English language translation from other languages.
This book has been authored by Asif Qureshi.


Languages
Linguistic Anthropology
What is language?
Language is a set of symbols being used mainly for communication. The symbols may be spoken or written. Language is an aspect of human behavior. In written form it is a long-term record of knowledge from one generation to the next while in spoken form it is a means of communication. Language is the key aspect of human intelligence.

Natural Language

Natural language is an ordinary language that has evolved as the normal means of communication among people. Examples: English, Mandarin, Arabic, Arabic and Ukrainian.

Constrained Language(Programming language)

Constrained languages are those that have a special or limited vocabulary designed for restricted types of communication. Examples: programming languages such as PHP, JavaScript and Java and languages that apply only to a certain domain.

How many languages are there?

There are approximately 6,900 distinct languages in existence today, though there may be languages spoken in remote areas that we have yet to discover.

The English language is the most popular language. If you know the English language well, you can help others to learn it.

Which languages have the most speakers?
1.English
2.Mandarin
3.Arabic
4.Spanish
5.Ukrainian
Conversation Questions Languages
What is Linguistics?
Linguistics is the scientific study of human language.

Linguistics is the study of language as a cognitive ability. Questions linguists ask are - How do children learn language? How do people understand speech sounds? How and why does language change over time? How is language processed in the brain?

Do linguists perform simultaneous translation?
No. Simultaneous translation is a specialized ability usually associated with people who have spoken two or more languages since childhood. Some linguists HAVE speciliazed in studying bilingual speakers, but many study other fields outside translation.

How many languages do linguists have to know?
All linguists are exposed to data from a number of languages, but may only be able to speak their own native language proficiently.

What do linguists actually study?
Linguists specialize in different components of language. Although some linguists perform psychological studies, many study texts or ask for native speaker judgements to collect their data. Some subgroups include:

Phonology/Phonetics - The study of speech sounds Morphology - The study of word structure Syntax - The study of how words are put together to create sentences and phrases Semantics/Pragmatics - How meaning is structured and communicated via language Historical Linguistics - How language changes over time Language Acquisition - How children insticntively acquire the ability to use language Applied Linguistics - How to effectively teach adults and teens a second language Computational - Studying artifical intelligence & cognitive models of language Sign Language Studies - How sign language has similar and distinct properties from spoken language Sociolinguistics - How languages & dialects from different socio-economic groups interact and change

What do you do with a linguistics degree?
In addition to teaching linguistics at the college level, linguists have been known to: Observe or test unconscious linguistic behavior to develop models of cognition or communication. Work with software developers on language-based applications including grammar checkers, search engines, natural language processing, speech recognition and artifical speech production. Decipher and interpret ancient texts. Consult on language policy issues (bilingualism, foreign language education, etc.) Work with communities of minority languages on maintaining and teaching their linguistic heritage. Create artifical languages for their novels or favorite sci-fi show.

A bachelor's in linguistics (combined with the right electives) can also be a good gateway to law school, international business, psychology, computer science, English language teaching abroad and more. In my experience, linguistics has given me a better appreciation of world cultures, improved my writing, and sharpened my reasoning. Not a bad educational payoff.

What do you think of bilingual education?
To be incredibly vague, my answer is "It depends on the context". Balancing the needs of language use between ease of communication and preserving ethnic heritages is quite complicated. What is important to me is that any decision consider linguistic and language acquisition principles, not just raw emotion.

What do linguists think about chat/texting language?
A lot of people observing texting/chatting/tweeting are interested/worried about the fact that lots of abbreviations are included (e.g. LOL, :), c u l8tr), however the heavy use of abbreviations in writing is not unique to texting. Medieval manuscript writers (and almost all manuscript professionals in any culture) are notorious for creating symbols and abbreviations (e.g. , &,#, e.g., i.e., ...). The reasons for abbreviating in manuscripts and texting are essentially the same it saves space and is less effort. Manuscript writers were worried about writers cramp, but texters are worried about blackberry thumb. As Txting, the Gr8 Db8 points out, typing text on a numeric phone pad is very much a PITN.

What is unique about social media language is how informal language is being recorded in a written medium. Traditional writing genres tend to be very formal and very carefully crafted for a public audience. In the past, it would be rare that a document potentially accessible to billions of viewers would be filled slang, swearwords or talk about what you ate last night. No longer. In past eras, linguists would have to rely on graffiti or the some personal letters/diaries to find information about colloquial language. But thanks to social media, the 21st century colloquial language will be extremely well-documented...providing the servers remain in service.

What was the first language and how did it develop into all others?
Explain, particularly, Icelandic and Basque.

Who was its first speaker?

What is the most ordinary language you can think of?

What effect does the enlargement of the genioglossus have on child language development?

To what extent can we say that context plays a part in events? Why do we say this?

There is much discussion currently about syntax. Discuss phonology.

How does a language become synchronic?

Why is there so much embedding going on these days?

Distinguish between conjunction and insubordination.

How can reduplication be drastically reduced (perhaps eliminated altogether)?
You have been asked to address a congress of Persian ornithologists. What would you tell them about morphology? Relativisation?
English Language
Intercultural communication in English language
Arabic and English
English to Afghani (Pashto dialect)
Kashmiri and English
Kannada and English
Punjabi and English
Spanish and English
French and English
Mandarin (about 850 million)
Wu (90 million)
Cantonese (Yue) (70 million)
Min (50 million).
Japanese and English
Persian and English
Portugese and English
Ukrainian (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Latvia, Estonia) and English
Tamil and English
Marathi and English
Gujarati and English
Hindi and English
Tagalu and English
Indonesian and English
Urdu and English
Malayalam and English
Cognates: