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Metrology
Measurement
Weights and Measures
State department of weights and measures.
What should the governor of a state know about weights and measures inside and outside the state?
Here are further guidelines.
  1. Annotation or definition.

  2. Area measure

  3. Aviation weights and measures in the state.

  4. Aircraft Weight and Balance Terms

  5. Agricultural weights and measures in the state.

  6. Aircraft measuring instruments

  7. Aircraft Weight Class

  8. Autopilot

  9. Basic and derived quantities and units

  10. Car Weight Limits

  11. Computer kanda weighing balance

  12. Cooking weights and measures

  13. Data Measurement Chart

  14. Different Types of Mechanical Measuring Tools and Gauges Used on Ships

  15. English to Metric

  16. Evolution of Weighing Devices

  17. Fluid volume measure

  18. Length

  19. Linear measure

  20. Mass and Weight Converter

  21. Measuring Devices

  22. New Generation Concrete Weight Bridge

  23. Scale

  24. Solid volume measure

  25. Truck scale

  26. The seven fundamental units of measurement

  27. Volume

  28. Weights, Measures, and Conversion Factors for Agricultural Commodities and Their Products

  29. Weights Types and Purposes

  30. How to Determine Your Dress Size

  31. Scale Types

  32. Weight

  33. Weight and mass

  34. Weighing and Batching Systems

  35. Weights, Measures, and Conversion Factors for Agricultural Commodities and Their Products

  36. How To Understand Your Blood Tests & Biochemistry

  37. Trash Bag Sizes

Annotation or definition.
What is measurement?
What can be measured?
What is Metrology?
What is measurement?
Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.

What can be measured?
  1. Aircraft Weight and Balance

  2. Altitude in aviation

  3. Altitude

  4. Area

  5. Averages (Mean, Median and Mode)

  6. Capacity and Volume

  7. Data Measurement Chart

  8. Decimals

  9. Distance and Length

  10. Displacement

  11. Fractions

  12. Height (sometimes known as depth)

  13. Length

  14. Mass

  15. Mass and Weight

  16. Measurement and data

  17. Measuring angles

  18. Measuring Motion

  19. Measuring Power

  20. Percentages

  21. Speed

  22. Temperature

  23. Time

  24. Volume

  25. Weight

  26. Weight and mass

What is Metrology?
Metrology is the science of measurement. It includes units of measurement and their standards, measuring instruments and their field of application, and all theoretical and practical aspects relating to measurement.

What does it mean to take a measurement?
It means that for a physical quantity we assign a certain number followed by the unit. The number expresses the ratio of the measured quantity to a certain standard and the unit is the name for the standard.

Over the years, human beings have used many systems of units and many standards for physical and chemical measurements.

Is there a difference between metrology and meteorology?
Yes, there is.

What is the difference between metrology and meteorology?
Metrology is the science of measurement.
Meteorology is the science of the atmosphere.

What standards of measurement should you know in 2012?
Customary measurements
Metric measurements (the metric system has evolved from the International System of Units)

FPS are linked to customary system.
CGS and MKS are linked to the metric system.
FPS, CGS, and MKS were in use before 1960.

You should know customary and metric system of measurement.

What do you understand by base units of measurement?
A set of fundamental units for physical quantities from which every other unit can be generated.

What are examples of base units of measurement?
Length, mass, time, electrical current, thermodynamic temperature, luminous intensity, amount of substance.

What is a derived unit of measurement?
A unit of measurement that is determined by combining two or more measurements.

What are examples of derived units of measurement?
There are more than 75 derived units of measurement.

What are the methods of measurement?
1. Direct comparison
2. Indirect comparison
3. Comparative method
4. Coincidence method
5. Fundamental method
6. Contact method
7. Transposition method
8. Complementary method
9. Deflection method
10. Others.

What are various instruments of measurement?
There are hundreds of instruments of measurement.

Questions you need to answer

What standard of measurement do you follow?

Where is that standard displayed publicly?

Do you follow the customary or metric system of measurement, or both?

Here are further guidelines.

Aircraft Weight and Balance
What are different types of weights of an aircraft?
  1. Actual take-off weight

  2. Aircraft gross weight

  3. Landing weight

  4. Manufacturer's empty weight (MEW)

  5. Maximum Brake Release Weight

  6. Maximum landing weight (MLW)

  7. Maximum takeoff weight (MTOW)

  8. Maximum permissible takeoff weight or maximum allowed takeoff weight

  9. Maximum Taxi Weight

  10. Maximum zero fuel weight (MZFW)

  11. Operating empty weight (OEW) (Roughly equivalent to basic empty weight on light aircraft)

  12. Payload

  13. Zero payload weight

  14. Zero-fuel weight (ZFW)

Aircraft Weight Class
Aircraft into six weight classes

Weight Class

Weight class is based are assigned by APO130 based on the TFMS observed aircraft codes. There are 6 categories --
(A) Heavy,
(B) B757,
(C) Large Jet,
(D) Large Commuter,
(E) Medium,
(F) Small.

(A) Heavy: Any aircraft weighing more than 255,000 lb such as the B 747 or the Airbus A340;
(B) B757: B 757 all series;
(C) Large Jet: Large jet aircraft weighing more than 41,000 and up to 255,000 lbs such as the B 737 or the Airbus A320;
(D) Large Commuter: Large non-jet aircraft (such as the Aerospatiale/Alenia ATR-42 and the Saab SF 340), and small regional jets (such as the Bombardier Canadair Regional Jet), weighing more than 41,000 and up to 255,000 lbs;
(E) Medium: Small commuter aircraft including business jets weighing more than 12,500 up to 41,000 lbs such as the Embraer 120 or the Learjet 35; and
(F) Small: Small, single, or twin engine aircraft weighing 12,500 lbs or less such as the Beech 90 or the Cessna Caravan.
Unknown; refers to unspecified equipment.

Aircraft gross weight It is the total aircraft weight at any moment during the flight or ground operation. This decreases during flight due to fuel and oil consumption.
Maximum Taxi Weight The certified maximum allowable weight of the airplane when it is on the ground. This limit is determined by the structural loading on the landing gear under a specified set of conditions and/or wing bending loads.
Maximum Brake Release Weight The certified maximum weight of the airplane at the start of takeoff roll. Maximum Brake Release Weight will always be less than Maximum Taxi Weight to allow for fuel burned during taxi. Brake release weight, in operation, may be limited to values less than Maximum Brake Release Weight by airplane performance, and/or airfield characteristics.
Maximum zero fuel weight (MZFW) The maximum weight of the airplane without usable fuel.
Maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) This is the maximum weight at which the pilot of the aircraft is allowed to attempt to take off.
What is maximum take off weight?
The maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) or maximum gross takeoff weight (MGTOW) or maximum takeoff mass (MTOM) of an aircraft is the maximum weight at which the pilot is allowed to attempt to take off, due to structural or other limits.

Maximum Takeoff Weight:
The aircraft with the highest standard maximum take-off weight is the Antonov An-225 "Mriya" originally built at 600 tonnes (1.32 million lb). In 2000-2001 its floor was strengthened resulting in an increased maximum take-off weight of 640 tonnes (1.41 million lb).
A380: 575 tonnes
C-130E/H/J: 155,000 pounds (69,750 kilograms)
C-130J-30: 164,000 pounds (74,393 kilograms)

How is Maximum Take Off Weight determined?
Maximum permissible takeoff weight or maximum allowed takeoff weight In many circumstances an aircraft may not be permitted to take off at its MTOW. In these circumstances the maximum weight permitted for takeoff will be determined taking account of the following:
Wing flap setting. See the Spanair Flight 5022 crash
Airfield altitude (height above sea-level) – This affects air pressure which affects maximum engine power or thrust.
Air temperature – This affects air density which affects maximum engine power or thrust.
Length of runway – A short runway means the aircraft has less distance to accelerate to takeoff speed. The length for computation of maximum permitted takeoff weight may be adjusted if the runway has clearways and/or stopways.
Runway wind component – The best condition is a strong headwind straight along the runway. The worst condition is a tailwind. If there is a crosswind it is the wind component along the runway which must be taken into account.
Condition of runway – The best runway for taking off is a dry, paved runway. An unpaved runway or one with traces of snow will provide more rolling friction which will cause the airplane to accelerate more slowly. See the Munich air disaster Obstacles – An airplane must be able to take off and gain enough height to clear all obstacles and terrain beyond the end of the runway.

The maximum weight at which a takeoff may be attempted, taking into account the above factors, is called the maximum permissible takeoff weight, maximum allowed takeoff weight or regulated takeoff weight.
Maximum landing weight (MLW) This maximum weight at which an aircraft is permitted to land.
Maximum zero fuel weight (MZFW) Maximum zero fuel weight (MZFW) is the maximum weight allowed before usable fuel and other specified usable agents (engine injection fluid, and other consumable propulsion agents) are loaded.
Manufacturer's empty weight (MEW) Weight of the structure, powerplant, furnishings, systems, and other items of equipment that are considered an integral part of a particular airplane configuration. It is essentially a "dry" weight, including only those fluids contained in a closed system (such as hydraulic fluid).

What is the different between usable fuel and unusable fuel?
Usable fuel is the fuel on board an aircraft that can actually be used by its engines. The small amount of fuel that cannot be drained from the tanks is the unusable fuel. For calculation of range, usable fuel is used. For weight and balance total fuel (usable + unusable) is used.
Maximum ramp weight (MRW)
also called maximum taxi weight (MTW)
It is the maximum weight authorized for maneuvering (taxiing or towing) an aircraft on the ground.
Payload It is the carrying capacity of an aircraft. It includes cargo, people, extra fuel.

What is the payload of an aircraft?
Payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or launch vehicle, usually measured in terms of weight. Depending on the nature of the flight or mission, the payload of a vehicle may include cargo, passengers, flight crew, munitions, scientific instruments or experiments, or other equipment.

C-17 Globemaster III with tanks

Weights

non ERFCS

-Empty 125645 kg 277000 lb
-Payload 76655 kg 169000 lb
-Maximum takeoff weight 265306 kg 585000 lb

ERFCS
-Empty 127685 kg 281500 lb
-Payload 75250 kg 165900 lb
-Maximum takeoff weight 278959 kg 615000 lb

Load: 102 troops/paratroops; 36 litter and 54 ambulatory patients and attendants; 170,900 pounds (77,519 kilograms) of cargo (18 pallet positions)

What can fit inside a C-5 Galaxy?
Max Payload Standard: 240,000 pounds (108,862kg);
Wartime: 291,000 pounds (131,995kg)
Operating empty weight (OEW) (Roughly equivalent to basic empty weight on light aircraft) It is the basic weight of an aircraft including the crew, all fluids necessary for operation such as engine oil, engine coolant, water, unusable fuel and all operator items and equipment required for flight but excluding usable fuel and the payload.
Manufacturer's empty weight (MEW)
Also called Manufacturer's Weight Empty (MWE) or Licensed Empty Weight
It is the weight of the aircraft "as built" and includes the weight of the structure, power plant, furnishings, installations, systems and other equipment that are considered an integral part of an aircraft.

This excludes any baggage, passengers, or usable fuel.
Zero-fuel weight (ZFW) This is the total weight of the airplane and all its contents (including unusable fuel ), but excluding the total weight of the usable fuel on board.

As a flight progresses and fuel is consumed, the total weight of the airplane reduces, but the ZFW remains constant.

Mass and Weight Converter
What does 9.8 N kg mean?
At Earth's surface, gravity attracts all masses downward with a force of 9.8 newtons per kilogram. This gravitational force is called weight. To calculate an object's weight, multiply its mass by the strength of gravity in N/kg.

