshared pairs of electrons.
Nitrogen: normally forms three covalent bonds and has one unshared pair of electrons.
Oxygen: normally forms two covalent bonds and has two unshared pairs of electrons.
A Halogen: normally forms one covalent bond and has three unshared pairs of electrons.

Functional group: an atom or group of atoms within a molecule that shows a characteristic set of predictable physical and chemical behaviors.

Functional groups are important in organic chemistry because:

1. They are sites predictable chemical behavior. A particular functional group, in whatever compound it is found, undergo the same types of chemical reactions.
2. Determine in large measure the physical properties of a molecule.
3. Serve as the units by which we classify organic compounds into families.
4. Serve as a basis for naming organic compounds.

Theoretical Chemistry

Chemical Bonding
Ensemble Simulations
Fundamentals
Physical Organic Chemistry
Symmetry

http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/chemistryworld.html
Here are further guidelines.

Plant Oils
What are plant oils?
Plant oils are extracted directly from the bark, flower, fruit, leaf, seed, or root of a plant or tree.

What are examples of plant oils?
Take a look at this.
www.qureshiuniversity.com/plantoils.html

Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
    Alkanes
    Alkenes
    Alkynes
    Aromatic


What are Hydrocarbons?
Hydrocarbons are organic chemical compounds that consist entirely of carbon and hydrogen, and range from simple molecules such as methane, to polymers such as polystyrene, which consists of thousands of atoms.

Uses

The flammability of hydrocarbons makes them very useful as fuels, and they are the primary energy source for today’s civilization. Worldwide, most electricity is generated by the burning of these compounds, and they are used to propel practically every mobile machine: cars, trucks, trains, planes, and ships. They are also used in the manufacture of many other chemicals and materials. Most plastics, for example, are hydrocarbon polymers. Other uses include solvents, lubricants and propellants for aerosol cans.

Alkane Nomenclature
Number of Carbons Prefix Structure
1 Methane CH4
2 Ethane CH3CH3
3 Propane CH3CH2CH3
4 Butane CH3(CH2)2CH3
5 Pentane CH3(CH2)3CH3
6 Hexane CH3(CH2)4CH3
7 Heptane CH3(CH2)5CH3
8 Octane CH3(CH2)6CH3
9 Nonane CH3(CH2)7CH3
10 Decane CH3(CH2)8CH3
11 Undecane CH3(CH2)9CH3
12 Dodecane CH3(CH2)10CH3

Octane is a component of gasoline (petrol). As with all low molecular weight hydrocarbons, octane is volatile and very flammable.

Alkane

Structure classification
Isomerism
Nomenclature
Linear alkanes
Branched alkanes
Cyclic alkanes
Trivial/common names
Physical properties
Table of alkanes
Boiling point
Melting points
Conductivity and solubility
Molecular geometry
Bond lengths and bond angles
Conformation
Spectroscopic properties
Infrared spectroscopy
NMR spectroscopy
Mass spectrometry
Chemical properties
Reactions with oxygen (combustion reaction)
Reactions with halogens
Cracking
Isomerization and reformation
Other reactions
Occurrence
Occurrence of alkanes in the Universe
Occurrence of alkanes on Earth
Biological occurrence
Ecological relations

Production

Petroleum refining
Fischer-Tropsch
Laboratory preparation

Applications
Environmental transformations
Hazards

Physical properties

All alkanes are colorless and odorless.

Table of alkanes
Alkane Formula Boiling point [°C] Melting point [°C] Density [g·cm-3] (at 20 °C)
Methane CH4 -162 -182 gas
Ethane C2H6 -89 -183 gas
Propane C3H8 -42 -188 gas
Butane C4H10 0 -138 gas
Pentane C5H12 36 -130 0.626 (liquid)
Hexane C6H14 69 -95 0.659 (liquid)
Heptane C7H16 98 -91 0.684 (liquid)
Octane C8H18 126 -57 0.703 (liquid)
Nonane C9H20 151 -54 0.718 (liquid)
Decane C10H22 174 -30 0.730 (liquid)
Undecane C11H24 196 -26 0.740 (liquid)
Dodecane C12H26 216 -10 0.749 (liquid)
Hexadecane C16H34 287 18 0.773 (liquid)
Icosane C20H42 343 37 solid
Triacontane C30H62 450 66 solid
Tetracontane C40H82 525 82 solid
Pentacontane C50H102 575 91 solid
Hexacontane C60H122 625 100 solid

Alkenes Ethene - used as an industrial starter chemical.
Propene
Butene
Pentene
Hexene

Alkynes Ethyne - better known as acetylene which is used for welding underwater.
Propyne
Butyne
Pentyne
Hexyne

Carbon Rings Cyclohexane
Benzene
Toluene
Naphthalene

Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
Compound made of carbon hydrogen and oxygen
Alcohols
Aldehydes
Ketones
Carboxylic acids

Alcohols

Methanol
Ethanol
Phenol

Ethers

Dimethyl Ether
Diethyl Ether

Ketones

Dimethyl Ketone

Aldehydes

Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde

Fatty Acids

Formic Acid
Acetic Acid
Butyric Acid

Esters

Methyl Methoate

Isomerism

Here are further guidelines.

Energy/Utilities


1. Energy gives us light.
2. Energy gives us heat.
3. Energy makes things move.
4. Energy makes things grow.
5. Energy makes technology work.

