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Helicopters

What should a state executive know about helicopters?
Annotation or definition of a helicopter.
Fuel relevant to helicopter.
Helicopter manufacturing.
Helicopter pilot.
Helicopter carriers (Wasp).
Materials required for manufacturing helicopters.
Maintenance of helicopters.
Parts of a helicopter normally.
Professionals required to manufacture helicopters.
Specifications of helicopters.
Types of helicopters around the world.
Uses of helicopters around the world.
World's fastest and most heavily armed military helicopters
How many different types of helicopters are there in the world?
How many helicopters should you know?
How do you classify helicopters?
What are the types of helicopters?
How do you define a helicopter?
How do you define an aircraft?
What is a subassembly?
What are the seven major subassemblies that make up a helicopter?
What are the six major subassemblies that make up an aircraft?
What are the uses of a helicopter?
How fast can a helicopter go?
What happens if the engine fails?
What happens in the unlikely event of an engine failure?
How much fuel does a helicopter use?
Are helicopters harder to fly than airplanes?
How do you control a helicopter?
What is autorotation?
Will the helicopter spin out of control if the tail rotor quits?
Are helicopters more restricted due to weather?
Can I obtain a helicopter pilot certificate if I wear glasses?
When may I begin to fly?
Is there a set number of flight instructional hours I will receive before I solo?
Is flying safe?
If engine failure occurs, what will happen?
How do helicopters work?
What is the whole process in manufacturing?
How does the power get from the engine to the rotors?

Helicopter Specifications
Questions you need to answer.

What types of helicopters do you know?
What types of helicopters should you know?
What should you know about the helicopter?
What are the specifications of the helicopter?
What is the name of the helicopter?
How do you pilot (fly) this helicopter?
How many such helicopters have been manufactured up to now?
How many helicopters are there in Illinois at this point?
What is their name, location, specifications at this point?
Is there any helicopter better than this helicopter?
What can bring this helicopter down?
What precautions have to be taken to prevent any harms due to attack or sabotage to this helicopter?
What do you think is the best helicopter at this point?
Why do you think this is the best helicopter?
How do you manufacture this helicopter?
What type of maintenance does this helicopter need?
What materials are required to manufacture a helicopter?
What type of engine does a helicopter have?
What has been the maximum range without refueling of a helicopter upto now around the world?
How will you transfer helicopters from North American locations to Asian, African, Australian, Latin, island, or other locations?
How will you manufacture helicopters indigenously in Asian regions?
Do you want to be a Helicopter Pilot?
What are examples of the world's fastest and most heavily armed military helicopters?
Annotation or definition of a helicopter.
Q. How do you define a helicopter?
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forwards, backwards, and laterally. These attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft would usually not be able to take off or land. The capability to hover efficiently for extended periods of time allows a helicopter to accomplish tasks that fixed-wing aircraft and other forms of vertical takeoff and landing aircraft cannot perform.


Anatomy of a Helicopter
  1. •Rotor Blade: The rotary wing that provides lift for the helicopter.

  2. •Stabilizer Bar: Dampens control inputs to make smoother changes to the rotor system.

  3. •Swashplate: Transfers non-moving control inputs into the spinning rotor system.

  4. •Cowling: The aerodynamic covering for the engine.

  5. •Mast: Connects the transmission to the rotor system.

  6. •Engine: Provides power to the rotor systems.

  7. •Transmission: Takes power from the engine and drives both rotor systems.

  8. •Greenhouse Window: A tinted window above each of the pilot seats.

  9. •Fuselage: The body of the helicopter.

  10. •Cabin Door: Allows access to the cabin and cockpit.

  11. •Skids: Landing gear that usually have no wheels or brakes.

  12. •Crosstube: The mounting tubes and connection for the skids.

  13. •Motor Mount: A flexible way to attach the engine to the fuselage.

  14. •Tailboom: Also known as an "empenage" is the tail of the helicopter.

  15. •Synchronized Elevator: A movable wing that helps stabilize the helicopter in flight.

  16. •Tailrotor: Provides anti-torque and in-flight trim for the helicopter.

  17. •Tail Rotor Driveshaft: Provides power to the tailrotor from the transmission.

  18. •45 Degree Gearbox: Transfers power up the vertical fin to the 90 degree gearbox.

  19. •90 Degree Gearbox: Transfers power from the 45 degree gearbox to the tailrotor.

  20. •Vertical Fin: Holds the tailrotor and provides lateral stabilization.

  21. •Tail Skid: Protects the tailboom when landing.




Main Rotor System


•Root: The inner end of the blade where the rotors connect to the blade grips.
•Blade Grips: Large attaching points where the rotor blade connects to the hub.
•Hub: Sits atop the mast, and connects the rotor blades to the control tubes.
•Mast: Rotating shaft from the transmission, which connects the rotor blades to the helicopter
. •Control Tubes: Push \ Pull tubes that change the pitch of the rotor blades.
•Pitch Change Horn: The armature that converts control tube movement to blade pitch.
•Pitch: Increased or decreased angle of the rotor blades to raise, lower, or change the direction of the rotors thrust force.
•J Nut: Is the singular nut that holds the hub onto the mast. (If it fails, the next person you see will be J).




