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Fire Safety
Fire Safety Education
Why was there need to elaborate on these issues?
A fire drill was organized at 5042 N. Winthrop Ave. on June 6, 2013. Written guidelines were circulated among residents. The quality of the written guidelines was not good. Here are better guidelines.

How should fire safety education have been elaborated?
Fire safety education for the public.
Fire safety education for building maintenance workers.
Fire safety education for kiln/factory workers.
Fire safety education for fire services.
Fire safety education for fire equipment manufacturers.
Fire safety education for construction of building.

How can fire in a building or house be prevented?
What should you do if fire has occurred in a building or house?
What are the common causes of fire in a building or house, and how can such fires be prevented?

Fire Prevention Services
Common fire hazards
Fire code
List of some typical fire and explosion issues in a fire code
Public fire safety education
Fire safety plan
Smoke alarm
Fire extinguisher

Fire safety is often a component of building safety.

Fire Prevention Services
Common fire hazards

Improper use and maintenance of gas stoves often create fire hazards.Some common fire hazards are:
Kitchen fires from unattended cooking, such as frying, broiling, and simmering
Electrical systems that are overloaded, resulting in hot wiring or connections, or failed components
Combustible storage areas with insufficient protection Combustibles near equipment that generates heat, flame, or sparks
Candles and other open flames
Smoking (Cigarettes, cigars, pipes, lighters, etc.) Equipment that generates heat and utilizes combustible materials
Flammable liquids and aerosols
Flammable solvents (and rags soaked with solvent) placed in enclosed trash cans
Fireplace chimneys not properly or regularly cleaned Cooking appliances - stoves, ovens
Heating appliances - fireplaces, wood burning stoves, furnaces, boilers, portable heaters
Household appliances - clothes dryers, curling irons, hair dryers, refrigerators, freezers
Chimneys that concentrate creosote
Electrical wiring in poor condition
Personal ignition sources - matches, lighters
Electronic and electrical equipment
Exterior cooking equipment - barbecue

Fire Equipment

It is essential that portable fire equipment in a building is ready and able to be used by you, your staff or the fire brigade in an emergency. Therefore, all commercial, industrial, health care and accommodation facilities have a requirement to install and maintain fire safety equipment.

How often must fire equipment be serviced?
At least once a year.

Can I remove or relocate fire equipment or an emergency exit?
Removing or relocating fire equipment or an emergency exit can only be undertaken on condition that the necessary approval has been obtained.

Which ________ are permitted to service extinguishers?


Building inspections

Fire equipment maintenance Using and storing dangerous goods
Who is responsible for the fire safety of a building/premises?

When does a building warrant an alternate emergency escape?

When the population in any room or the upper storey of a two storey building exceeds 25 persons; when the travel distance to the nearest escape exceeds 45 m or when a building is three storeys or more in height.

Is open burning allowed?
Open burning is allowed only when a fire is intended for preparing food or other domestic purposes or if a burning permit has been applied for and issued.

Any burning off of rubbish/fields/vegetation and similar combustible products, if not for the preparation of foodstuff, is strictly controlled within the municipal boundary of the _______. The Fire and Rescue Services in collaboration with the Air Quality Management section of Health Services combine an application process so as to permit such events.

Can a fire rated door be kept open?
Fire doors can be kept open on condition that they are equipped with an automatic releasing hold-open device approved by the fire safety section.

What information is required on fire plans?

How do I go about requesting an inspection?
Requests for an inspection must be in writing and addressed to the relevant fire safety office.

How do I obtain a fire clearance for a ______?