What is Energy?
What is Renewable Energy?
What are renewable energy sources?
How does Renewable Energy affect the supply of electricity?
Why use Renewable Energy?
How much Renewable Energy do we have?
Where does your electricity come from?
Energy Sources
Bioenergy
Coal
Electric Power
    What is electricity?
    How is electricity produced?
    How is electricity produced in a circuit?
    How is electricity generated and distributed?
Fossil Fuels
Fusion
Geothermal
Hydrogen
Hydropower
Natural Gas
Oil
Renewables
Solar
    Are solar plant schemes feasible?
    No. You need to keep away from fraudulent solar plant schemes.
    What questions should be answered in a feasibility report?
    Here are further guidelines.
Wind
Diesel
Petrol
K.oil
LPG

How many total LPG outlets are in the state as of March 30, 2011?
Exploration
Production
Refining
International operations
Organic chemistry

Oil Oil Refineries
Nuclear Energy
What are nuclear reactors?
What are thermal reactors?
What does nuclear fuel look like?
How does a nuclear power plant work?
Can a nuclear plant explode?
The Basics
Radiation
Safety
New Nuclear Facilities
New Reactor
Economic Benefits
Safely Managing Used Nuclear Fuel

What is nuclear energy?
Nuclear power plants split uranium atoms inside a reactor in a process called fission. At a nuclear energy facility, the heat from fission is used to produce steam, which spins a turbine to generate electricity.

How does nuclear energy compare to other power sources?
A single uranium fuel pellet the size of a pencil eraser contains the same amount of energy as 17,000 cubic feet of natural gas, 1,780 pounds of coal or 149 gallons of oil.

Does nuclear energy produce greenhouse gases?
There are no emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide during the production of electricity at nuclear energy facilities. Nuclear energy is the only clean-air source of energy that produces electricity 24 hours a day, every day.

Is nuclear energy considered a renewable energy source?
A renewable energy source uses an essentially limitless supply of fuel, whether wind, the sun or water. Nuclear energy is often called a sustainable energy source, because there is enough uranium in the world to fuel reactors for 100 years or more.

Do nuclear energy facilities require large areas of land?
Compared to other non-emitting sources, nuclear energy facilities are relatively compact. The amount of electricity produced by a multi-reactor nuclear power plant would require about 45 square miles of photovoltaic panels or about 260 square miles of wind turbines.

Radiation

What is radiation?
The radiation one associates with a nuclear energy facility are particles, such as alpha rays and gamma rays, emitted by an atomic nucleus as a result of the fission process.

Do nuclear power plants release radioactive material?
Yes, but in extremely small levels that are regulated by the federal government. Nuclear power plants produce radioactive gases and liquid wastes during normal operation. A plant has tanks designed to store gas and liquid radioactive materials that are generated during normal operation. The radioactive material is held for a period of time to allow for the radioactivity level to decrease before being treated and/or released in a planned, monitored way. This keeps the amount of radioactive material in releases low and well within federal limits.

Radiation releases that are not made in accordance with procedures, or are above regulatory limits, are reported to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and to the state where the facility is operating.

How is radiation measured around nuclear energy facilities?
During normal operations, very little radiation is released. Multiple independent studies have found have no health effects on the neighboring population. Radiation monitors surrounding the plant site provide real-time data on radiation levels. Additionally, radioactive materials that could cause radiation exposure near nuclear energy facilities are monitored by sampling air, food and water supplies.

Safety

Are nuclear energy facilities safe?
Yes.

Are facilities as safe for workers as for the public?
Yes.

Could an accident like the one at Chernobyl happen at a _______ plant?
No. It is physically impossible for a _________ nuclear energy facility to run out of control and explode like the Chernobyl RBMK reactor design did. During power operations, when the temperature within the reactor reaches a predetermined level, the fission process is naturally suppressed so the power level cannot spike under any circumstances. No RBMK-style reactor operates in the _________.

What about the Three Mile Island accident?
More than a dozen health studies and continuous environmental monitoring have found no effect on public health or the environment near the Three Mile Island nuclear energy facility in Pennsylvania.

New Nuclear Facilities

How many new reactors are being built?
Construction is under way on two reactors in Georgia, two in South Carolina and one in Tennessee and another 67 new reactors are being built in 15 ________.

Why should new plants be built in the ________?
Here are further guidelines.
Here are further guidelines.
Here are further guidelines.
Here are further guidelines.

Questions the governor of a state must be able to answer publicly.
If state department of energy exists, why do we need companies for fuel oil and gas?
What needs to be accomplished so that the state department of energy prevails in fuel oil and gas?
What are various energy jobs inside and outside the state?
Who calculated fuel oil and gas needs inside and outside the state?
What should petroleum engineering degree programs include?
What is the gas engineering academic field?
What are GB, ASME, PED, and KGS licenses for pressure vessels?
What is an air separation plant, reciprocating gas compressor, LNG plant, CO2 recovery plant, pressure vessel and heat exchanger, turbine expander, and valves (all types, especially big DN and anti-corrosion types)?
What is the latest technology available in fuel oil production?


Fuel oil prices.

Should there be any fuel oil prices within or outside the state?
No.

Why should there be no fuel oil prices within or outside the state?
Fuel oil is an essential commodity within and outside the state.
Every state enlists requirements for fuel oil in the state.
Based on needs, some of the fuel is manufactured within the state.
Some of the fuel oil is imported for products from the state.
This is how the economy must proceed worldwide in every state.

Entities that cannot get fuel oil due to criminal activities.

What airlines should not get fuel oil?
Banned airlines due to criminal activities.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/bannedairlines.html

Energy jobs inside and outside the state

What are various energy jobs inside and outside the state?
Here are further facts.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/energyjobs.html

Analysis of state departments of energy of various states and unjustified fuel oil companies.

What is the role of these entities in energy inside and outside the state?
Gladney Darroh, president of the Houston-based energy recruiting firm Piper-Morgan Associates.
Oilfield services firms Schlumberger (SLB), Baker Hughes (BHI), and Halliburton (HAL).
Oilfield services companies and drillers.
Outplacement firm Challenger, Gray & Christmas.
Similar others.
Last Updated: July 5, 2016