Q. How do you define an aircraft?
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.
Parts of a helicopter normally.
Q. What is a subassembly?
A structural assembly, as of electronic or machine parts, forming part of a larger assembly.

Q. What are the seven major subassemblies that make up a helicopter?

1. Helicopter cockpit
2. Helicopter cabin
3. Helicopter fuselage
4. Helicopter skids
5. Helicopter tail boom
6. Helicopter tail rotor
7. Helicopter main rotor

Q. What are the six major subassemblies that make up an aircraft/Airplane?

1. Aircraft fuselage or body
2. Aircraft empennage or tail assembly
3. Aircraft wings
4. Aircraft landing gear assemblies
5. Aircraft powerplant or jet engine
6. Aircraft flight control systems and instruments
Fuel relevant to helicopter.
What type of fuel does a helicopter need?
Here are further guidelines.

What should others know about helicopters?

Helicopters are state helicopters.
Types of helicopters around the world.
Q. How many different types of helicopters are there in the world?
There are more than 700 types of helicopters in the world.
This holds true up to November 4, 2013.

Q. How do you classify helicopters?
Helicopters are classified as per the use.
Helicopter for transportation of people and cargo
Helicopter for construction (skycrane lifting)
Helicopter for dropping water on fire or water supply
Helicopter for combat/Attack Helicopters (missiles, guns, bombs)
Helicopter for search and rescue
Helicopter for medical transport (air ambulance)
Helicopter for reconaissance
Helicopter for aerial observation


Q. How many helicopters should you know?
4-7


Helicopter for combat/Attack Helicopters (missiles, guns, bombs)

What are the 10 best types of combat/Attack helicopters (missiles, guns, bombs) at this point?
Alligator combat helicopter
Apache 64 combat helicopter
Augusta A129 Mangusta (Italy) combat helicopter
Bell AH-1Z Viper combat helicopter
Kamov Ka-52 Hokum-B combat helicopter
Havoc-28 combat helicopter
Hind 24 combat helicopter
Rooivalk (South Africa) combat helicopter
Tiger combat helicopter
Z-10 attack combat helicopter
Hal Light combat helicopter under development


What are other names for combat helicopters?
Helicopter gunship
Attack helicopter

What is a helicopter gunship?
An attack helicopter is an armed helicopter with the primary role of an attack aircraft, with the capability of engaging targets on the ground, such as enemy infantry and armored fighting vehicles.
Uses of helicopters around the world.
Q. How do you classify helicopters?
Helicopters are classified as per the use.
Helicopter for transportation of people and cargo
Helicopter for construction (skycrane lifting)
Helicopter for dropping water on fire or water supply
Helicopter for combat/Attack Helicopters (missiles, guns, bombs)
Helicopter for search and rescue
Helicopter for medical transport (air ambulance)
Helicopter for reconaissance
Helicopter for aerial observation


Q. What are the types of helicopters?
List of rotorcraft

Q. What are the uses of a helicopter?
Helicopter for transportation of people and cargo
Helicopter for construction (skycrane lifting)
Helicopter for dropping water on fire or water supply
Helicopter for combat/Attack Helicopters (missiles, guns, bombs)
Helicopter for search and rescue
Helicopter for medical transport (air ambulance)
Helicopter for reconaissance
Helicopter for aerial observation


Q. How fast can a helicopter go?
The normal cruising speed of a helicopter varies on the amount of power available and the type of rotor system, but the typical CRUISE speed of the formentioned two seat trainer style is about 90-105Mph. and the five seat turbine is about 130-145Mph. (as far as MAX speed, _______ have been to about 155Mph in a Bell 206).

Q. What happens if the engine fails?
To many people, there is a misconseption that the main rotor blades will stop turning.... THEN WHAT???

NO - the main rotor does not stop turning YES - a helicopter can be safely landed if the engine quits.

During an engine failure, the engine will automatically disengage from the rotor system. With the proper control inputs by the pilot, The rotor blades will continue to turn at NORMAL operating speeds, allowing the pilot to make a Fully Controlled landing. This procedure is called an Autorotation. Unlike a conventional airplane, which can't fly at much below 50 Mph, a helicopter that has had an engine failure is able to touch down with little or no forward movement, and in a relatively small amount of space. Usually, a parking lot or a side street should be able to do just fine.

Q. What happens in the unlikely event of an engine failure?
Generally there are two types of helicopter engines:

PISTON ENGINES - These are simmilar to automobile engines and small-airplane engines, and run on high quality Gasoline which is refined and filtered to be much cleaner than automotive gasoline. This type of fuel is called "Avgas" and is typically 100 octane (Low Lead).