If a woman has a mass of 50 kg, calculate her weight in Newtons.
W = mg = 50 kg x 9.8 N / kg = 490 N

Calculate in Newtons the weight of a 2000-kg elephant
W = mg - 2000 kg x 9.8 N / kg = 19,600 N

Calculate in Newtons the weight of a 2.5-kg melon. What is its weight in pounds?
W = mg = 2. Kg x 9.8 N/kg = 24.5 N; 2.5 kg x 2.2 lb = 5.5 lb

An apple weighs about 1 N. What is its mass in kilograms? What is its weight in pounds?
W = mg, so m = W/g = 1 N / (9/8 N/kg) = 0.1 kg; 0.22 lb

Susie Small finds she weights 300 N. Calculate her mass.
m = W/g = 300N / 9.8 N/kg = 30.6 kg

Calculate the acceleration of a 2000-kg, single-engine airplane just before takeoff when the thrust of its engine is 500 N.
a = F / m = (500 N) / (2000 kg) = 0.25 m/s^2

Calculate the acceleration of a 300,000-kg jumbo jet just before takeoff when the thrust for each of its four engines is 30,000N.
a = F / m = 4 (30,000 N) / (300,000 kg) = 0.4 m/s^2

a. Calculate the acceleration if you push with a 20-N horizontal force on a 2-kg block on a horizontal friction-free air table.
b. What acceleration occurs if the friction force is 4 N?
a. a = F / m = (20 N) / (2 kg) = 10 m/s^2
; b. a = (20 n - 4 N) / (2 kg) = 8 m/s^2

Calculate the horizontal force that must be applied to a 1-kg puck to make it accelerate on a horizontal friction-free air table with the same acceleration it would have if it were dropped and fell freely.
F = ma = (1 kg) (9.8 m/s^2
) = 9.8 N

Calculate the horizontal force that must be applied to produce an acceleration of 1.8 g for a 1.2-kg puck on a horizontal friction-free air table.
F = ma = (1.2 kg)(1.8)(9.8 m/s^2 ) = 21.2 N

1) A 500-kilogram rocket is fired straight up from the earth, the engines providing 7 500 newtons of thrust. Its acceleration is
1) 5.2 meters per second squared.

2) The gravitational force on an object in motion is centripetal and constant in magnitude whenever the object is
2) In circular orbit only.

3) The gravitational field at the surface of Mars is 3.3 meters per second squared and its radius is 3 400 kilometers. When the Viking spacecraft was 3 400 kilometers above the surface of Mars, its acceleration was
3) 0.83 meters per second squared.

4) In outer space, a 250-kilogram rocket is to be speed ed up from 60 meters per second to 75 meters per second in 5 seconds. The trust needed is
4) 750 newtons

5) A force of 40 newtons keeps a rock going in a horizontal circle by means of a string 2 meters long. If the rock is moving at 10 meters per second, its mass is
5) 0.8 kilogram

Aviation weights and measures in the state.
List of large aircraft

Antonov An-225 Mriya
A380-800
A340-600
Antonov An-124
Antonov An-22
B 747
B 747-8
B 747 "Dreamlifter"
Tupolev Maxsim Gorki

Military

Antonov An-225 Mriya
Tupolev Tu-160
C-5 Galaxy
B-52 Stratofortress

What is the largest cargo aircraft in the world?
The Antonov An-225 Mriya is, quite simply, the largest airplane in the world. At 275 feet in length with a 290 foot wingspan and a maximum takeoff weight of 640 tons, it dwarfs 787's. When it debuted in 1988, the An-225 was 50 percent bigger than any airliner ever built before it.

What is the largest passenger plane?
The A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airplane manufactured by Airbus. It is the world's largest passenger airplane, and the airports at which it operates have upgraded facilities to accommodate it. A380-800 Seating capacity, typical: 544 (4-class)/644 (2-class)/868 (EASA Certification)
Maximum take-off weight: 575,000 kg (1,268,000 lb)

C5

Primary Function: Outsize cargo transport
Thrust: 43,000 pounds, each engine (C-5A,B,C)/ 51,250 pounds, each engine (C-5M)

Maximum Cargo: 270,000 pounds (122,472 kilograms)

Cargo Compartment:
- Height, 13 feet 6 inches (4.11 meters)
- Width, 19 feet (5.79 meters)
- Length, 143 feet, 9 inches (43.8 meters)

SPECIFICATIONS
Official Name: An-225, Mriya
Wingspan: 290 ft.
Length: 275 ft. 7 in.
Height: 59 ft. 8-1/2 in.
Cargo Hold: Length: 141 ft.;
Width: 21 ft.;
Height: 14 ft. 5-1/4 in.
Engines: Six ZMKB Progress Lotarev D-18T turbofans each producing 51,590 lb. of thrust
Crew: 7
Max Takeoff Weight: 1,322,750 lb. Max. take off weight -- 600000kg 661.386786552 tons
Max Payload: 551,150 lb. Capacity/Maximum load: 551150lbs (250000kg) 275.577828 tons
Cruising Speed: 497 mph
Max Speed: 528 mph
Range With Max Payload: 2813 miles
Range With Max Fuel: 9625 miles
Variants The An-225 Mriya has three variants: An-224, An-225-100 and An-325.

Where must a record be kept of the current empty weight and the current center of gravity of an aircraft? In the aircraft flight manual or weight and balance records required by 14 CFR 23.1583
Cancelled: 14 CFR 23.1583
Manufacturer's empty weight
Aircraft gross weight
Maximum landing weight
Maximum takeoff weight

Antonov An-225 Mriya

Max takeoff weight: 640,000 kg (1,410,958 lb) 640 tonnes (710 short tons).


Manufacturer's empty weight

In aviation, Manufacturer's empty weight (MEW) (also known as Manufacturer's weight empty (MWE)) is the weight of the aircraft "as built" and includes the weight of the structure, power plant, furnishings, installations, systems and other equipment that are considered an integral part of an aircraft before additional operator items are added for operation.

Basic aircraft empty weight is essentially the same and excludes any baggage, passengers, or usable fuel. Some manufacturers define this empty weight as including optional equipment, i.e. GPS units, cargo baskets, or spotlights.

Specification MEW

This is the MEW quoted in the manufacturer's standard specification documents and is the aircraft standard basic dry weight upon which all other standard specifications and aircraft performance are based by the manufacturer.

The Specification MEW includes the weight of:
Airframe structure – primary and secondary structures (fuselage, wing, tail, control surfaces, nacelles, landing gear).
Powerplant.
Auxiliary power unit (APU).
Systems (instruments, navigation, hydraulics, pneumatics, fuel systems (but not fuel itself), electrical system,
electronics, fixed furnishings (but not operator specific), air conditioning, anti-ice system, etc.).
Fixed equipment and services considered an integral part of the aircraft.
Fixed ballast (if present).
Closed system fluids (such as hydraulic fluids).

For small aircraft, the MEW may include unusable fuel and oil.

The Specification MEW excludes the weight of:
All fuel (both usable and unusable).
Potable water, anti-ice, and chemicals in toilets.
Engine oil and APU oil.
All specification items, selections, and installations which are non-basic (i.e. optional selections).
Customer specific selections, installations, and options.
Operator/operating items.
Removable equipment and services.
Payload.

For small aircraft, the specification MEW is known as the standard empty weight (or standard weight empty).

Car Weight Limits
Chart of Average Vehicle Curb Weight by Class
Vehicle Class Curb Weight in Pounds Curb Weight in Kilograms
Compact car 2,979 pounds 1,354 kilograms
Midsize car 3,497 pounds 1,590 kilograms
Large car 4,366 pounds 1,985 kilograms
Compact truck or SUV 3,470 pounds 1,577 kilograms
Midsize truck or SUV 4,259 pounds 1,936 kilograms
Large truck or SUV 5,411 pounds 2.460 kilograms

How many tons does a car weigh?
Two tons

How many pounds are equal to 2 tons?
4,000 pounds

In 2010, the weight of an average new car was 4,009 pounds. That is significantly heavier than the "modern" cars two decades earlier, which weighed an average of 3,221 pounds.


What is meant by the datum that is used for weight and balance computations? A readily identified reference chosen by the aircraft manufacturer from which all longitudinal locations on the aircraft are referenced
Why are the distances of all of the items installed in an aircraft measured from the datum when computing weight and balance? This makes it possible to find the point about which the aircraft would balance (the center of gravity)
What are two reasons weight and balance control are important in an aircraft? For safety of flight and for most efficient performance of the aircraft
What is meant by moment in the computation of weight and balance? A force that tends to cause rotation. It is the product of the weight of an object in pounds and the distance of the object from the datum in inches
How do you find the moment of an item that is installed in an aircraft? Multiply the weight of the item in pounds by its distance from the datum
What is meant by the arm of an item that is installed in an aircraft? The distance, in inches, between the center of gravity of the item and the datum
Why must we consider the category under which an aircraft is licensed when we compute its weight and balance? The different categories under which an aircraft can be licensed have different maximum gross weights and different center of gravity ranges
Where can you find the leveling means that are specified for a particular aircraft? In the TCDS for that aircraft
Where is the arm of an item installed in an aircraft recorded? In the TCDS for that aircraft
What must be done to find the empty weight of an aircraft if it has been weighed with fuel in its tanks? The eight of the fuel and its moment must be subtracted from the weight and moment of the aircraft as it was weighed
What is meant by the tare weight that is used in a weight and balance computation? The weight of the chocks and other items that are used to hold the aircraft on the scales
What must be done to the tare weight when an aircraft is weighed? It must be subtracted from the scale reading to find the weight of the aircraft
What is meant by minimum fuel as is used in the computation of aircraft weight and balance? No more fuel than the quantity necessary for one-half hour of operation at rated maximum continuous power. It is the maximum amount of fuel used in weight and balance computations when low fuel may adversely affect the most critical balance conditions
What is meant by the maximum zero fuel weight of an aircraft? The maximum permissible weight of a loaded aircraft (passengers, crew, cargo, etc.), less its fuel
What is meant by undrainable fuel? The fuel that is left in the tank, lines and components when the aircraft is placed in level flight position and he fuel at the main fuel strainer. This is also called residual fuel.
Describe the way you would find the empty weight and empty weight center of gravity of an airplane if there are no weight and balance records available. The aircraft is weighed, and the empty weight center of gravity is computed. These values are recorded in new weight and balance records that are started for the aircraft
What is meant by permanent ballast for an aircraft? Weight that is permanently installed in an aircraft to bring the empty weight center of gravity into allowable limits
Which has the more critical center of gravity range, an airplane or helicopter? A helicopter
What equipment must be installed in an aircraft when it is weighed to find its empty weight center of gravity? All of the equipment that is listed in the Aircraft Equipment List as "required equipment" or as equipment that is permanently installed
What is the significance of the empty weight center of gravity range of an aircraft? If the empty weight center of gravity falls within the EWCG range, the aircraft cannot be legally loaded in such a way that its loaded center of gravity will fall outside of the allowable loaded CG range. Not all aircraft have an EWCG range.
Why is empty weight center of gravity range not given in the TCDS for some aircraft? The empty weight center of gravity range is given only for aircraft that cannot be legally loaded in such a way that their loaded center of gravity will fall outside of the allowable limits

The seven fundamental units of measurement
What is a unit of measurement?
What are the seven fundamental units?
What are some problem areas with these definitions?
These SI base units or commonly called metric units are:
Measure Unit Symbol Area of Science
Time Second s All
Length or distance Meter or Metre m All
Mass Kilogram kg Physics
Electric Current Ampere A Physics
Temperature Celsius/Fahrenheit/Kelvin K Physics
Luminous Intensity Candela cd Optics
Amount of Substance Mole mol Chemistry
Derived quantity

Scale
Scale (map)
What is another word for scale?
Balance
Gauge
Ruler
Weighbridge
Weighing machine

What is a Map Scale?
There are two main types of map scales: bar and lexical. In a bar scale, which tends to be the most common, the mapmaker has given you a visual guide to use to make distance calculations. You can use any measuring tool or a piece of string to figure out actual distances on a map by directly measuring the map distance and translating it to the bar scale.

A lexical scale is not visual like a bar scale. Instead, the mapmaker gives the distance conversion in words. For example, the map may include the scale written as '1 inch equals 10 miles'. This is generally viewed as less practical and is, therefore, much less common. With this scale, it is also much more common to run into language barriers for speakers of languages other than what the map is written in. This scale works in the same way as the bar scale, but it is just represented differently.

