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Material Type

How do you analyze a material?
What are its components?
Is it solid, liquid, or gas?
What is it?
Types of Materials
Composite materials
Nano materials
Thin Films
Functionally Graded Materials.
Types of Materials
Is it a plastic, metal, alloy of a metal, wood, non-plastic polymer, or glass?
What are its elements?
What are the properties of plastic, metal, alloy of a metal, wood, non-plastic polymer, and glass?
How do you analyze elements?
Is it solid, liquid, or gas?
What are its properties?
List of materials properties
What are its uses?

How is chemical analysis of materials different from biochemical analysis of human specimens?
What are the most essential elements in human blood?
Exactly how are these elements measured?
How do you compare and contrast chemical analysis of materials and biochemical analysis of specimens?
    What determines the density of a material?

    Here are further guidelines.
List of materials analysis methods:



Analytical ultracentrifugation - Analytical ultracentrifugation
AAS - Atomic absorption spectroscopy
AED - Auger electron diffraction
AES - Auger electron spectroscopy
AFM - Atomic force microscopy
AFS - Atomic fluorescence spectroscopy
APFIM - Atom probe field ion microscopy
APS - Appearance potential spectroscopy
ARPES - Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy
ARUPS - Angle resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy
ATR - Attenuated total reflectance


BET - BET surface area measurement (BET from Brunauer, Emmett, Teller)
BiFC - Bimolecular fluorescence complementation
BKD - Backscatter Kikuchi diffraction, see EBSD
BRET - Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer
BSED - Back scattered electron diffraction, see EBSD


CAICISS - Coaxial impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy
CARS - Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy
CBED - Convergent beam electron diffraction
CCM - Charge collection microscopy
CDI - Coherent diffraction imaging
CE - Capillary electrophoresis
CET - Cryo-electron tomography
CL - Cathodoluminescence
CLSM - Confocal laser scanning microscopy
COSY - Correlation spectroscopy
Cryo-EM - Cryo-electron microscopy
CV - Cyclic voltammetry


DE(T)A - Dielectric thermal analysis
dHvA - De Haas-van Alphen effect
DIC - Differential interference contrast microscopy
Dielectric spectroscopy - Dielectric spectroscopy
DLS - Dynamic light scattering
DLTS - Deep-level transient spectroscopy
DMA - Dynamic mechanical analysis
DPI - Dual polarisation interferometry
DRS - Diffuse reflection spectroscopy
DSC - Differential scanning calorimetry
DTA - Differential thermal analysis
DVS - Dynamic vapour sorption


EBIC - Electron beam induced current (and see IBIC: ion beam induced charge)
EBS - Elastic (non-Rutherford) backscattering spectrometry (see RBS)
EBSD - Electron backscatter diffraction
ECOSY - Exclusive correlation spectroscopy
ECT - Electrical capacitance tomography
EDAX - Energy-dispersive analysis of x-rays
EDMR - Electrically detected magnetic resonance, see ESR or EPR
EDS or EDX - Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
EELS - Electron energy loss spectroscopy
EFTEM - Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy
EID - Electron induced desorption
EIT and ERT - Electrical impedance tomography and Electrical resistivity tomography
EL - Electroluminescence
Electron crystallography - Electron crystallography
ELS - Electrophoretic light scattering
ENDOR - Electron nuclear double resonance, see ESR or EPR
EPMA - Electron probe microanalysis
EPR - Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy
ERD or ERDA - Elastic recoil detection or Elastic recoil detection analysis
ESCA - Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis* see XPS
ESD - Electron stimulated desorption
ESEM - Environmental scanning electron microscopy
ESI-MS or ES-MS - Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry or Electrospray mass spectrometry
ESR - Electron spin resonance spectroscopy
ESTM - Electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy
EXAFS - Extended X-ray absorption fine structure
EXSY - Exchange spectroscopy


FCS - Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy
FCCS - Fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy
FEM - Field emission microscopy
FIB - Focused ion beam microscopy
FIM-AP - Field ion microscopy–atom probe
Flow birefringence - Flow birefringence
Fluorescence anisotropy - Fluorescence anisotropy
FLIM - Fluorescence lifetime imaging
Fluorescence microscopy - Fluorescence microscopy
FOSPM - Feature-oriented scanning probe microscopy
FRET - Fluorescence resonance energy transfer
FRS - Forward Recoil Spectrometry, a synonym of ERD
FTICR or FT-MS - Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance or Fourier transform mass spectrometry
FTIR - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy


GC-MS - Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
GDMS - Glow discharge mass spectrometry GDOS - Glow discharge optical spectroscopy
GISAXS - Grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering
GIXD - Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction
GIXR - Grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity
GLC - Gas-liquid chromatography


HAADF - high angle annular dark-field imaging
HAS - Helium atom scattering
HPLC - High performance liquid chromatography
HREELS - High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy
HREM - High-resolution electron microscopy
HRTEM - High-resolution transmission electron microscopy


IAES - Ion induced Auger electron spectroscopy
IBA - Ion beam analysis
IBIC - Ion beam induced charge microscopy
ICP-AES - Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
ICP-MS - Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
Immunofluorescence - Immunofluorescence
ICR - Ion cyclotron resonance
IETS - Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy
IGA - Intelligent gravimetric analysis
IGF - Inert gas fusion
IIX - Ion induced X-ray analysis: See Particle induced X-ray emission
INS - Ion neutralization spectroscopy Inelastic neutron scattering
IRS - Infrared spectroscopy
ISS - Ion scattering spectroscopy
ITC - Isothermal titration calorimetry
IVEM - Intermediate voltage electron microscopy