TURBINE ENGINES - This type of engine is usually called a Jet Engine, and by design is simmilar to the engines on a commercial airliner (but just a TAD smalller). A turbine engine is preferred by medium to large helicopters because it can produce a large amount of power and is light weight (But Quite Costly). Turbines use a type of fuel known as "Jet A", which is simillar to very clean Kerosene.

Q. How much fuel does a helicopter use?
A small two seat training helicopter with a piston engine typically burns about 9 to 16 gallons per hour. A larger five seat turbine helicopter typically burns about 25 to 30 gallons per hour.

Q. Are helicopters harder to fly than airplanes?
A. Flying a helicopter is completely different from flying an airplane, but that doesn't mean it's any harder. Airplanes and helicopters have many commonalities and differences. Some people believe that helicopters are more challenging to fly than airplanes, but each studen'ts experience will vary.

Q. How do you control a helicopter?
A. Helicopters utilize four main controls: the cyclic ("stick"), collective, throttle and anti-torque pedals. The cyclic tilts the main rotor disc and splits the vertical component of lift. The helicopter will then move in the direction that the rotor disc is tilted. The collective controls the pitch of the rotor blades. As you move the collective it simultaneously (or collectively) pitches all of the rotor blades. The throttle regulates the engine r.p.m. The anti-torque pedals control the direction the nose is pointing and are used to counteract the torque of the main rotor blades..

Q. What happens in the unlikely event of an engine failure?
A. In the rare case of an engine failure, the rotor blades are disengaged from the engine by means of a freewheeling unit, allowing the rotor blades to continue to spin at normal flight speeds. Then, the pilot performs an "autorotation".

Q. What is autorotation?
A. Generally an emergency procedure, autorotation is a descending maneuver where the engine is disengaged from the main rotor system and rotor blades are driven solely by the upward flow of air through the rotor.

Q. Will the helicopter spin out of control if the tail rotor quits?
A. In forward flight the helicopter will tend to weather vain and not spin out of control. To land the aircraft you can enter an autorotation. In autorotation the torque of the main rotor is eliminated.

Q. Are helicopters more restricted due to weather?
A. Helicopters can generally handle high winds better than airplanes. However, comparably priced planes are usually better equipped for icing and low-visibility flying

Q. Can I obtain a helicopter pilot certificate if I wear glasses?
A. Yes, providing that you are able to pass the medical with your glasses or contact lenses on. The only requirement then is that you will need to wear your glasses or contacts when flying.

Q. When may I begin to fly?
A. Immediately. However, you will need to apply for certain certificates, as described in this guide, in preparation for solo flight.

Q. Is there a set number of flight instructional hours I will receive before I solo?
A. No. The instructor will not allow you to solo until you have learned to perform certain maneuvers. These maneuvers include safe takeoffs and landings. You must be able to maintain positive control of the aircraft at all times and to use good judgment.

Q. Is flying safe?
A. Well-built and well-maintained aircraft flown by a competent and prudent pilot make flying as safe or safer than many other forms of transportation.

Q. If engine failure occurs, what will happen?
A. Modern helicopter engines are very reliable and complete engine failure is a rare occurrence. If the improbable does happen, however, you will not "fall out of the sky." Just do what the instructor had you practice during lessons; select a good landing area and land.

Flying helicopters requires thinking in three dimensions.

Helicopters are the most versatile flying machines in existence today. This versatility gives the pilot complete access to three-dimensional space in a way that no airplane can. If you have ever flown in a helicopter you know that its abilities are exhilarating.

The amazing flexibility of helicopters means that they can fly almost anywhere. However, it also means that flying the machines is complicated. The pilot has to think in three dimensions and must use both arms and both legs constantly to keep a helicopter in the air. Piloting a helicopter requires a great deal of training and skill, as well as continuous attention to the machine.

Comparing Modes of Transport

To understand how helicopters work and also why they are so complicated to fly, it is helpful to compare the abilities of a helicopter with those of trains, cars and airplanes. By looking at these different modes of transportation, you can come to understand why helicopters are so versatile!

If you have ever been inside of the cab of a locomotive, you know that trains are fairly simple to drive. After all, there are only two directions that a train can travel in -- forward and reverse. There is a brake to stop the train's travel in either direction, but there is no steering mechanism of any kind on a train. The tracks take the train where it needs to go.

Because a train has only two directions in which it can travel, you can drive a train with one hand.

A car, of course, can go forward and backward like a train. While you are traveling in either direction you can also turn left or right:

To handle the steering, a car uses a steering wheel that the driver can turn clockwise or counterclockwise. It is possible to drive a car with one hand and one foot.

Anyone who has taken pilot lessons or looked inside the cockpit while boarding a jumbo jet knows that planes are a lot more complicated to fly than a car is to drive. However, a plane is really only one step away from a car:

A plane can move forward and turn left or right. It also adds the ability to go up and down. However, it loses the ability to reverse. So a plane can move in five different directions instead of a car's four directions. The ability to go up and down adds a whole new dimension to a plane, and this dimension is one of the things that makes airplanes different from a car. To control the upward and downward motion of the plane, either a joystick replaces the steering wheel or the steering wheel gains the ability to move in and out (in addition to turning clockwise and counterclockwise). In most planes (but not all), the pilot also has access to two pedals to control the rudder. Therefore, a pilot could fly a plane with one hand and two feet.

A helicopter can do three things that an airplane cannot:

* A helicopter can fly backwards.
* The entire aircraft can rotate in the air.
* A helicopter can hover motionless in the air.

In a car or a plane, the vehicle must be moving in order to turn. In a helicopter, you can move laterally in any direction or you can rotate 360 degrees. These extra degrees of freedom and the skill you must have to master them is what makes helicopters so exciting, but it also makes them complex.

To control a helicopter, one hand grasps a control called the cyclic, which controls the lateral direction of the helicopter (including forward, backward, left and right). The other hand grasps a control called the collective, which controls the up and down motion of the helicopter (and also controls engine speed). The pilot's feet rest on pedals that control the tail rotor, which allows the helicopter to rotate in either direction on its axis. It takes both hands and both feet to fly a helicopter!

You can begin to understand how a helicopter flies by thinking about the abilities displayed in the previous section. Let's walk through the different abilities and see how they affect the design and the controls of a helicopter.

Imagine that we would like to create a machine that can simply fly straight upward. Let's not even worry about getting back down for the moment -- up is all that matters. If you are going to provide the upward force with a wing, then the wing has to be in motion in order to create lift. Wings create lift by deflecting air downward and benefiting from the equal and opposite reaction that results (see How Airplanes Work for details -- the article contains a complete explanation of how wings produce lift).

A rotary motion is the easiest way to keep a wing in continuous motion. So you can mount two or more wings on a central shaft and spin the shaft, much like the blades on a ceiling fan. The rotating wings of a helicopter are shaped just like the airfoils of an airplane wing, but generally the wings on a helicopter's rotor are narrow and thin because they must spin so quickly. The helicopter's rotating wing assembly is normally called the main rotor. If you give the main rotor wings a slight angle of attack on the shaft and spin the shaft, the wings start to develop lift.

In order to spin the shaft with enough force to lift a human being and the vehicle, you need an engine of some sort. Reciprocating gasoline engines and gas turbine engines are the most common types. The engine's driveshaft can connect through a transmission to the main rotor shaft. This arrangement works really well until the moment the vehicle leaves the ground. At that moment, there is nothing to keep the engine (and therefore the body of the vehicle) from spinning just like the main rotor does. So, in the absence of anything to stop it, the body will spin in an opposite direction to the main rotor. To keep the body from spinning, you need to apply a force to it.

The usual way to provide a force to the body of the vehicle is to attach another set of rotating wings to a long boom. These wings are known as the tail rotor. The tail rotor produces thrust just like an airplane's propeller does. By producing thrust in a sideways direction, counteracting the engine's desire to spin the body, the tail rotor keeps the body of the helicopter from spinning. Normally, the tail rotor is driven by a long drive shaft that runs from the main rotor's transmission back through the tail boom to a small transmission at the tail rotor.


In order to actually control the machine, both the main rotor and the tail rotor need to be adjustable. The following two sections explain how the adjustability works.

The Tail Rotor

The adjustability of the tail rotor is straightforward -- what you want is the ability to change the angle of attack on the tail rotor wings so that you can use the tail rotor to rotate the helicopter on the drive shaft's axis. The pilot has two foot pedals that control the angle of attack. These two videos let you take a look at the pedals and see how they affect the tail rotor:
The Main Rotor

A helicopter's main rotor is the most important part of the vehicle. It provides the lift that allows the helicopter to fly, as well as the control that allows the helicopter to move laterally, make turns and change altitude.

To handle all of these tasks, the rotor must first be incredibly strong. It must also be able to adjust the angle of the rotor blades with each revolution of the hub. The adjustability is provided by a device called the swash plate assembly, as shown in this photograph:

The swash plate assembly has two primary roles:

* Under the direction of the collective control, the swash plate assembly can change the angle of both blades simultaneously. Doing this increases or decreases the lift that the main rotor supplies to the vehicle, allowing the helicopter to gain or lose altitude.

* Under the direction of the cyclic control, the swash plate assembly can change the angle of the blades individually as they revolve. This allows the helicopter to move in any direction around a 360-degree circle, including forward, backward, left and right.

The swash plate assembly consists of two plates -- the fixed and the rotating swash plates -- shown above in blue and red, respectively.

* The rotating swash plate rotates with the drive shaft (green) and the rotor's blades (gray) because of the links (purple) that connect the rotating plate to the drive shaft.

* The pitch control rods (orange) allow the rotating swash plate to change the pitch of the rotor blades.

* The angle of the fixed swash plate is changed by the control rods (yellow) attached to the fixed swash plate.