Measuring Devices
Measuring Instruments
List of measuring devices
Device Quantity measured
accelerometer physical, accelerations
actinometer heating power of sunlight
alcoholmeter alcoholic strength of liquids
altimeter altitude
ammeter electric current
anemometer windspeed
audiometer hearing
barkometer tanning liquors used in tanning leather
barometer air pressure
bettsometer integrity of fabric coverings on aircraft
bevameter mechanical properties of soil
bolometer electromagnetic radiation
breathalyzer breath alcohol content
caliper distance
calorimeter heat of chemical reactions
cathetometer vertical distances
ceilometer height of a cloud base
chronometer or clock time
clap-o-meter volume of applause
colorimeter color
creepmeter slow surface displacement of an active geologic fault in the earth
declinometer magnetic declination
densimeter specific gravity of liquids
densitometer degree of darkness in photographic or semitransparent material
diffractometer structure of crystals
dilatometer volume changes caused by a physical or chemical process
disdrometer size, speed, and velocity of raindrops
dosimeter exposure to hazards, especially radiation
dumpy level horizontal levels
dynamometer force,torque or power
elaeometer specific gravity of oils
electricity meter electrical energy used
electrometer electric charge
electronic tuner pitch of musical notes
ellipsometer refractive index, dielectric function, thickness of thin films
eudiometer change in volume of a gas mixture following combustion
evaporimeter rate of evaporation
fathometer ocean depth
framing square right angles in construction
frequency counter frequency of alternating current
fuel gauge fuel level
galvanometer electricity
gas pycnometer volume and density of solids
glucometer blood glucose (diabetes)
graphometer angles
heliometer variation of the sun's diameter
hydrometer specific gravity of liquids (density of liquids)
hygrometer humidity
inclinometer angle of a slope
inkometer ink
interferometer wave interference
katharometer composition of gases
lactometer specific gravity of milk
light meter light (in photography)
load cell measurement of force
lux meter intensity of light
magnetometer strength of magnetic fields
manometer pressure of gas
mass flow meter mass flow rate of a fluid travelling through a tube
mass spectrometer masses of ions, used to identify chemical substances through their mass spectra
measuring cup liquid and dry goods
mercury barometer Atmospheric pressure
micrometer small distances
multimeter electrical potential, resistance, and current
Nephoscope to measure the speed and direction of clouds
nephelometer particle in a liquid
odometer distance travelled
ohmmeter electrical resistance
orchidometer testicle size in male humans
oscilloscope oscillations
osmometer osmotic strength of a solution, colloid, or compound matter of an object
pedometer steps
pH meter pH (chemical acidity/basicity of a solution)
photometer illuminance or irradiance
polarimeter rotation of polarized light
potentiometer voltage (term is also used to refer to a variable resistor)
profilometer surface roughness
protractor angles
psychrometer humidity
pycnometer fluid density
pyranometer solar radiation
pyrheliometer direct solar insolation
pyrometer high temperatures
quadrat percentage cover of a certain species
quartz crystal microbalance thickness of deposited thin films
radiometer radiant flux of electromagnetic radiation
refractometer sugar concentration of sap and syrup
rheometer response to applied forces
rotameter pressure of a liquid or gas in a closed tube
ruler for measuring length
saccharometer amount of sugar in a solution
seismometer seismic waves (for example, earthquakes)
sextant location on earth's surface (used in naval navigation)
spectrometer properties of light
spectrophotometer intensity of light as a function of wavelength
speedometer speed, velocity of a vehicle
spherometer radius of a sphere
sphygmomanometer blood pressure
stadimeter object range
strainmeter seismic strain
SWR meter standing wave ratio
tacheometer distance
tachometer revolutions per minute, rate of blood flow, speed of aeroplanes
taximeter distance travelled, displacement
tensiometer surface tension of a liquid
theodolite measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes
thermometer temperature
tintometer color
universal measuring machine geometric locations
UV meter ultraviolet light
vacuum gauge very low pressure
viscometer viscosity of a fluid
voltmeter electric potential, voltage
VU meter volume unit
wattmeter electrical power
weighing scale weight
wind vane wind direction
zymometer fermentation

Basic and derived quantities and units
What is a derived unit?
(Units) a unit of measurement obtained by multiplication or division of the base units of a system without the introduction of numerical factors.

A derived unit is a SI unit of measurement comprised of a combination of the seven base units.


Physical Quantity Symbol for the Quantity
length l
mass m
time t
electric current I
thermodynamic temperature T
luminous intensity Iv
amount of substance n
BASE UNITS
Physical Quantity Name of Unit Symbol
length metre m
mass kilogram kg
time second s
electric current ampere A
temperature Celsius (Centigrade)/Fahrenheit/kelvin Scales K
luminous intensity candela cd
amount of substance mole mol
SOME EXAMPLES OF DERIVED SI UNITS
Physical Quantity SI Unit Symbol
angle radian rad
solid angle steradian sr
area square metre m2
volume cubic metre m3
density kilogram per cubic metre kg·m-3
speed metre per second m·s-1
acceleration metre per second squared m·s-2
concentration mole per cubic metre mol·m-3
SOME DERIVED SI UNITS WITH SPECIAL NAMES
Physical Quantity Name of Unit Symbol
energy joule J
force newton N
pressure pascal Pa
power watt W
electric charge coulomb C
electric potential difference volt V
electric resistance ohm W
frequency hertz Hz
SOME DERIVED SI UNITS QUANTITY UNITS SYMBOL BASIC UNITS
Area square meter m2
Volume cubic meter m3
Frequency Hertz, cycles per second Hz 1/s
Density kilogram per cubic meter kg/m3
Velocity meter/sec m/s
Angular velocity radian/sec rad/s
Acceleration meter/second squared m/s2
Angular acceleration radians per second square rad/s2
Volumetric flow rate cubic meter per second m3/s
Mass flow rate kg per second kg/s
Force Newton N kg-m/s2
Surface Tension Newton per meter N/m kg/s2
Pressure, stress Pascal (Newton per square meter) Pa (N/m2) kg/m-s2
Dynamic viscosity Newton-second per square meter N-s/m2 kg/m-s2
Kinematic viscosity meter squared per second m2/s
Work, energy joule, newton-meter, watt-second J, N-m, W-s kg-m2/s2
Power watt, joule per second W, J/s kg-m2/s3
Specific heat, gas constant joule per kilogram degree J/kg-K m2/s2-K
Enthalpy joule per kilogram J/kg m2/s2
Entropy joule per kilogram degree J/kg-K m2/s2-K
Thermal conductivity watt per meter degree W/m-K kg-m/s3-K
Diffusion coefficient meter squared per second m2/s
Electrical charge coulomb C A-s
Electromotive force volt V kg-m2/A-s3
Electric field strength volt per meter V/m kg-m/A-s3
Electric resistance ohm ohm kg-m2/A2-s3
Electric Conductivity amperes per volt meter A/V-m A2-s3/kg-m3
Electric capacitance farad F A2-s4/kg-m2
magnetic flux Weber Wb kg-m2/s2-A
Inductance henry H kg-m2/s2-A2
Magnetic flux density tesla T kg/s2-A
Derived units with special names
Name Symbol Quantity Equivalents SI base unit
Equivalents
newton N force, weight kg·m/s2 kg·m·s-2
Named units derived from SI base units[2]
Name Symbol Quantity Equivalents SI base unit
Equivalents
hertz Hz frequency 1/s s-1
radian rad angle m/m dimensionless
steradian sr solid angle m2/m2 dimensionless
newton N force, weight kg·m/s2 kg·m·s-2
pascal Pa pressure, stress N/m2 kg·m-1·s-2
joule J energy, work, heat N·m
C·V
W·s
kg·m2·s-2
watt W power, radiant flux J/s
V·A
kg·m2·s-3
coulomb C electric charge or quantity of electricity s·A
F·V
s·A
volt V voltage, electrical potential difference, electromotive force W/A
J/C
kg·m2·s-3·A-1
farad F electrical capacitance C/V
s/O
kg-1·m-2·s4·A2
ohm O electrical resistance, impedance, reactance 1/S
V/A
kg·m2·s-3·A-2
siemens S electrical conductance 1/O
A/V
kg-1·m-2·s3·A2
weber Wb magnetic flux J/A
T·m2
kg·m2·s-2·A-1
tesla T magnetic field strength, magnetic flux density V·s/m2
Wb/m2
N/(A·m)
kg·s-2·A-1
henry H electrical inductance V·s/A
O·s
Wb/A
kg·m2·s-2·A-2
degree Celsius °C temperature relative to 273.15 K K K
lumen lm luminous flux cd·sr cd
lux lx illuminance lm/m2 m-2·cd
becquerel Bq radioactivity (decays per unit time) 1/s s-1
gray Gy absorbed dose (of ionizing radiation) J/kg m2·s-2
sievert Sv equivalent dose (of ionizing radiation) J/kg m2·s-2
katal kat catalytic activity mol/s s-1·mol
Some SI derived units
Name Symbol Quantity Expression in terms
of SI base units
square metre m2 area m2
cubic metre m3 volume m3
metre per second m/s speed, velocity m·s-1
cubic metre per second m3/s volumetric flow m3·s-1
metre per second squared m/s2 acceleration m·s-2
metre per second cubed m/s3 jerk, jolt m·s-3
metre per quartic second m/s4 snap, jounce m·s-4
radian per second rad/s angular velocity s-1
radian per second squared rad/s2 angular acceleration s-2
newton second N·s momentum, impulse m·kg·s-1
newton metre second N·m·s angular momentum m2·kg·s-1
newton metre N·m = J/rad torque, moment of force m2·kg·s-2
newton per second N/s yank m·kg·s-3
reciprocal metre m-1 wavenumber, optical power, curvature, spatial frequency m-1
kilogram per square metre kg/m2 area density m-2·kg
kilogram per cubic metre kg/m3 density, mass density m-3·kg
cubic metre per kilogram m3/kg specific volume m3·kg-1
mole per cubic metre mol/m3 molarity, amount of substance concentration m-3·mol
cubic metre per mole m3/mol molar volume m3·mol-1
joule second J·s action m2·kg·s-1
joule per kelvin J/K heat capacity, entropy m2·kg·s-2·K-1
joule per kelvin mole J/(K·mol) molar heat capacity, molar entropy m2·kg·s-2·K-1·mol-1
joule per kilogram kelvin J/(K·kg) specific heat capacity, specific entropy m2·s-2·K-1
joule per mole J/mol molar energy m2·kg·s-2·mol-1
joule per kilogram J/kg specific energy m2·s-2
joule per cubic metre J/m3 energy density m-1·kg·s-2
newton per metre N/m = J/m2 surface tension, stiffness kg·s-2
watt per square metre W/m2 heat flux density, irradiance kg·s-3
watt per metre kelvin W/(m·K) thermal conductivity m·kg·s-3·K-1
square metre per second m2/s kinematic viscosity, thermal diffusivity, diffusion coefficient m2·s-1
pascal second Pa·s = N·s/m2 dynamic viscosity m-1·kg·s-1
coulomb per square metre C/m2 electric displacement field, polarization density m-2·s·A
coulomb per cubic metre C/m3 electric charge density m-3·s·A
ampere per square metre A/m2 electric current density A·m-2
siemens per metre S/m electrical conductivity m-3·kg-1·s3·A2
siemens square metre per mole S·m2/mol molar conductivity kg-1·s3·mol-1·A2
farad per metre F/m permittivity m-3·kg-1·s4·A2
henry per metre H/m magnetic permeability m·kg·s-2·A-2
volt per metre V/m electric field strength m·kg·s-3·A-1
ampere per metre A/m magnetization, magnetic field strength A·m-1
candela per square metre cd/m2 luminance cd·m-2
lumen second lm·s luminous energy cd·sr·s
lux second lx·s luminous exposure cd·sr·s·m-2
coulomb per kilogram C/kg exposure (X and gamma rays) kg-1·s·A
gray per second Gy/s absorbed dose rate m2·s-3
ohm metre O·m resistivity m3·kg·s-3·A-2
kilogram per metre kg/m linear mass density m-1·kg
coulomb per metre C/m linear charge density m-1·s·A
mole per kilogram mol/kg molality kg-1·mol
kilogram per mole kg/mol molar mass kg·mol-1
metre per cubic metre m/m3 fuel efficiency m-2
kilogram per second kg/s mass flow rate kg·s-1
joule per tesla J/T magnetic dipole moment m2·A
watt per cubic metre W/m3 spectral irradiance, power density m-1·kg·s-3
kelvin per watt K/W thermal resistance m-2·kg-1·s3·K
reciprocal kelvin K-1 thermal expansion coefficient K-1
kelvin per metre K/m temperature gradient m-1·K
square metre per volt second m2/(V·s) electron mobility kg-1·s2·A
joule per square metre second J/(m2·s) energy flux density kg·s-3
reciprocal pascal Pa-1 compressibility m·kg-1·s2
reciprocal henry H-1 magnetic reluctance m-2·kg-1s2·A2
weber per metre Wb/m magnetic vector potential m·kg·s-2·A-1
weber metre Wb·m magnetic moment m3·kg·s-2·A-1
tesla metre T·m magnetic rigidity m·kg·s-2·A-1
joule per square metre J/m2 radiant exposure kg·s-2
cubic metre per mole second m3/(mol·s) catalytic efficiency m3·s-1·mol-1
kilogram square metre kg·m2 moment of inertia m2·kg
newton metre second per kilogram N·m·s/kg specific angular momentum m2·s-1
hertz per second Hz/s frequency drift s-2
lumen per watt lm/W luminous efficacy m-2·kg-1·s3·lm
ampere radian A·rad magnetomotive force A
metre per henry m/H magnetic susceptibility m-1·kg-1·s2·A2
watt per steradian W/sr radiant intensity m2·kg·s-3
watt per steradian metre W/(sr·m) spectral intensity m·kg·s-3
watt per steradian square metre W/(sr·m2) radiance kg·s-3
watt per steradian cubic metre W/(sr·m3) spectral radiance m-1·kg·s-3
watt per metre W/m spectral power m·kg·s-3

Length
What is length?
Length answers the question, "How tall, wide, or far is it?"
A length is a measurement of how long something is in size.

How far is Los Angeles from Istanbul?
Distance from Los Angeles to Istanbul is: 6836.6 Miles
(11002.4 Kilometers / 5936.9 Nautical Miles)
Approximate travel time from Los Angeles, California to Istanbul, Turkey is: 14 hrs, 12 mins

Distance from Los Angeles to Algiers is: 6275.3 Miles
(10099.1 Kilometers / 5449.5 Nautical Miles)
Approximate travel time from Los Angeles, California to Algiers, Algeria is: 13 hrs, 2 mins

Los Angeles coordinates:
latitude: 34° 05' North
longitude: 118° 22' West

Algiers coordinates:
latitude: 36° 42' North
longitude: 3° 13' East

How tall are you without shoes?
I'm 5'11 without shoes

How wide is the Amazon River?
The width of the Amazon River varies from only 1 mile in some places during the dry season to as much as 30 miles in the wet season. The mouth of the Amazon where it meets the Atlantic Ocean is more than 250 miles wide.

What are the units of length measurement?
Units of length measurement are different in the customary system and metric system.

Can units of length measurement in the customary system be converted to units of length measurement in the metric system?
Yes.

What are units of length in the customary system?
Point, pica, inch, foot, yard, mile are the units of length measurement in the customary system.

What are the tools used to measure length?
We know some metric units for measuring length are millimeters, centimeters, meters and kilometers. Millimeters and centimeters are found on a ruler. There is a meter stick that measures 1 meter. A metric tape measure can be used to measure multiple meters.

What can be used to measure length?
An English metric length scale, with the main scale marked in 1/16 inch intervals, may use a Vernier scale with 8 divisions, capable of measuring to (1/8)(1/16) = 1/128 inch. In the instrument called the Vernier caliper a movable jaw slides linearly along the main scale.

What is measurement of distance?
To measure distances in the universe, we will need to construct what is commonly referred to as a "cosmic distance ladder". In other words, astronomers use different methods to determine the distances to objects; the specific method which is used depends on how far away the object is.

What is a laser distance meter?
The Laser Distance Meter is much faster – point, click, and you have the result in front of you on the display. The job is done in just a fraction of the time it would take to use a tape. You don’t need to walk to and fro, or have a helper at the other end. What is more, you can use it with one hand, leaving the other free to hold your notebook.

The laser distance meter is the ideal device for a civil engineer, and any other large scale operations in which distance measurement accuracy is paramount.

Laser Distance Meter (LDM)

Do you measure outside?
Are you using design software?
Are you replacing another measuring tool?
How much time do you spend measuring every week?
Did you have a bad experience with sonic “laser tape” or other cheap product?
What accuracy do you need?
What range do you need?

Laser versus Ultrasonic

What is the metric unit for length?
The metric unit for length is the meter.

Measure of Lengths
10 millimeters (mm) = 1 centimeter (cm)
10 centimeters = 1 decimeter (dm) = 100 millimeters
100 centimeter = 1 meter (m) = 1,000 millimeters
1000 meters = 1 kilometer (km)

How many meters in a mile?
1 Mile = 1609.344 Meters
1 Meter = 0.000621371192 Mile

How many feet in a mile?
1 Mile = 5280 Feet
1 Mile [Nautical] = 6076.12 Feet

How many kilometers in a mile?
1 Mile = 1.609344 Kilometers
Kilometer is a metric length unit and equals to 1000 meters. The abbreviation is "km".

How many inches in a foot?
12 inches

How many feet are there in a yard?
3 feet

What are units of length in the metric system?
Micrometer, millimeter, centimeter, meter, decimeter, and kilometer are the units of length measurement in the metric system.

Length Equipment

What are various length (distance) measuring devices?
There are more than 24 length (distance) measuring devices.
List of length, distance, or range measuring devices
Contact devices
Architect's scale
An architect's scale is a specialized ruler designed to facilitate the drafting and measuring of architectural drawings, such as floor plans and orthographic projections.
Caliper
Engineer's scale
Any scale is called an engineer's scale and is a tool for measuring distances and transferring measurements at a fixed ratio of length. It is commonly made of plastic or aluminum, and is just over 12 inches (305 mm) long, but with only 12 inches of markings, leaving the ends unmarked so that the first and last measuring ticks do not wear off.
Feeler gauge, used in metal working to measure size of gaps
Gauge blocks
Gunter's chain
Micrometer
Opisometer or curvimeter
Pacing (surveying)
Measuring rod
Ruler
A variety of rulers
Stadimeter
Surveyor's wheel
Tape measure
Yard stick
Meter stick
Screw Gauge
Measuring measure
Non-contact devices
Ranging
Based on time-of-flight
Electronic distance meter
Ultrasonic ranging module (sonar, echo sounding)
Radar distance measurement
Laser rangefinder, lidar
Other
Rangefinder
Interferometer
Length measurement
Odometer
Tachymeter
Taximeter, measure usually includes a time component as well
Tellurometer
Macrometer
Travelling microscope
GPS, indirect by runtime measurement of electromagnetic waves in the GHz-range
Hypsometer
See also
Distance measuring equipment (aviation)
Metric scale
Altimeter, height
Here are further guidelines.

Weighing and Batching Systems
Weighing Electronics
Load Cells
Belt Weighing
Weighfeeders
Solids Flowmeters
Process Protection
Communication and Software
Supplementary Components

Aircraft Instruments
Autopilot
How To Use an Autopilot Function
Altimeter
Airspeed Indicator
Vertical Speed (Climb/Descent Rate)
Static Port

An autopilot is a system used to control the trajectory of a vehicle without constant 'hands-on' control by a human operator being required. Autopilots do not replace a human operator, but assist them in controlling the vehicle, allowing them to focus on broader aspects of operation, such as monitoring the trajectory, weather and systems. Autopilots are used in aircraft, boats (known as self-steering gear), spacecraft, missiles, and others. Autopilots have evolved significantly over time, from early autopilots that merely held an attitude to modern autopilots capable of performing automated landings under the supervision of a pilot.
Here are further guidelines.

What is Metrology?

Metrology is the science of measurement. It includes units of measurement and their standards, measuring instruments and their field of application, and all theoretical and practical aspects relating to measurement.
Base units
Derived units and dimensions
Digital Metrology
General Analytical Metrology
    Why the need to Calibrate?
Conversion Factors
Methods of Measurements
Mechatronics
Measurement Systems
Measuring instruments
Metric System
Data Measurement Chart
Systems of Measurement

Area
How big is a hectare?
A hectare is a unit of measurement for an area, specifically representing 10,000 square metres.



A hectare is…
•…equal in area to a square which measures 100m on each side
•…That’s an area of 10,000 square metres
•…or 2.47 acres
•…It could also be represented as 0.01 square km
•…And there are 259 ha in a square mile

How many hectares in a square mile?
1 Square Mile = 258.998811 Hectares



How big is an acre?
An acre equates to the following:
•4046.86 square meters
•4840 square yards
•43,560 square feet
•0.404686 hectares

Here are further guidelines.

Truck scale

Tire Size Total Weight 2 tires - 1 axle Total Weight 4 tires - 1 axle Total Weight 8 tires - tandem axle
10 inches 12,000 lbs. 20,000 lbs. 34,000 lbs.
11 inches 13,200 lbs. 20,000 lbs. 34,000 lbs.
12 inches 14,400 lbs. 20,000 lbs. 34,000 lbs.
How do truck weigh stations work?
A weigh station located near a state border is called a port of entry. States may also locate weigh stations in the interior of the state. Interior weigh stations are often located at choke points or areas where freight originates or is delivered.

Most states collect taxes based on the weight ­of transported goods. Truck weigh stations are­ used for these ta­x purposes as well as to monitor the weight of a truck to ensure that it falls within the safety guidelines that each state has in place for its road system.

While the maximum allowed weight varies, a common standard is 34,000 pounds (15,400 kilograms). Weight is usually calculated in two measurements:

•Axle weight - the amount of weight carried by each axle
•Gross weight - the combined weight of all the axles

Truck scales are built to handle an enormous amount of abuse. For example, Weigh-Tronix provides a truck scale that they warranty to weigh trucks with a gross weight of 80,000 lbs (36,000 kg) each at a rate of 200 per day, 365 days a year for 25 years! Truck scales are built out of steel, concrete or, in most cases, a combination of both. The technology used in the scales themselves varies. Let's take a look at some of the more common forms.

Load-cell systems are the most popular technology used. Each cell is comprised of a durable material such as steel or concrete with one or more strain gauges attached to or embedded in it. A strain gauge consists of a wire (or wires) that transmits a mild electric current. As the cell is subjected to weight, the wire in the strain gauge is altered or compressed slightly. The change in the wire results in a difference in the resistance to the current passing through it. The signal from each cell is sent to a junction box, where sensors measure the variance in the current and calculate the amount of weight the scale is supporting.

The strain gauges in load cells can be either compression or tension based. A compression strain gauge is based on how much the cell compresses when pressure is applied, while a tension strain gauge is based on the slight change in shape of the cell caused by the weight.

A bending-plate system uses metal plates with strain gauges attached to them. As weight is applied to the scale, the plates are subjected to stress. The strain gauge on each plate measures the amount of stress and calculates the load required to cause it. The amounts from each gauge are added together to get the total for that axle.

Piezoelectric systems use a series of piezoelectric sensors. The sensors are embedded in a conducting material. When weight is applied, the pressure changes the voltage of the electrical charge flowing through the conductor. The sensors measure the change in voltage and calculate the load. The amounts from each sensor are added together.

In addition to the different scales used, there are at least three methods of getting the weight of a truck:

•One-axle - The most cumbersome method, a truck gradually drives across a single scale, stopping each time a set of wheels is on the scale. Once all the axles have been weighed, the total is added together.
•One-stop - A series of scales are used so that the entire truck can be weighed at once. The scales are typically connected to a single electronic controller that automatically combines the axle weights to get the gross weight.
•Weigh-in-motion (WIM) - A method that is gaining momentum, WIM uses a series of embedded sensors to calculate the weight per axle as a truck drives over the sensor pad. Unlike the other two methods, there is no need for the truck to come to a complete stop while on the scales. In fact, some WIM systems are installed in highways so that all traffic is monitored at speed.
Truck Regulations
Truck Routes
State Traffic Laws

Measurement - Lessons
Metric and Customary Units.
What is Metrology?
Metrology
Measurement

What is measurement?
What can be measured?
International System of Units (SI)
What is a knot?
What is a nautical mile?
What is a nautical mile, and how does it differ from a normal mile and a kilometer?