Plans, drawings and diagrams are to be clear, legible, dated and signed by the property owner.
Site plans shall clearly indicate:
• The boundaries of the site
• The proposed location of the tent
• The name of the street
• The nearest cross road

Layout drawings shall consist of as many plans and elevations to show:
• The proposed internal layout of the tent (seating arrangements, stages, displays, etc)
• The distance from:- the boundary, any combustible store or material any adjacent tents or buildings
• Positions of all fire extinguishers (1 x 4,5kg DCP per 200m2)
• Positions and width of emergency exits
• Positions of any LP gas cylinders or appliances (Total maximum gas – not to exceed 19kg)

Should anything be unclear or further assistance be required, please feel free to contact this department or your nearest Fire Safety office.


• Placarding (signage and identification of Dangerous Goods)
• Fire protection
• Emergency Management Planning

Our staff inspects premises with Dangerous Goods to ensure that:
• Fire prevention and protection measures are suitable for the goods
• Signs are present in accordance with legislation
• The site has emergency management plans when necessary
• The site has a manifest in a box at the gate when required

Definition of Dangerous Goods

Dangerous goods are substances that may be corrosive, flammable, explosive, spontaneously combustible, toxic, oxidising, radioactive, biological, water reactive or gases under pressure or liquefied.

Fuels such as petrol and LPG provide by far the largest volume of dangerous goods, and many industries and even homes may contain these and other types of dangerous goods. The law (Dangerous Goods Act) provides for exterior signs to be shown warning of significant amounts of dangerous goods on a site. These may take the form of the word HAZCHEM, or might display dangerous goods diamond symbols. The manifest box is another sure sign that dangerous goods are present.

What are Hazardous Materials?
Hazardous materials are other materials that may have hazardous properties, and include dangerous goods, hazardous substances, scheduled poisons, hazardous wastes and environmental pollutants. City of Cape Town Fire and Rescue Services categorises all these materials together under the title 'Hazardous Materials' or 'HAZMATS'.

What is a Hazardous Materials Incident?
A hazardous materials incident involves the actual or impending spillage or release of a hazardous material, in sufficient quantity to pose a danger to life, property or the environment. A hazardous materials incident may occur during manufacture, use, handling, transport or storage of hazardous materials.

Storage of Dangerous Goods
There are limitations on the quantities of Dangerous Goods which can be stored in any premise before special precautions must be taken. The quantity stored will determine the method of storage and associated fire protection, prevention and suppression systems required. The Dangerous Goods Regulations require all premises that handle and/or store Dangerous Goods to do so in a safe manner. Companies or premises who store dangerous goods are required to complete an assessment of their business.

When is approval or certification required for LP gas?
When the quantity used/stored exceeds 38 kg.
When is approval or certification required for flammable liquids?
When the quantity used/stored exceeds 200 litres.

Can I install gas?
You can install gas if you are a registered LP gas installer.

What are the minimum requirements for the use and storage of LP gas?

What should I do to improve Gas Safety at my premises?
• Wherever possible use fixed gas supply.
• Use portable heaters as intended – only use in well-ventilated outdoor areas on stable ground and keep clear from awnings and combustible material.
• Make gas safety part of your routine – have a gas safety supervisor and train all staff to follow the gas safety rules.
• Maintenance – never use damaged or malfunctioning heaters. Service your heater at least every 2 years and always follow manufacturer’s instructions.
• Correct storage and handling of LP Gas cylinders – keep all cylinders in a secure and well-ventilated external location. Check the appliance, hose and cylinder connections for leaks and minimise the amount of stored gas on- site.

What are the potential hazards when dealing with LP Gas and outdoor heaters?
• Leaking gas igniting and exploding
• Radiant heat from an outdoor heater igniting near combustible materials, leading to serious fires.
• Hot surfaces causing serious burns when touched.
• Poisonous products of combustion accumulating in enclosed spaces and affecting people’s health and in extreme cases causing death.
• Gas cylinder fires, leaks and explosions.