* The fixed plate's control rods are affected by the pilot's input to the cyclic and collective controls. * The fixed and rotating swash plates are connected with a set of bearings between the two plates.

These bearings allow the rotating swash plate to spin on top of the fixed swash plate.

Hovering in a helicopter requires experience and skill. The pilot adjusts the cyclic to maintain the helicopter's position over a point on the ground. The pilot adjusts the collective to maintain a fixed altitude (especially important when close to the ground, as shown in the videos). The pilot adjusts the foot pedals to maintain the direction that the helicopter is pointing. You can imagine that windy conditions can make hovering a real challenge!

Relating the Controls and the Swash Plate

The following videos help you understand the relationship between the cyclic and collective controls and the swash plate assembly. In general:

* The collective control raises the entire swash plate assembly as a unit. This has the effect of changing the pitch of both blades simultaneously.

* The cyclic control pushes one side of the swash plate assembly upward or downward. This has the effect of changing the pitch of the blades unevenly depending on where they are in the rotation.

The result of the cyclic control is that the rotor's wings have a greater angle of attack (and therefore more lift) on one side of the helicopter and a lesser angle of attack (and less lift) on the opposite side. The unbalanced lift causes the helicopter to tip and move laterally.

How do helicopters work?

Helicopters are the most versatile flying machines in existence today. This versatility gives the pilot complete access to three-dimensional space in a way that no airplane can. If you have ever flown in a helicopter you know that its abilities are exhilarating!

The amazing flexibility of helicopters means that they can fly almost anywhere. However, it also means that flying the machines is complicated. The pilot has to think in three dimensions and must use both arms and both legs constantly to keep a helicopter in the air! Piloting a helicopter requires a great deal of training and skill, as well as continuous attention to the machine.

To understand how helicopters work and also why they are so complicated to fly, it is helpful to compare the abilities of a helicopter with those of trains, cars and airplanes. By looking at these different modes of transportation, you can come to understand why helicopters are so versatile!

Because a train has only two directions in which it can travel, you can drive a train with one hand.

A car, of course, can go forward and backward like a train. While you are traveling in either direction you can also turn left or right:

To handle the steering, a car uses a steering wheel that the driver can turn clockwise or counterclockwise. It is possible to drive a car with one hand and one foot.

Anyone who has taken pilot lessons or looked inside the cockpit while boarding a jumbo jet knows that planes are a lot more complicated to fly than a car is to drive. However, a plane is really only one step away from a car:

A plane can move forward and turn left or right. It also adds the ability to go up and down. However, it loses the ability to reverse. So a plane can move in five different directions instead of a car's four directions. The ability to go up and down adds a whole new dimension to a plane, and this dimension is one of the things that makes airplanes different from a car. To control the upward and downward motion of the plane, either a joystick replaces the steering wheel or the steering wheel gains the ability to move in and out (in addition to turning clockwise and counterclockwise). In most planes (but not all), the pilot also has access to two pedals to control the rudder. Therefore, a pilot could fly a plane with one hand and two feet.

A helicopter can do three things that an airplane cannot:

A helicopter can fly backwards. The entire aircraft can rotate in the air. A helicopter can hover motionless in the air. In a car or a plane, the vehicle must be moving in order to turn. In a helicopter, you can move laterally in any direction or you can rotate 360 degrees. These extra degrees of freedom and the skill you must have to master them is what makes helicopters so exciting, but it also makes them complex.

To control a helicopter, one hand grasps a control called the cyclic, which controls the lateral direction of the helicopter (including forward, backward, left and right). The other hand grasps a control called the collective, which controls the up and down motion of the helicopter (and also controls engine speed). The pilot's feet rest on pedals that control the tail rotor, which allows the helicopter to rotate in either direction on its axis. It takes both hands and both feet to fly a helicopter!

Special Capabilities of Helicopters

Helicopters have a number of unique abilities that airplanes do not have. Several of these capabilities are shown in the following videos (if you have a high-speed Internet connection, these videos are quick and fun to watch!).

The signature of a helicopter is its ability to hover over one point on the ground. While hovering, a helicopter can also spin on its axis so that the pilot can look in any direction.

Another unique feature of a helicopter is its ability to fly backwards. A helicopter can also fly sideways just as easily.

Since a helicopter can fly backwards and sideways, it can do a number of interesting tricks. The following video shows a helicopter performing a pirouette, in which it rotates 360 degrees while it travels down a straight line relative to the ground:

A helicopter that is flying forward can also stop in mid-air and begin hovering very quickly, as demonstrated in this video:

All of these maneuvers are impossible in an airplane, which must fly forward at all times in order to develop lift from its wings

How Helicopters Fly

You can begin to understand how a helicopter flies by thinking about the abilities displayed in the previous section. Let's walk through the different abilities and see how they affect the design and the controls of a helicopter.

Imagine that we would like to create a machine that can simply fly straight upward. Let's not even worry about getting back down for the moment -- up is all that matters. If you are going to provide the upward force with a wing, then the wing has to be in motion in order to create lift. Wings create lift by deflecting air downward and benefiting from the equal and opposite reaction that results (see How Airplanes Work for details -- the article contains a complete explanation of how wings produce lift).

A rotary motion is the easiest way to keep a wing in continuous motion. So you can mount two or more wings on a central shaft and spin the shaft, much like the blades on a ceiling fan. The rotating wings of a helicopter are shaped just like the airfoils of an airplane wing, but generally the wings on a helicopter's rotor are narrow and thin because they must spin so quickly. The helicopter's rotating wing assembly is normally called the main rotor. If you give the main rotor wings a slight angle of attack on the shaft and spin the shaft, the wings start to develop lift.

In order to spin the shaft with enough force to lift a human being and the vehicle, you need an engine of some sort. Reciprocating gasoline engines and gas turbine engines are the most common types. The engine's driveshaft can connect through a transmission to the main rotor shaft. This arrangement works really well until the moment the vehicle leaves the ground. At that moment, there is nothing to keep the engine (and therefore the body of the vehicle) from spinning just like the main rotor does. So, in the absence of anything to stop it, the body will spin in an opposite direction to the main rotor. To keep the body from spinning, you need to apply a force to it.

The usual way to provide a force to the body of the vehicle is to attach another set of rotating wings to a long boom. These wings are known as the tail rotor. The tail rotor produces thrust just like an airplane's propeller does. By producing thrust in a sideways direction, counteracting the engine's desire to spin the body, the tail rotor keeps the body of the helicopter from spinning. Normally, the tail rotor is driven by a long drive shaft that runs from the main rotor's transmission back through the tail boom to a small transmission at the tail rotor.

In order to actually control the machine, both the main rotor and the tail rotor need to be adjustable. The following tw o sections explain how the adjustability works.

The Tail Rotor

The adjustability of the tail rotor is straightforward -- what you want is the ability to change the angle of attack on the tail rotor wings so that you can use the tail rotor to rotate the helicopter on the drive shaft's axis.

The pilot has two foot pedals that control the angle of attack. These two videos let you take a look at the pedals and see how they affect the tail rotor:

The Main Rotor

A helicopter's main rotor is the most important part of the vehicle. It provides the lift that allows the helicopter to fly, as well as the control that allows the helicopter to move laterally, make turns and change altitude.

To handle all of these tasks, the rotor must first be incredibly strong. It must also be able to adjust the angle of the rotor blades with each revolution of the hub. The adjustability is provided by a device called the swash plate assembly, as shown in this photograph:

The swash plate assembly has two primary roles:

Under the direction of the collective control, the swash plate assembly can change the angle of both blades simultaneously. Doing this increases or decreases the lift that the main rotor supplies to the vehicle, allowing the helicopter to gain or lose altitude.

Under the direction of the cyclic control, the swash plate assembly can change the angle of the blades individually as they revolve. This allows the helicopter to move in any direction around a 360-degree circle, including forward, backward, left and right.

The swash plate assembly consists of two plates -- the fixed and the rotating swash plates -- shown above in blue and red, respectively.

The rotating swash plate rotates with the drive shaft (green) and the rotor's blades (gray) because of the links (purple) that connect the rotating plate to the drive shaft.

The pitch control rods (orange) allow the rotating swash plate to change the pitch of the rotor blades. The angle of the fixed swash plate is changed by the control rods (yellow) attached to the fixed swash plate.

The fixed plate's control rods are affected by the pilot's input to the cyclic and collective controls. The fixed and rotating swash plates are connected with a set of bearings between the two plates. These bearings allow the rotating swash plate to spin on top of the fixed swash plate.

The collective control changes the angle of attack on both blades simultaneously:

The cyclic control tilts the swash plate assembly so that the angle of attack on one side of the helicopter is greater than it is on the other, like this:

Hovering in a helicopter requires experience and skill. The pilot adjusts the cyclic to maintain the helicopter's position over a point on the ground. The pilot adjusts the collective to maintain a fixed altitude (especially important when close to the ground, as shown in the videos). The pilot adjusts the foot pedals to maintain the direction that the helicopter is pointing. You can imagine that windy conditions can make hovering a real challenge!

Relating the Controls and the Swash Plate

The following videos help you understand the relationship between the cyclic and collective controls and the swash plate assembly. In general: The collective control raises the entire swash plate assembly as a unit. This has the effect of changing the pitch of both blades simultaneously. The cyclic control pushes one side of the swash plate assembly upward or downward. This has the effect of changing the pitch of the blades unevenly depending on where they are in the rotation. The result of the cyclic control is that the rotor's wings have a greater angle of attack (and therefore more lift) on one side of the helicopter and a lesser angle of attack (and less lift) on the opposite side. The unbalanced lift causes the helicopter to tip and move laterally.

How does a helicopter work?
How does a helicopter stay in the air?


Each rotor blade (1) is connected to the hub (2) and rotating mast by a feathering hinge (3), which allows it to swivel. A pitch link (a short rod) attached to each blade (4, orange) can tilt it to a steeper or shallower angle according to the position of the rotating upper swash plate (5, blue), which spins on bearings around the static lower swash plate (6, red). That's how a chopper hovers and steers and it's described in more detail later in this article. The two swash plates are moved up and down or tilted to the side by the pilot's cyclic and collective cockpit controls (not shown), which are explained below. The rotor is powered by a driveshaft (7) connected to a transmission and gearbox (8, red). The same transmission powers a second, longer driveshaft (9, yellow) connected to a gearbox that spins the tail rotor (10, orange). The power from both rotors comes from one or two turboshaft jet engines (11).


Uses

Due to the operating characteristics of the helicopter—its ability to takeoff and land vertically, and to hover for extended periods of time, as well as the aircraft's handling properties under low airspeed conditions—it has been chosen to conduct tasks that were previously not possible with other aircraft, or were time- or work-intensive to accomplish on the ground. Today, helicopter uses include transportation of people and cargo, military uses, construction, firefighting, search and rescue, medical transport, and aerial observation, among others.

WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF A HELICOPTER?

Because helicopters can take off and land vertically, hover in one place or fly at very low speeds and rotate 360 degrees while hovering, it's passengers can get a panoramic view of remote or confined areas virtually inaccessible by fixed-wing aircraft. Helicopters are often called upon in medical emergencies and search/rescue because of there versatility and many law enforcement agencies use them to track down stolon vehicles or chase criminals. Helicopters are also extremely valuble for fighting forrest fires that are sometimes inacessable by the ground.

A helicopter is capable of getting into remote areas that are virtually inaccessible by fixed-wing aircraft.
Raw Materials
How does the power get from the engine to the rotors?

The power is transferred from the engine using a main gearbox which changes the power from the engine and sends it to the transmission. In the transmission RPM is reduced from thousands of RPM to hundreds of RPM. By doing this the torque is increased and the rotation is slowed to an acceptable level for the rotor system. The transmission drives the mast which gives direct rotation to the rotors. Often another shaft will come out of the transmission to directly drive the tailrotor as well.

An accessory gearbox mounted on the engine draws little engine power to drive things like the oil pump, the generator and the fuel control for the engine itself.
Military Competency—Helicopter
Helicopter Specifications

Q. What types of helicopters do you know?
Q. What types of helicopters should you know?
Q. What should you know about the helicopter?
Q. What are the specifications of the helicopter?
Q. What is the name of the helicopter?
Q. How do you pilot (fly) this helicopter?
Q. How many such helicopters have been manufactured up to now?
Q. How many helicopters are there in Illinois at this point?
Q. What is their name, location, specifications at this point?
Q. Is there any helicopter better than this helicopter?
Q. What can bring this helicopter down?
Q. What precautions have to be taken to prevent any harms due to attack or sabotage to this helicopter?
Q. What do you think is the best helicopter at this point?
Q. Why do you think this is the best helicopter?
Q. How do you manufacture this helicopter?
Q. What type of maintenance does this helicopter need?
Q. What materials are required to manufacture a helicopter?
Q. What type of engine does a helicopter have?
Q. What has been the maximum range without refueling of a helicopter upto now around the world?
Q. How will you transfer helicopters from North American locations to Asian, African, Australian, Latin, island, or other locations?
Q. How will you manufacture helicopters indigenously in Asian regions?
Specifications of helicopters.
1 Apache Helicopters/AH-64 Apache (AGM-114 Hellfire variants)
2 Black Hawk
3 Comanche (Hellfire air-to-ground missiles,)
4 Chinook helicopters
5 Iroquois (Huey)
6 Kiowa
7 SeaCobra
8 Sea Dragon (Crashes)
Hellfire Missiles
Helicopter Database
Helicopter Videos
Warship
Helicopter pilot.
Do you want to be a Helicopter Pilot?

If you want to be helicopter pilot, get answers to these questions.

What type of helicopter is available?
What are the specifications of helicopter you need to pilot?
What is the total process in flying a helicopter from taking off and flying, and combat if required to land?
What types of helicopters are available in the state?
What types of helicopters are available in adjacent states?
What types of helicopters are available in nearest sea helicopter carriers?


If you need to pilot a helicopter, you must be able to manufacture a helicopter as well.

Here are further guidelines.

World's fastest and most heavily armed military helicopters
What are examples of the world's fastest and most heavily armed military helicopters?