Knots and Nautical miles are good old navy terms. The nautical mile was based on the circumference of the earth at the equator. Since the earth is 360 degrees of longitude around, and degrees are broken into 60 so-called "minutes", that means there are 360 * 60 = 21,600 "minutes" of longitude around the earth. This was taken as the basis for the nautical mile; thus, by definition, 1 minute of longitude at the equator is equal to 1 nautical mile. So the earth is ideally, by definition, 21,600 nautical miles (and 21,600 "minutes" of longitude) in circumference at the equator. If anyone ever asks you how far is it around the earth, you can quickly do the math in your head (360 degrees * 60 minutes per degree) and answer "about 21,600 nautical miles!"

In fact, even modern navigators use the "minute of latitude" on charts to measure distance; this is what you see them doing when they use their compass spreaders while they are hovering over their nautical charts (maps). [For geometrical reasons, we use the minute of latitude on charts to correspond to a nautical mile rather than the minute of longitude. Minutes of longitude shrink as they move away from the equator and towards the poles; minutes of latitude do not shrink. Take a look at a globe with longitude and latitude lines marked on it to understand why.]

Using the definition of a nautical mile for distance at sea, the challenge was to measure speed -- i.e. what is the ship's speed in nautical miles per hour? (By the way, the nautical mile is about 1.15 larger than the "statute" mile used by land lubbers.) Since [speed] = [distance] divided by [time], if we measure a small distance (or length) in a small time we can do the math and figure our speed.

The device that sailors used to make their speed measurement was called the "chip log." Chip as in chip of wood, and log as in to record in a log.

What is Density?
How is Density Measured?
How do they get ships made of iron and steel to float?

Density is a property of matter that is unique to each substance. It is a measure of the mass of the substance in a standard unit of volume.

Sometimes density is easy to sense. If two objects have exactly the same size and shape, the denser one may feel heavier. But if their densities are very close together, it will be hard to tell a difference.

It gets really tough if you are dealing with materials that have very different sizes and/or very different shapes.

The only way to decide the density of a substance is to measure its mass and its volume, then divide.

Density = Mass ? Volume

Units for density g/cm3

Mass vs Volume Pre-Test Questions

Name: ____________________________ Period: ___________ Date: ___________ 1. Mass is measured with which instrument listed below?
a. thermometer
b. triple beam balance
c. ruler
d. graduated cylinder

2. What is formula for finding density of an object?
a. volume ? mass
b. mass ? volume
c. volume x mass
d. mass x volume

3. What is a correct unit for volume? a. centimeter 3 b. kilogram 2 c. seconds -1 d. pound

4. Which of the following is a formula for finding volume of an object?
a. density ? mass
b. mass ? density
c. density x mass
d. mass x density
Densities: Balsa: 0.13 g/cm 3 Iron: 7.9 g/cm 3 Gold: 19.3 g/cm 3 Aluminum: 2.7 g/cm 3 Formulas: Sphere: 4/3 x π x radius x radius x radius Cylinder: π x radius x radius x height Cube: length x length x length Cone: 1/3 x π x radius x radius x height

5. Using the information in the charts above, calculate the mass of an aluminum cone with a radius of 2 cm and height of 7 cm.
a. 79.1 grams
b. 277 grams
c. 39.7 grams
d. 712.3 grams

6. Using the information in the charts above, calculate the mass of an gold sphere with a radius of 17 cm.
a. 397 grams
b. 23.2 kilograms
c. 397 kilograms
d. 1.4 kilograms

7. You have 4 spheres all with an equal radius. One is made of iron, one of gold, one of balsa, and one of aluminum. Which sphere is the least massive?
a. iron
b. gold
c. balsa
d. aluminum

8. What is the fewest number of aluminum spheres it would take before their total mass is greater than one gold sphere with the same radius.
a. 2
b. 4
c. 8
d. 16

9. Can two objects with the same volume have different masses?
a. No, objects with the same volume always have the same masses.
b. Yes, objects with the same volume will have different masses if they have different densities.
c. Yes, objects with the same volume will have different masses if they are in different locations (like on the moon) .
d. Yes, objects with the same volume will only have the same mass if they have the same shape.

10. You have an elementary balance with three iron spheres, each with a radius of 1 cm. on one side. The other side of the balance you have an empty container with a mass of 10 grams. What volume of water will need to be added to the container to make the balance level?
a) 99 cm 3 b) 33 cm c) 10 cm 3 d) 89 cm 3

Mass vs Volume Pre-Test Answers
1. B
2. B
3. A
4. B
5. A
6. C
7. C
8. C
9. B
10. D

Mass vs Volume Post Test Questions
Name: ____________________________ Period: ___________ Date: ___________
1. Volume of a box is measured with which instrument listed below?
a. thermometer
b. triple beam balance
c. ruler
d. graduated cylinder

2. What is a correct unit for mass?
a. centimeter
b. kilogram
c. milliliter
d. pound
3. What is a correct unit for density?
a. grams ? cm 3 b. grams x cm 3 c. cm 3 ? grams d. cm 3 x grams

4. Which of the following is a formula for finding the mass of an object?
a. density x volume b. volume x density c. density ? volume d. volume ? density
Densities: Balsa: 0.13 g/cm 3 Iron: 7.9 g/cm 3 Gold: 19.3 g/cm 3 Aluminum: 2.7 g/cm 3 Formulas: Sphere: 4/3 x π x radius x radius x radius Cylinder: π x radius x radius x height Cube: length x length x length Cone: 1/3 x π x radius x radius x height

5. Using the information in the charts above, calculate the mass of a balsa wood cylinder with a radius of 3 cm and height of 0.5 cm.
a. 0.61 grams
b. 1.8 grams
c. 18.4 grams
d. 30.6 grams

6. Using the information in the charts above, calculate the mass of an iron cube with all edges equal to 4 cm.
a. 505.6 grams
b. 126.4 grams
c. 31.6 grams
d. 7.9 grams

7. You have 4 spheres all with an equal radius. One is made of iron, one of gold, one of balsa, and one of aluminum. Which sphere is the most massive?
a. iron
b. gold
c. balsa
d. aluminum

8. You have a gold cube. Which of the following is more massive?
a. A balsa wood cube with triple the gold cube?s edge length.
b. A gold cone with radius that is equal to half of the gold cube?s edge length and a height of twice the gold cube?s edge length
c. An aluminum cube with double the gold cube?s edge length.
d. An iron sphere with a radius of 1.5 times the gold cube?s edge length.

9. Can two objects with the same mass have different volumes?
a. Yes, objects with the same mass will have different volumes if they have different densities.
b. Yes, objects with the same mass will have the volumes if they are in different locations (like on the moon).
c. No, objects with the same mass always have the same volumes.
d. Yes, objects with the same mass will only have the same volume if they have the same shape.

10. You have an elementary balance with two gold cubes in one pan and three gold cubes on the other. All five gold cubes have an edge length of 2 cm. On the side of the balance with the two gold cubes, there is an aluminum object. What must the volume of the aluminum object be in order to keep the balance level?
a) 154.4 cm 3 b) 308.8 cm 3 c) 463.2 cm 3 d) 57.185 cm 3

Mass vs Volume Post Test Answers
1. C
2. B
3. A
4. A
5. B
6. A
7. B
8. C
9. A
10. D

How many micrograms (?g, ug or mcg) in a milligram (mg)?

1000 micrograms = 1 milligram, and 1000 milligrams = 1 gram.

How can I convert from international units (IU) to milligrams or micrograms?
Math in the News.

How is math used in everyday news reports on television, in newspapers, and in magazines? Follow a particular news program and/or section of the newspaper for several days. Record how numbers are used in reporting. What kinds of math are referred to the most? Which stories generate the most mathematical analysis? Choose a story that uses math and follow it. Do your own mathematical analysis to share with the class.

Time. How did we come to use the system of time that we use today? Does everyone measure time the same way? What are different units of time? How were modern (analog and digital) clocks invented? Include a historical discussion of time and culture.

Describe your project idea.

* Relevance: What is the purpose of your project? Why is your type of project important or special to you?

* Content: What subject topics will you incorporate into your project? Please be as specific as possible.

* Methods: How do you plan to develop and/or explore the content through working on your project? How do you plan to incorporate different methods of representation (symbolic, numerical, graphical, and verbal) into your project? State your plan for each.

* Organization: How will the content be organized within the project? Also, for group projects, how will you organize the work to be divided equally among group members?

* Discourse: How do you plan to share your project with the class? Also, how will you use critique on your project presentations to help guide you through revision and subsequent presentations?

* Challenge: What do you think will be the biggest difficulty you will encounter in completing this project? How do you plan to meet that challenge?

* What resources will you use for research?
* What do you hope to learn through this project?
* What other questions, comments, concerns, and/or suggestions do you have?
Progress Presentation Outline

Progress Presentations should be short (5 minutes maximum).

* Explain your project

o What project did you do? What mathematics did you use?
o Briefly share what you have done symbolically, numerically, graphically, and verbally.
o Share what you learned from the Internet.
o Share your plans for your Display Board

* What?s next?
o What do you have left to complete?
o Who is responsible for finishing each part?

Relevance: Is this project interesting and/or meaningful?
Content: Does the project include the appropriate information accurately?
Methods: Does the project exhibit mathematical and/or scientific thinking?
- Does the project clearly demonstrate their understanding SYMBOLICALLY?
- Does the project clearly demonstrate their understanding NUMERICALLY?
- Does the project clearly demonstrate their understanding GRAPHICALLY?
- Does the project clearly demonstrate their understanding VERBALLY?
Organization: Is the project exhibited in a clear, well-organized format?

Discourse: Does the project incite discussion to promote learning?
Challenge: Is this project challenging for the author(s)?

Please take notes summarizing the discussion following the presentation.
Remember that this is to help the presenters improve their project.
Continue your notes on the back if necessary.

Name: ___________________________________

Question/Comment:

_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

Q. What is Industrial Mathematics?
Q. What Kind of Problems do IMS Professionals Work On?
The problems that applied mathematicians work on are very diverse. Some of the problems that applied mathematicians and statisticians in industry have faced and solved include:

Aerospace

Q. What should be the dimensions of an aircraft manufacturing industrial estate plant with the following capacity?
Aircraft for 800 passengers
Wing span
115.02 m (or ft-in)
Length
105.22 m (or ft-in)
Jets of two types, single- and two-storied Jumbo

Q. How should an airline set ticket prices to ensure maximum revenue while allowing for no-shows and the aggravation and expense of overbooking?

Automotive

Tractor

Q. What should be the dimensions of a plant with production capacity of 120 units per month?
Q. An automobile production plant is falling far short of the capacity for which it was designed. Why?

Conversion Factors
To change To Multiply by
acres hectares .4047
acres square feet 43,560
acres square miles .001562
atmospheres cms. of mercury 76
Btu/hour horsepower .0003930
Btu kilowatt-hour .0002931
Btu/hour watts .2931
bushels cubic inches 2150.4
centimeters inches .3937
centimeters feet .03281
cubic feet cubic meters .0283
cubic meters cubic feet 35.3145
cubic meters cubic yards 1.3079
cubic yards cubic meters .7646
degrees radians .01745
dynes grams .00102
fathoms feet 6.0
feet meters .3048
feet miles (nautical) .0001645
feet miles (statute) .0001894
feet/second miles/hour .6818
furlongs feet 660.0
furlongs miles .125
gallons liters 3.7853
grains grams .0648
grams grains 15.4324
grams ounces (avdp) .0353
grams pounds .002205
hectares acres 2.4710
hectoliters bushels 2.8378
horsepower watts 745.7
horsepower Btu/hour 2,547
hours days .04167
inches millimeters 25.4000
inches centimeters 2.5400
kilograms pounds (avdp or troy) 2.2046
kilometers miles .6214
kilowatt-hour Btu 3412
knots nautical miles/hour 1.0
knots statute miles/hour 1.151
liters gallons .2642
liters pecks .1135
liters pints (dry) 1.8162
liters pints (liquid) 2.1134
liters quarts (dry) .9081
liters quarts (liquid) 1.0567
meters feet 3.2808
meters miles .0006214
meters yards 1.0936
metric tons tons (long) .9842
metric tons tons (short) 1.1023
miles kilometers 1.6093
miles feet 5280
miles (nautical) miles (statute) 1.1516
miles (statute) miles (nautical) .8684
miles/hour feet/minute 88
millimeters inches .0394
ounces (avdp) grams 28.3495
ounces pounds .0625
ounces (troy) ounces (avdp) 1.09714
pecks liters 8.8096
pints (dry) liters .5506
pints (liquid) liters .4732
pounds (ap or troy) kilograms .3732
pounds (avdp) kilograms .4536
pounds ounces 16
quarts (dry) liters 1.1012
quarts (liquid) liters .9463
radians degrees 57.30
rods meters 5.029
rods feet 16.5
square feet square meters .0929
square kilometers square miles .3861
square meters square feet 10.7639
square meters square yards 1.1960
square miles square kilometers 2.5900
square yards square meters .8361
tons (long) metric tons 1.016
tons (short) metric tons .9072
tons (long) pounds 2240
tons (short) pounds 2000
watts Btu/hour 3.4121
watts horsepower .001341
yards meters .9144
yards miles .0005682
Yard
Inches
Tablespoon
Cup (unit)
Pint
Quart
Gallon
Ounce
Pound (mass)
Tablespoon

This tablespoon has a capacity of about 15 ml.