LALLS - Low-angle laser light scattering
LC-MS - Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
LEED - Low-energy electron diffraction
LEEM - Low-energy electron microscopy
LEIS - Low-energy ion scattering
LIBS - Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy
LOES - Laser optical emission spectroscopy
LS - Light (Raman) scattering


MALDI - Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization
MBE - Molecular beam epitaxy
MEIS - Medium energy ion scattering
MFM - Magnetic force microscopy
MIT - Magnetic induction tomography
MPM - Multiphoton fluorescence microscopy
MRFM - Magnetic resonance force microscopy
MRI - Magnetic resonance imaging
MS - Mass spectrometry
MS/MS - Tandem mass spectrometry
MSGE - Mechanically Stimulated Gas Emission
Mössbauer spectroscopy - Mössbauer spectroscopy
MTA - Microthermal analysis
Muon spin spectroscopy
Magnetic susceptibility


NAA - Neutron activation analysis
Nanovid microscopy - Nanovid microscopy
ND - Neutron diffraction
NDP - Neutron depth profiling
NEXAFS - Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure
NIS - Nuclear inelastic scattering/absorption
NMR - Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
NOESY - Nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy
NRA - Nuclear reaction analysis
NSOM - Near-field optical microscopy


OBIC - Optical beam induced current
ODNMR - Optically detected magnetic resonance, see ESR or EPR
OES - Optical emission spectroscopy
Osmometry - Osmometry


PAS - Positron annihilation spectroscopy
Photoacoustic spectroscopy - Photoacoustic spectroscopy
PAT or PACT - Photoacoustic tomography or photoacoustic computed tomography
PAX - Photoemission of adsorbed xenon
PC or PCS - Photocurrent spectroscopy
Phase contrast microscopy - Phase contrast microscopy
PhD - Photoelectron diffraction
PD - Photodesorption
PDEIS - Potentiodynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
PDS - Photothermal deflection spectroscopy
PED - Photoelectron diffraction
PEELS - parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy
PEEM - Photoemission electron microscopy (or photoelectron emission microscopy)
PES - Photoelectron spectroscopy
PINEM - photon-induced near-field electron microscopy
PIGE - Particle (or proton) induced gamma-ray spectroscopy, see Nuclear reaction analysis
PIXE - Particle (or proton) induced X-ray spectroscopy
PL - Photoluminescence
Porosimetry - Porosimetry
Powder diffraction - Powder diffraction
PTMS - Photothermal microspectroscopy
PTS - Photothermal spectroscopy


QENS - Quasielastic neutron scattering


Raman - Raman spectroscopy
RAXRS - Resonant anomalous X-ray scattering
RBS - Rutherford backscattering spectrometry
REM - Reflection electron microscopy
RDS - Reflectance Difference Spectroscopy
RHEED - Reflection high energy electron diffraction
RIMS - Resonance ionization mass spectrometry
RIXS - Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering
RR spectroscopy - Resonance Raman spectroscopy


SAD - Selected area diffraction
SAED - Selected area electron diffraction
SAM - Scanning Auger microscopy
SANS - Small angle neutron scattering
SAXS - Small angle X-ray scattering
SCANIIR - Surface composition by analysis of neutral species and ion-impact radiation
SCEM - Scanning confocal electron microscopy
SE - Spectroscopic ellipsometry
SEC - Size exclusion chromatography
SEIRA - Surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy
SEM - Scanning electron microscopy
SERS - Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy
SERRS - Surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy
SEXAFS - Surface extended X-ray absorption fine structure
SICM - Scanning ion-conductance microscopy
SIL - Solid immersion lens
SIM - Solid immersion mirror
SIMS - Secondary ion mass spectrometry
SNMS - Sputtered neutral species mass spectrometry
SNOM - Scanning near-field optical microscopy
SPECT - Single photon emission computed tomography
SPM - Scanning probe microscopy
SRM-CE/MS - Selected-reaction-monitoring capillary-electrophoresis mass-spectrometry
SSNMR - Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance
Stark spectroscopy - Stark spectroscopy
STED - Stimulated Emission Depletion microscopy
STEM - Scanning transmission electron microscopy
STM - Scanning tunneling microscopy
STS - Scanning tunneling spectroscopy
SXRD - Surface X-ray Diffraction (SXRD)


TAT or TACT - Thermoacoustic tomography or thermoacoustic computed tomography (see also photoacoustic tomography - PAT)
TEM - transmission electron microscope/microscopy
TGA - Thermogravimetric analysis
TIKA - Transmitting ion kinetic analysis
TIMS - Thermal ionization mass spectrometry
TIRFM - Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy
TLS - Photothermal lens spectroscopy, a type of Photothermal spectroscopy
TMA - Thermomechanical analysis
TOF-MS - Time-of-flight mass spectrometry
Two-photon excitation microscopy - Two-photon excitation microscopy
TXRF - Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis


Ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy - Ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy
Ultrasonic testing - Ultrasonic testing
UPS - UV-photoelectron spectroscopy
USANS - Ultra small-angle neutron scattering
USAXS - Ultra small-angle X-ray scattering
UV-Vis - Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy


VEDIC - Video-enhanced differential interference contrast microscopy
Voltammetry - Voltammetry


WAXS - Wide angle X-ray scattering
WDX or WDS - Wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy


XAES - X-ray induced Auger electron spectroscopy
XANES - XANES, synonymous with NEXAFS (Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure)
XAS - X-ray absorption spectroscopy
X-CTR - X-ray crystal truncation rod scattering
X-ray crystallography - X-ray crystallography
XDS - X-ray diffuse scattering
XPEEM - X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy
XPS - X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
XRD - X-ray diffraction
XRES - X-ray resonant exchange scattering
XRF - X-ray fluorescence analysis
XRR - X-ray reflectivity
XRS - X-ray Raman scattering
XSW - X-ray standing wave technique