Here are further guidelines.
Helicopters

Helicopter manufacturing.
World's fastest and most heavily armed military helicopters
King helicopter

What are the specifications of the helicopter?
  1. Armament
  2. Capacity: 6,661 lb (3,021 kg)
  3. Combat radius: 125 nmi (144 mi, 231 km) with 2,500 lb (1,130 kg) payload
  4. Crew: 2: pilot, co-pilot/gunner (CPG)
  5. Cruise speed: 160 kt (184 mph, 296 km/h)
  6. Disc area: 1,808 ft² (168.0 m²)
  7. Empty weight: 12,300 lb (5,580 kg)
  8. Height: 14 ft 4 in (4.37 m)
  9. Length: 58 ft 3 in (17.8 m)
  10. Max. takeoff weight: 18,500 lb (8,390 kg)
  11. Never exceed speed: 222 knots (255 mph, 411 km/h) in a dive
  12. Powerplant: 2 × General Electric T700-GE-401C turboshaft, 1,800 shp (1,340 kW) each
  13. Range: 370 nmi (426 mi, 685 km)
  14. Rate of climb: 2,790 ft/min (14.2 m/s)
  15. Rotor diameter: 48 ft (14.6 m)
  16. Rotor systems: 4 blades on main rotor, 4 blades on tail rotor
  17. Service ceiling: 20,000+ ft (6,000+ m)
  18. Useful load: 5,764 lb (2,620 kg)
Armament

Guns: 1 × 20 mm (0.787 in) M197 3-barreled Gatling cannon in the A/A49E-7 turret (750 round ammo capacity)
Hardpoints: Up to 6 pylon stations on stub wing
Rockets: 2.75 in (70 mm) Hydra 70 or APKWS II[39] rockets – Mounted in LAU-68C/A (7 shot) or LAU-61D/A (19 shot) launchers
Missiles:
AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles – 1 mounted on each wing tip station (total of 2)
AGM-114 Hellfire air-to-surface missiles – Up to 16 missiles mounted in four 4-round M272 missile launchers, two on each wing

Kilograms to Tons (kg to t) converter | Weight conversion

What is metric ton (MT)?
Equal to 1000 kilogram.
1000 kg 1 t
5,580 kg = 5.58 MT = 6.1508971 AT

Materials required for manufacturing helicopters.
Raw Materials

The airframe, or fundamental structure, of a helicopter can be made of either metal or organic composite materials, or some combination of the two. Higher performance requirements will incline the designer to favor composites with higher strength-to-weight ratio, often epoxy (a resin) reinforced with glass, aramid (a strong, flexible nylon fiber), or carbon fiber. Typically, a composite component consists of many layers of fiber-impregnated resins, bonded to form a smooth panel. Tubular and sheet metal substructures are usually made of aluminum, though stainless steel or titanium are sometimes used in areas subject to higher stress or heat. To facilitate bending during the manufacturing process, the structural tubing is often filled with molten sodium silicate. A helicopter's rotary wing blades are usually made of fiber-reinforced resin. The helicopter's windscreen and windows are formed of polycarbonate sheeting.

The Manufacturing Process

Airframe: Preparing the tubing
Forming sheet metal details
Making the cores of composite components
Making the fuselage
Installing the engine, transmission, and rotors
Systems and controls
Final assembly
Quality Control
The Future

What is the windshield of a Helicopter made of?
Most helicopters use acrylic glass (also called plexiglass) for the windshield because of its light weight.

What’s the difference between polycarbonate and acrylic?
Polycarbonate is resistant to breakage due to impact, and is a good choice for harsh environments. However, polycarbonate is susceptible to ultraviolet radiation, and even though we utilizes polycarbonate with a UV inhibitor, the material will yellow over time. Acrylic is the most common material used for lighting applications. While more prone to breakage than polycarbonate, it will never discolor.

Acrylic & Polycarbonate How They're Made

Polycarbonate is a polymer plastic produced by reacting phosgene with bisphenyl A and injecting the resulting hot plastic into forms or extruding it through an orifice to form bars or pipes. Common _______ names are Lexan and Makrolon. Acrylic plastic is made from the monomer methyl methacrylate in powder or syrup form and is heat-formed into sheets or tubes with a polymerizing catalyst such as peroxide. A common ______ name is Lucite.

Strength and Durability

Both polycarbonate and acrylics are stronger and lighter than glass, but both scratch more easily. Of the two, polycarbonate has higher impact resistance and is used in bulletproofing applications. Acrylic is rigid and may chip; polycarbonate can be produced in flexible sheets. Acrylic and polycarbonate are less resistant to solvents than glass; acrylics should be cleaned only with mild soap to avoid etching. You can apply ammonia to polycarbonate, but avoid stronger solvents.

Working With the Plastics

You can cut and drill polycarbonate and acrylics with standard equipment, but you need special plastic glue to bond the material together. Since acrylics are rigid, they tend to crack if you drill holes too close to the edge, and you have to heat the sheets to bend them. Polycarbonates are less likely to chip and crack, and the sheets can bent when cold. Both materials are sensitive to heat; acrylics are stable at temperatures up to 190 degrees Fahrenheit, and polycarbonates can withstand temperatures up to 240 degrees Fahrenheit.

Royal Navy Sea King Helicopter
Sea King helicopter
Last Updated: January 27, 2017