Cup (unit)
1 cup = 250 millilitres
1 kg = 2.2046226218 pounds
1 kg = 2.2046226218 lbs

Measurement Instruments Images

Advanced Multi-Channel
Temperature Measuring Instruments

Distance
What is Distance?
Distance is a numerical description of how far apart objects are.

What is the difference between a nautical mile and a knot?
A nautical mile measures distance and a knot measures speed.

What is a nautical mile, and how does it differ from a normal mile and a kilometer?
A nautical mile is based on the circumference of the planet Earth. If you were to cut the Earth in half at the equator, you could pick up one of the halves and look at the equator as a circle. You could divide that circle into 360 degrees. You could then divide a degree into 60 minutes. A minute of arc on the planet Earth is 1 nautical mile.

What is a knot? What is a nautical mile?
Knots and Nautical miles are good old navy terms.

A rough average:
1 mile = 2,000 steps.
1 km = 1,250 steps.

10,000 steps = 5 miles.

Mile

1 Mile = 5280 Feet
1 Mile [Nautical] = 6076.12 Feet
Measurement unit: miles
Full name: mile
Plural form: miles
Symbol: mi
Category type: length
Scale factor: 1609.344
Definition: Mile
A mile is any of several units of distance, or, in physics terminology, of length. Today, one mile is mainly equal to about 1609 m on land and 1852 m at sea and in the air, but see below for the details. The abbreviation for mile is 'mi'. There are more specific definitions of 'mile' such as the metric mile, statute mile, nautical mile, and survey mile. On this site, we assume that if you only specify 'mile' you want the statute mile.
Distance Calculator
Distance Calculator – How far is it?
The distance is calculated in kilometers, miles and nautical miles, and the initial compass bearing/heading from the origin to the destination. It will also display local time in each of the locations.
Aptitude :: Time and Distance
How many miles in 1 km?
The answer is 0.621371192237.

1. A person crosses a 600 m long street in 5 minutes. What is his speed in km per hour?
A. 3.6
B. 7.2
C. 8.4
D. 10
A person crosses a 600 m long street in 5 minutes. What is his speed in km per hour?
A. 3.6 B. 7.2
C. 8.4 D. 10
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option B
Explanation:
Speed = 600 m/sec.
----- 5 x 60
= 2 m/sec.
Converting m/sec to km/hr (see important formulas section)
= 2 x 18 km/hr
--- 5
= 7.2 km/hr.

2. An aeroplane covers a certain distance at a speed of 240 kmph in 5 hours. To cover the same distance in 1 hours, it must travel at a speed of:
A. 300 kmph
B. 360 kmph
C. 600 kmph
D. 720 kmph
Answer: Option D
Explanation:
Distance = (240 x 5) = 1200 km.
Speed = Distance/Time
Speed = 1200/(5/3) km/hr. [We can write 1(2/3) hours as 5/3 hours]
Required speed = (1200 x 3/5) km/hr = 720 km/hr.

3. If a person walks at 14 km/hr instead of 10 km/hr, he would have walked 20 km more. The actual distance travelled by him is:
A. 50 km
B. 56 km
C. 70 km
D. 80 km
Answer: Option C
Explanation:
Let speed of the car be x kmph.
Then, speed of the train = 150 x = 3/2 x kmph.
---- 100
75 - 75 = 125
x (3/2)x 10 x 60
75 - 50 = 5
x x 24
x = 25 x24 = 120 kmph.
------ 5

5. Excluding stoppages, the speed of a bus is 54 kmph and including stoppages, it is 45 kmph. For how many minutes does the bus stop per hour?
A. 9
B. 10
C. 12
D. 20
Answer: Option B
Explanation:
Due to stoppages, it covers 9 km less.

Time taken to cover 9 km = 9 x 60 min = 10 min. 54

Displacement
Displacement (like distance above) is also a measure of how far an object has travelled from its starting point but displacement also tells you the direction of the object. Distance is a scalar and displacement is a vector.

Speed
What is Speed?
Speed is a measure of how fast an object is moving.

Speed = Distance ÷ Time.

What is the Difference between Velocity and Speed?
The difference between velocity and speed is that
velocity is speed in a certain direction.
Speed is a scalar and velocity is a vector.

What is Acceleration?
A change in velocity is called acceleration.

What is the Equation for Acceleration?
Acceleration = Change in Velocity ÷ Time.

What are the Units of Acceleration?
The units of acceleration are m/s2
called "metres per second squared".

What is Negative Acceleration?
If an object gets faster, it will have a positive acceleration.
If an object gets slower, it will have a negative acceleration (this is sometimes called "deceleration" but the term "negative acceleration" is preferred).

Different Types of Mechanical Measuring Tools and Gauges Used on Ships
Machinery onboard ships require regular care and maintenance so that their working life and efficiency can be increased, and the cost of operation, which includes unnecessary breakdowns and spares, can be reduced. For different types of machinery and systems, different measuring tools, instruments and gauges are used on ship.

Measuring instruments and gauges are used to measure various parameters such as clearance, diameter, depth, ovality, trueness etc. These are important engineering parameters which describes the condition of the working machinery.
Popular mechanical gauges and tools used on ships are:
Ruler and scales: They are used to measure lengths and other geometrical parameters. They can be single steel plate or flexible tape type tool.
Callipers: They are normally of two types- inside and outside calliper. They are used to measure internal and external size (for e.g. diameter) of an object. It requires external scale to compare the measured value. Some callipers are provided with measuring scale. Other types are odd leg and divider calliper.
Vernire calliper: It is a precision tool used to measure a small distance with high accuracy. It has got two different jaws to measure outside and inside dimension of an object.It can be a scale, dial or digital type vernire calliper.
Micrometer: It is a fine precision tool which is used to measure small distances and is more accurate than the venire calliper. Another type is a large micrometer calliper which is used to measure large outside diameter or distance.
Feeler gauge: Feelers gauges are a bunch of fine thickened steel strips with marked thickness which are used to measure gap width or clearance between surface and bearings.
Telescopic feeler gauge: It is also known as tongue gauge and it consists of long feeler gauge inside a cover with tongue or curved edge. The long feeler strips protrude out of the cover so that it can be inserted in to remote places where feeler gauge access is not possible.
Poker gauge: This gauge is used to measure propeller stern shaft clearance, also known as propeller wear down.
Bridge gauge: Bridge gauges are used to measure the amount of wear of Main engine bearing. Normally the upper bearing keep is removed and clearance is measured with respect to journal. Feeler gauge can be used to complete the process.
Liner measurement tool: Liner measurement tool is a set of straight assembled rod with marked length in each set. It is used to measure the wear down or increase in the diameter of the engine liner.
American Wire Gauge: American wire gauge or AWG is a standard tool which is circular in shape and has various slots of different diameter in its circumference. It is used to measure cross section of an electric cable or wire.
Bore Gauge: A tool to accurately measure size of any hole is known as bore gauge, It can be a scale, dial or digital type instrument.
Depth gauge: A depth gauge is used to measure the depth of a slot, hole or any other surface of an object. It can be of scale, dial or digital type.
Angle plate or tool: It is a right angle plate or tool used to measure the true right angle of two objects joined together.
Flat plate: Flat plate is a précised flat surface used to measure flatness of an object when it is kept over the flat plate.
Dial Gauge: Dial gauge is utilised in different tools as stated above and can be separately used to measure the trueness of the circular object, jumping of an object etc.
Lead Wire: It is a conventional method to used soft lead wire or lead balls to measure the wear down or clearance between two mating surfaces. The lead wire or balls of fixed dimension is kept between two surfaces and both are tightened against each just as in normal condition. The increase in the width of the lead wire or ball will shoe the clearance or wear down.
These are some of the main tools that are used onboard ship. If you feel we have missed any important tool, then let us know and we will add it in the list.

To understand measuring instruments, one must first understand what units are. As mentioned earlier, units are values given to measurements that make them usable across the world.

Tape measure
A tape measure or measuring tape is a flexible ruler. It consists of a ribbon of cloth, plastic, fiber glass, or metal strip with linear-measurement markings.

Surveyors use tape measures in lengths of over 100 m (300+ ft).



Self-retracting tape measure (imperial)



Diagram showing fractions of an inch on a standard sixteenth measuring tape



Uses

Tape measures that were intended for use in tailoring or dressmaking were made from flexible cloth or plastic.These types of tape measures were mainly used for the measuring of the human's waist line. Today, measuring tapes made for sewing are made of fiberglass, which does not tear or stretch as easily. Measuring tapes designed for carpentry or construction often use a stiff, curved metallic ribbon that can remain stiff and straight when extended, but retracts into a coil for convenient storage. This type of tape measure will have a floating tang or hook on the end to aid measuring. The tang is connected to the tape with loose rivets through oval holes, and can move a distance equal to its thickness, to provide both inside and outside measurements that are accurate. A tape measure of 25 or even 100 feet can wind into a relatively small container. The self-marking tape measure allows the user an accurate one hand measure.

Tape measures can measure length from millimeters to centimeter to inches to feet to yards and to meters. They are different but similar to a Ruler. Tape measures can be used in many different occupations such as Remodeling and they make their jobs easier and more accurate. Their are proper techniques to using tape measures. Do not retract the tape measure too rapidly or it could damage the tape measure or cut your finger. Also to keep a tape measure in prestige condition you should keep it dry at all times and never leave it out in the rain.

Ruler

A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is an instrument used in geometry, technical drawing, printing, engineering and building to measure distances or to rule straight lines. The ruler is a straightedge which may also contain calibrated lines to measure distances.


A variety of rulers


A 2-meter carpenter's rule

Metric Conversion Chart

Metric Conversion Chart

English to Metric

English                                      Metric

Inches (in)                x            2.54 = centimeters
Feet (ft)                  x              .3 = meters
Yards (yd)                 x              .9 = meters
Miles (mi)                 x             1.6 = kilometers
Square inches (in2)        x             6.5 = square centimeters
Square feet (ft2)          x              .1 = square meters
Square yards (yd2)         x              .8 = square meters
Acres                      x              .4 = hectares
Cubic feet (ft3)           x             .03 = cubic meters
Cords (cd)                 x             3.6 = cubic meters
Quarts (lq) (qt)           x              .9 = liters
Gallons (gal)              x            .004 = liters
Ounces (avdp) (oz)         x            28.4 = grams
Pounds (avdp) (lb)         x              .5 = kilograms
Horsepower (hp)            x              .7 = kilowatts

Metric to English

Metric                                         English

Centimeters (cm)           x             .39 = inches
Meters (m)                 x             3.3 = feet
Meters (m)                 x             1.1 = yards
Kilometers (km)            x              .6 = miles
Sq. centimeters (cm2)      x              .2 = square inches
Square meters (m2)         x            10.8 = square feet
Square meters (m2)         x             1.2 = square yards
Hectares (ha)              x             2.5 = acres
Cubic meters (m3)          x            35.3 = cubic feet
Liters (l)                 x             1.1 = quarts (lq)
Cubic meters (m3)          x           284.2 = gallons
Grams (g)                  x             .04 = ounces (avdp)
Kilograms (kg)             x             2.2 = pounds (avdp)
Kilowatts (kW)             x             1.3 = horsepower

Units of Length and Measure

Length

12 inches ........................ 1 foot
36 inches or 3 feet .............. 1 yard
1760 yards or 5280 feet .......... 1 mile

Liquid Measure

8 ounces ........................................ 1 cup
16 ounces or 2 cups ............................. 1 pint
32 ounces or 4 cups or 2 pints .................. 1 quart
64 ounces or 4 pints or 2 quarts ................ 1/2 gallon
128 ounces or 16 cups or 8 pints or 4 quarts .... 1 gallon

Temperature Conversions

From Fahrenheit to Centigrade

To convert from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Centigrade, subtract 32 degrees from the temperature and multiply by 5/9:

Fahrenheit0102030405060708090100
Centigrade-18-12-7-14101621273238

From Centigrade to Fahrenheit

To convert from degrees Centigrade to degrees Fahrenheit, multiply the temperature by 1.8 and add 32 degrees:

Centigrade-10-50510152025303540
Fahrenheit14233241505968778695104



How To Understand Your Blood Tests & Biochemistry
Blood Components
Blood Tests A to Z
Low or high medical lab results
Do you understand your blood results?
Why do doctors need to know what's in your blood?
Why the blood test is being carried out?
What the blood test is looking for?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/BloodSerumChemistryNormalValues.pdf


There are hundreds of different blood tests carried out - some for general tests others are more specialised.