What are the benefits of using fixed gas supply?
• Fixed supply units offer a safe, affordable and permanent outdoor heating solution for hospitality businesses. The heater units are off the ground, eliminating the risk of possible injuries to staff or customers or damage to the heater or ignition with combustible material.
• Restaurants, bars and cafes are a dynamic environment where customers can also contribute to the risk by moving portable items around the outside area and across pedestrian’s footpath access.
• Fixed supply units eliminate the potential hazard of storing and handling LP Gas cylinders on site.
• Portable outdoor heaters have a life span of 2-3 years. Fixed supply units, which must be safely installed by a registered gas installer.

Properties of LPG and precautions to be observed Gas is stored as liquid under pressure.
Leakage, especially of liquid, will release large volumes of highly flammable gas.
A gas-air mixture that contains approximately 1,5 % to 10 % of LPG is flammable.
LPG is denser than air and will flow along the ground or through drains. It can be ignited at a considerable distance from the source of leakage, therefore low level ventilation of buildings shall be provided. LPG is non-toxic, but since it can induce headaches and dizziness when inhaled, inhalation of LPG should be avoided whenever possible.

LPG liquid, by its rapid vaporization and consequent lowering of the temperature, can cause severe cold burns when it comes into contact with skin. Appropriate protective clothing, such as gloves, goggles, aprons and gumboots shall be worn when there is any possibility of such contact.

A container that has held LPG and is presumed to be “empty” can still be hazardous.

Locations of containers to be avoided.

Any position in which the containers are likely to cause obstruction, to become damaged or be exposed to conditions likely to affect their safety. Any position that is subject to extremes of temperature (excluding natural elements). Any position near corrosive or readily combustible substances. Any position adjacent to cellars, drains, hollows, etc., where escaping gas might collect.

How do I choose a smoke alarm?

Be sure that the smoke alarm you _______ carries the label of an independent testing lab. Some home smoke alarms run on batteries, others on household current. There are also different sensor technologies, some faster to react when fires are smoldering, others faster when fires are openly flaming, all are fast enough to provide sufficient warning. All laboratory tested smoke alarms, regardless of type, will protect you if they’re installed and maintained properly. A catchy phrase we try to teach is ‘change your clock, change your battery’ referring to changing your battery in your detector twice a year.

Where should I install my smoke alarm?

Smoke rises, so mount alarms high on a wall or on the ceiling at least 4” away from nearest wall. In a room with a pitched ceiling, mount the alarm at or near the ceiling’s highest point. Most battery-powered smoke alarms and alarms that plug into wall outlets can be installed using only a drill and a screwdriver, by following the manufacturer’s instructions. You can also hard-wire alarms into your home-s electrical system. Have a qualified electrician do the job.

How do I select my fire extinguisher?

There are three basic classes of fires. All fire extinguishers are labeled using standard symbols for the classes of fires they can put out. A slash through any of the symbols tells you he extinguisher cannot be used on that fire. A missing symbol tells you only that the extinguisher has not been tested for a given class of fire.

CLASS A: Ordinary combustibles such as wood, cloth, and paper.

CLASS B: Flammable liquids such as gasoline, oil, and oil-based paint.

CLASS C: Energized electrical equipment - including wiring, fuse boxes, circuit breakers, machinery, and appliances.

The extinguisher must be appropriate for the type of fire being fought. Multipurpose fire extinguishers, labeled ABC, may be used on all three classes of fire. If you use the wrong type of extinguisher, you can endanger yourself and make the fire worse.

Fire safety education for fire services.
Fire safety education for fire equipment manufacturers.
Fire safety education for construction of building.
Fire Fighters
Fire Inspectors and Investigators
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Construction
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Correctional Officers
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Workers
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Fire Fighting and Prevention Workers
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Food Preparation and Serving Workers
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Helpers, Laborers, and Material Movers, Hand
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Housekeeping and Janitorial Workers
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Landscaping, Lawn Service, and Groundskeeping Workers
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Office and Administrative Support Workers
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Personal Service Workers
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Production and Operating Workers
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Transportation and Material-Moving Machine and Vehicle Operators
First-Line Supervisors/Managers, Protective Service Workers, All Other
Here are further guidelines.