A test tube sample showing the different components of human blood.

Human blood - the basic compilation

The blood has two main components:
1.plasma
2.blood cells.

This texture allows substances such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, enzymes and other products to be carried to all organs, tissues and cells of the body. •Plasma is made up of approximately 91-92% water. The other 8% consists of blood plasma proteins and traces of other elements. Not only does the plasma transport blood cells but it also acts as a conductor of heat. Plasma is not a clear liquid but is more straw coloured.

•Within the blood there are three kinds of blood cells - red cells, white cells and platelets.

•Red blood cells, (RBC) account for approximately 99% of all the blood cell categories. The scientific name for a red blood cell is - erythrocyte

•The red colouring comes from haemoglobin. This is a red pigment that carries oxygen in the blood.

•White blood cells, (WBC), fight disease and infections within the body by producing anti-bodies that destroy harmful organisms.

•Platelets form clots when there is injury in order to prevent blood loss from the body. However, if clots develop inside the body for some reason - due to disease for example - then the clots are called a thrombosis and can be dangerous.


A modern laboratory showing the machines that analyse all the components of human blood.

Low or high medical lab results
Guidelines on Professional Training.
Guidelines on Continuous Professional Training.

What should a physician do if low or high medical lab results are reported?
Do not panic.
Analyze and interpret results in a reasonable scientific manner.
Correlate with medical history and clinical findings.
Start with normal value ranges.
Consider blood collection error, storage error, lab error, life style changes like diet and exercise, medications, and other reasons.
Last of all, interpret low to high value medical lab results with any specific diagnosis after evaluating all of the above reasons.

Answer relevant questions.

What standard of human blood serum chemistry normal values do you follow?

What standard of human blood serum chemistry normal values do I follow?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/BloodSerumChemistryNormalValues.pdf

What are the sources of these human blood serum chemistry normal values?
Food and Drug Administration
10903 New Hampshire Avenue
Silver Spring, MD 20993


Primary care physician training program

What is the difference between a primary care physician training program and a primary care physician on duty at a location?
Establishing a training program for primary care physicians and working at a specific location 9-5 as a primary care physician are two different services.

Medical Records Technician Training
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/medicalrecordsandhealthInformationtechnician.html

Medical Assistant
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/medicalassistant.html

Medical Laboratory Technician
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/medicallaboratorytechnician.html

Biochemistry lab errors verification

What are the most common reasons lab values of biochemistry result are low or high?
Improperly collected blood samples.
Improper tube in which human blood was collected.
Improper storage of blood samples.
Wrong machine analysis or sample.
Transient low or high values caused by lifestyle, like diet, exercise, medication, other reasons.
At the end, you should consider other medical reasons.

How do you collect samples for human blood chemistry analysis?
How many tubes and types of tubes do you utilize in collecting samples for biochemistry analysis?
How do you verify that the biochemistry lab is not giving any errors?
Where do you forward the blood samples for biochemistry analysis?
What types of machines in biochemistry do analysis of human blood samples?


Low or high medical lab results
Here are further guidelines.


Trash Bag Sizes

Household Essentials
Plastic
Trash Bags
13 Gallon Trash Bags
Metrology
Metrology
What is Metrology?
Alphabetical Listing
Data Measurement Chart

Length
Length Conversion
What is length?

Length Conversion


1 mile = 5 280 feet
1 mile = 1.609 344 kilometer
1 mile = 160 934.4 centimeter
1 mile = 63 360 inch
1 mile = 1 609.344 meter
1 mile = 1 609 344 millimeter
1 mile = 1 760 yard

1 meter = 100 centimeter
1 meter = 3.280 839 895 feet
1 meter = 39.370 078 74 inch
1 meter = 0.001 kilometer
1 meter = 0.000 621 371 mile
1 meter = 1 000 millimeter
1 meter = 1.093 613 298 yard

1 kilometer = 100 000 centimeter
1 kilometer = 3 280.839 895 013 feet
1 kilometer = 39 370.078 740 157 inch
1 kilometer = 1 000 meter
1 kilometer = 0.621 371 192 mile
1 kilometer = 1 000 000 millimeter
1 kilometer = 1 093.613 298 338 yard

1 yard = 3 feet
1 yard = 36 inch
1 yard = 91.44 centimeter
1 yard = 0.000 914 4 kilometer
1 yard = 0.914 4 meter
1 yard = 0.000 568 182 mile
1 yard = 914.4 millimeter

1 feet = 30.48 centimeter
1 feet = 12 inch
1 feet = 0.000 304 8 kilometer
1 feet = 0.304 8 meter
1 feet = 0.000 189 394 mile
1 feet = 304.8 millimeter
1 feet = 0.333 333 333 yard

A kilometer is 1000 meters
A hectometer is 100 meters
A decameter is 10 meters
A decimeter is 1/10 meter
A centimeter is 1/100 meter
A millimeter is 1/1000 meter
1 Centimeter = .3937 inches
1 Centimeter = .032808 feet
1 Foot = 12 inches
1 Foot = 0.3048006 meter
1 Inch = .0254 meter
1 Kilometer = 3280.83 feet
1 Kilometer = .62 mile
1 Knot = 6080.2 feet
1 Meter = 3.280833 feet
1 Meter = 39.37 inches
1 meter (m) = 1000 millimeters (mm)
1 yard = 3 feet
1 meter (m) = 100 centimeters (cm)
1 yard = 36 inches
1 meter (m) = 10 decimeters (dm)
1 league [nautical] = 3.452 338 344 mile 1 mile = 5,280 feet
10 meters (m) = 1 dekameter (dam)
100 meters (m) = 1 hectometer (hm)
1000 meters (m) = 1 kilometer (km)
1 Mile = 5,280 feet
1 Mile = 1.60935 kilometers
1 Mile = 1,609.2655 meters
1 inch = 2.54 cm
1 cm = 0.4 inch
1 yard = .914 m 1 m = 3.28 ft.
1 mile(mi) = 1.61 km
1 km = 3281 ft.
1 km = 1093 yd.
Kilometer (km) = 1,000 Meters
Hectometer (hm) = 100 Meters
Dekameter (dam) = 10 Meters
Meter (m) =1 Meter
Decimeter (dm) = 0.1 Meter
Centimeter (cm) = 0.01 Meters
Millimeter (mm) = 0.001 Meters

Distance Calculator – How far is it?

How many miles is it from New York to Los Angeles?
How far is it to Los Angeles California?
How many miles is it from Atlanta to Los Angeles?

How Far is it From the East Coast to the West Coast?
2,092 miles is the shortest distance from the East Coast to the West Coast.
The widest distance 2,800 miles. However, the distance between the two coasts varies depending on specific locations.

Distance Measuring Instruments
Here are further guidelines.

Miles to Kilometers conversion
How many miles are in a kilometer?
How do you convert kilometers to miles?
How many kilometers are in miles per hour?

Conversion Table

from to from to from to from to
1 1.609344 26 41.842944 51 82.076544 76 122.310144
2 3.218688 27 43.452288 52 83.685888 77 123.919488
3 4.828032 28 45.061632 53 85.295232 78 125.528832
4 6.437376 29 46.670976 54 86.904576 79 127.138176
5 8.04672 30 48.28032 55 88.51392 80 128.74752
6 9.656064 31 49.889664 56 90.123264 81 130.356864
7 11.265408 32 51.499008 57 91.732608 82 131.966208
8 12.874752 33 53.108352 58 93.341952 83 133.575552
9 14.484096 34 54.717696 59 94.951296 84 135.184896
10 16.09344 35 56.32704 60 96.56064 85 136.79424
11 17.702784 36 57.936384 61 98.169984 86 138.403584
12 19.312128 37 59.545728 62 99.779328 87 140.012928
13 20.921472 38 61.155072 63 101.388672 88 141.622272
14 22.530816 39 62.764416 64 102.998016 89 143.231616
15 24.14016 40 64.37376 65 104.60736 90 144.84096
16 25.749504 41 65.983104 66 106.216704 100 160.9344
17 27.358848 42 67.592448 67 107.826048 125 201.168
18 28.968192 43 69.201792 68 109.435392 150 241.4016
19 30.577536 44 70.811136 69 111.044736 175 281.6352
20 32.18688 45 72.42048 70 112.65408 200 321.8688
21 33.796224 46 74.029824 71 114.263424 250 402.336
22 35.405568 47 75.639168 72 115.872768 300 482.8032
23 37.014912 48 77.248512 73 117.482112 500 804.672
24 38.624256 49 78.857856 74 119.091456 750 1207.008
25 40.2336 50 80.4672 75 120.7008 1000 1609.344

Weight
Weight and mass
How much does one metric ton weigh?
A metric ton weighs 1,000 kilograms.
100 kilograms = 1 quintal = 220.46 pounds

How many grams in a kilogram?
1 Kilogram = 1000 Grams

How many pounds equal a ton?
There are 2,000 pounds in one ton.
1 Short Ton [North America] = 2 000 Pounds
1 Long Ton [England] = 2 240 Pounds
1 Metric Ton = 2 204.62262 Pounds

How many pounds in a kilogram?
1 Kilogram = 2.20462262 Pounds

How many ounces in a kilogram?
1 Kilogram = 35.2739619 Ounces

How many ounces in a pound?
1 Pound = 16 Ounces
1 Troy Pound = 12 Troy Ounces

What is the difference between mass and weight?
What is mass?
What is weight?
What is mass?
Mass is a scientific measure of the amount of matter an object is made up of. No matter where you are at given moment in time, mass is constant. So, whether you're walking to the shop to stock up on groceries or bouncing around on the moon, your mass is the same. Obviously, if you're on a diet that's not the answer you want to hear but don't panic - we'll get to the all-important definition of weight shortly.

Some other key points about mass

1.Mass is indestructible. As you've seen above, no matter where you are in the universe your mass will never change
2.Mass can never be zero. What we mean by this is that everything in the universe has mass. If it didn't it simply wouldn't exist
3.Mass is not related to gravity, centrifugal force, etc and these forces have no effect whatsoever on your mass
4.Mass is commonly measured in kilograms and grams.

Hopefully, the descriptions above have given you a good idea of what mass really is. Don't fall into the trap of thinking that this unit of measure is not important - it is. After all, without the huge mass that makes up planet Earth we'd have no gravity.

What is weight?
Weight is a form of measurement that is dependent on gravity and, unlike mass, your weight can vary depending on where you are in the universe.

But how can weight vary whilst mass has to remain constant? It's fairly simple: weight is a variable i.e. it can change based on the amount of gravitational pull an object exerts on a body. Scientists have defined weight using this equation:

Formula: Weight (W) = Mass (M) multiplied by gravitational acceleration (g). (W = mg)

Some key points about weight

1.The weight of an object changes based on where it is. If you've decided to visit the moon to test out this theory then you'll find that, in a matter of hours, you will have slashed your weight by two thirds (in your face, Slimming World!)
2.Weight is a vector and its direction of pull is towards the centre of the planet you're stood on. What? Sorry, I did promise layman's terms: gravity, which is created by the mass of an object, moves towards the centre of the object and it is gravity that determines your, or any other object's, weight.
3.The weight of any given object can go up or down depending on the amount of gravity acting on it. More gravity - the heavier the object. Less gravity - the lighter the object.
4.Unlike mass, weight can be zero. An example of this is an astronaut floating in space - there's no gravity acting on his body and, therefore, he has no weight.
5.Weight is commonly measured in Newtons.

Mass and weight example - the moon

In the below example, we've featured an astronaut on earth and on the moon. The Moon's gravity is much less than the Earth's gravity - approximately one sixth. So, a 100 kg astronaut weighs 980N on Earth. On the Moon, the astronaut would weigh only 162.2N. However, the astronaut's mass is 100kg where-ever they are.

Weight on Earth: 100kg x 9.8m/s2 = 980N.
Weight on Moon: 100kg x 1.622 m/s2 = 162.2N.


Mass and Weight Converter

Use this mass & weight converter to convert instantly between pounds, ounces, kilograms, grams, stones, tonnes and other metric and imperial weight units.

Items as small as an atom to as large as a train, as unusual as a bowling ball to as common as an egg, all at one time or other need to be weighed

What objects weigh 1 kilogram?
An unabridged dictionary, a medium cantaloupe and a bottle of wine all weigh approximately 1 kilogram. Other 1-kilogram objects include a liter of water, a pineapple and a small laptop.

Kilograms are part of the metric system, which is the standard of measurement in most of the world. Other common mass measures in the metric system are grams and tonnes, which are also known as metric tons. Some examples of 1 gram objects are a paper clip and a coat button. One thousand grams are equivalent to 1 kilogram. A large motorcycle has a mass of approximately 250 kilograms. Tonnes differ from tons and short tons, which are units of weight based on the pound.

One kilogram is equal to about 2.2 pounds. Although both kilograms and pounds are measured with a scale, kilograms are a measure of mass, or the amount of matter in an object. Pounds are a measure of weight, which is the force of gravity on an object. The mass of an object does not change, while weight is affected by fluctuations in gravity. A 1 kg object on Earth has the same mass but a different weight if it is taken to the Moon.

What are examples of things that weigh an ounce?
Examples of items weighing an ounce include a slice of bread, about five quarters, approximately three and a half French fries and a matchbox-sized cube of cheese. Objects that weigh an ounce are fairly light, weighing in at just one-sixteenth of a pound.

The term ounce may be used to describe both weight, which is also called mass, or volume. When used to describe volume, the term fluid ounce is often used. A fluid ounce is equal to one-eighth of a cup. These terms are both used to describe food portions, so it's very important to pay attention to which measurement is being used.

How much does Earth weigh and how is this measured?
Earth weighs about 13,170,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 pounds (or 5,974,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kilograms). Since Earth is too big to be placed on a scale, scientists use mathematics and the laws of gravity to figure out Earth's weight.

How do we weigh objects in space?
There is a simple answer to your question: we don't, because in space where there is no gravity objects weigh nothing! We have to be careful about definitions. The weight of an object is a force. It is the force with which a body is attracted toward Earth or another celestial body. This means that when you are in space, away from Earth, objects do not weight anything since they do not feel gravitational attraction to the Earth.

What objects have though in space is mass. This is because mass is defined as the amount of material an object contains, and that doesn't change whether the object is on Earth, on the Moon, or anywhere in space.

Now, weight and mass are linked in the following way: the weight is obtained by multiplying the mass by the value of the gravitational acceleration. That means that for an object of a given mass, the stronger the gravitational attraction, the larger its weight (this is why objects weigh 6 times more on Earth than on the Moon, and weigh nothing in empty space). On Earth we know the value of the gravitational attraction, so a measure of the weight (which is what a regular scale measures) gives us directly the mass. This is why in the common language weight and mass are often confused. But it space it makes a big difference. Objects can have a large mass, but weigh nothing.

So how do we measure mass in space? On Earth we only have to weigh the object and divide by the gravitational acceleration, but this obviously doesn't work in space. To measure mass in space, we have to use another kind of scale, which is called an inertial balance. An inertial balance is made of a spring on which you attach the object whose mass you're interested in. The object is therefore free to vibrate, and for a given stiffness of the spring the frequency of the vibrations enables the scientists to calculate the mass.

This is how you would get the mass of objects in a space shuttle, or something like it. But there are other objects in space that astronomers are very interested in knowing their masses: stars and galaxies. The way to get the mass of these objects is to look at the gravitational interaction with other objects nearby. For example, if you have two stars orbiting one another and you know the distance between them and how long it takes for one to go around the other, you can calculate the mass of the stars. Similar tricks apply to measure the mass of galaxies, for example by measuring how fast they rotate.

How do we weigh planets?
How much does Earth weigh and how is this measured?
How do we weigh objects in space?
Here are further guidelines.
Quintals Kilograms
1100
2200
3300
4400
5500
6600
7700
8800
9900
101000
151500
202000
252500
303000
353500
404000
454500
505000
606000
707000
808000
909000
10010000
15015000
20020000
25025000
50050000
1000100000
Kilograms Quintals
1001
2002
3003
4004
5005
6006
7007
8008
9009
100010
150015
200020
250025
300030
350035
400040
450045
500050
600060
700070
800080
900090
10000100
15000150
20000200
25000250
50000500
1000001000
Weight
  • Weight and mass

  • Evolution of Weighing Devices
    Here are further guidelines.

    Weights Types and Purposes
    What objects weigh 1 kilogram?
    What are examples of things that weigh an ounce?
    How do we weigh planets?
    How much does Earth weigh and how is this measured?
    How do we weigh objects in space?
    How much does Earth weigh and how is this measured?
    How do we weigh objects in space?
    Here are further guidelines.

    Scale Types
    Equal-Arm Beam Scales
    1. English coin scale, c1770
    2. Office letter scale by DeGrave & Co, London, c1890
    3. Money scale by S. Henry, London, c1774 for weighing the guinea, half and quarter
    4. Money scale by unknown British maker, c1780
    5. Money scale by John Pickett of Marlborough, c1780, for weighing the guinea and half
    6. Letter scale by unknown maker, c1880
    7. Hydrostatical money scale by Charles & Luke Proctor, Sheffield, England, c1780
    8. Bread scale by Davis & Southerton Ltd, Walsall, England, c1916
    9. Shop scale by W. & T. Avery Ltd, Birmingham, England, c1880
    10. Ducat scale by unknown maker, Nuremberg, 18th century
    11. Jockey scale by W. & T. Avery Ltd, Birmingham, England, 1898
    12. Precision balance by Paul Bunge of Hamburg, Germany, 1923
    13. Apothecary scale by Doyle & Son, London, 1904

    Steelyard Scales

    1. Steelyard, French, 18th century
    2. Chondrometer or grain scale by Payne of London, c1820
    3. Bread scale by W. & T. Avery, Birmingham, patented in 1885
    4. Guinea scale, known as “folding gold balances” by T. Houghton, England, c1780
    5. Unusual steelyard by A. Prutscher, Sonthofen, Germany, 20th century
    6. “Shelf-edge” type of coin balance by Bradford, Derby and Hulls, England, patented in 1753
    7. Sovereign balance by F. Sheldon, Birmingham, c1845
    8. Letter scale by unknown maker, British, marked S. TURNER’S PATENT, postage rates for the period 1871 to 1897, patented in 1871
    9. ______ steelyard by T. Beach of Birmingham, c1780
    10. Letter balance marked H.B. WRIGHT No. 130 LONDON Dec. 20th 1839
    11. Candy scale by Henry Troemner, Philadelphia,1926
    12. Letter steelyard by unknown maker, English, c1880
    13. Coin steelyard, as advertised by John Joseph Merlin, London, c1780
    14. Double-beam steelyard by Fucoma, Berlin, Germany, 20th century
    15. Jeweler’s estimating balance by W. & T. Avery Ltd, Birmingham, 1916
    16. Coal scale by J. White & Son of Scotland, c1910
    17. Westphal laboratory balance to determine specific gravity 18. Counter scale by E. & T. Fairbanks & Co, St Johnsbury, Vermont, 1919
    19. Prescription scale by E. & T. Fairbanks & Co, St Johnsbury, Vermont, c1910
    20. Laboratory scale marked CENCO Triple Beam Balance by the Central Scientific Co. Chicago

    Bismar Scales

    1. Traditional bismar
    2. Combined letter balance, ruler and paper knife
    3. Roman bismar made of bronze
    4. Letter balance marked J. Rodgers & Sons, c1890
    5. Letter balance by Edward Greaves, Sheffield, England, c1900
    6. Tobacco balance
    7. Letter balance made by Silvester & Co, London, for Henry Hooper, who registered the design in 1839
    8. Weighing spoon marked HARTLEY
    9. Late 19th century Swedish bismar

    Pendulum Scales

    1. Coin balance by Anscheutz & Co, London, c1765
    2. Egg balance, probably by P. J. Maul of Hamburg, Germany, for the British market, c1930
    3. Letter balance by N.B. Paris, markings indicate date 1869-1875
    4. Letter balance by G. Riddle, London, Registered Design No. 113 of 1839
    5. Letter balance by unknown maker, probably German, for the British market, c1910
    6. Letter balance by unknown maker, patented in Germany in 1911
    7. Letter balance by unknown maker, patented in Germany in 1900
    8. Letter balance by N.B. Paris, c 1900
    9. Market scale by Testut of Paris
    10. Letter scale by J. Cooke & Sons, London, c1865
    11. Stylus balance by Lenco, Switzerland, 1977
    12. Letter balance by Thorne-Foster Inc, New York, c1934
    13. Confectioner’s scale marked Cooperative Wholesale Society Ltd, Scale Dept, Manchester
    14. Paper testing scale by Louis Schopper of Leipzig, Germany, c1900

    Roberval Scales

    1. Letter scale by S. Mordan & Co, London, c1870
    2. English ______ scale by Joseph & Jesse Siddons Ltd, West Bromwich, England, 1924
    3. Scale by Henry Pooley & Son Ltd, Liverpool, England, 1907
    4. “Equity” butcher scale by Cooperative Wholesale Society Ltd, Scale Dept, Manchester, England, 1935
    5. ______ scale by Hizar of Istanbul, 1976, Beranger system, based on design patented by Joseph Beranger in 1849
    6. Butcher scale by W. & T. Avery Ltd, Birmingham, 1898
    7. Butter trip scale by E & T Fairbanks & Co, St Johnsbury, Vermont

    Spring Scales

    1. Mancur spring balance used for rough weighing on farms, in kitchens and on hunting trips for animals or hides
    2. Early type of spring balance by W. Day, c1820
    3. Tubular spring balance by Geo. Salter & Co, West Bromwich, England
    4. Sector or “V” spring balance, French, used for general weighing
    5. Postal spring balance by Geo. Salter & Co, c1910, larger ones made for parcels
    6. Modern version of a candlestick type (a), top is reversible for storage (b)
    7. Candlestick type letter spring balance by J & E Ratcliff, Birmingham, c1840
    8. Postal scale by Triner Scale & Mfg, Co, USA, 1910
    9. Letter spring balance, the PRESTO by Metal Specialty Manufacturing Co, Chicago
    10. ______ Circular Balance No. 80T by Geo. Salter & Co, West Bromwich, England, 1912
    11. “Bow-front” type of letter balance by Pelouze Mfg. Co, Chicago, c1910
    12. “Straight-face” type of letter balance by Salter, postage rates for period 1871 to 1897
    13. Person scale marked JARASO Made in England, patented in 1910
    14. Coin balance patented by C. Leni in 1892
    15. Combined spring letter balance and stamp case, design registered in 1888
    16. Combined letter balance with pen and seal, John Sheldon, Birmingham, design registered in 1858
    17. Spring balance which combines a dial with a pull-down slide, Morton & Bremner, New York, c1900
    18. Market scale by John Chatillon & Sons, New York, c1900

    Rocker Balances

    1. Coin rocker for coins of Turkey, Greece and Egypt with marks in Middle Eastern and Western numerals
    2. Sovereign rocker marked “Martineau & Smith”, Birmingham, England, c1840
    3. Unusual equal-arm rocker by S. Mordan & Co, London, weights for 1843
    4. Sovereign rocker by B. Cattle, Birmingham, England, c1830
    5. ”Base Coin Detector” by unknown ______ maker, patented in 1853
    6. Coin rocker by unknown French maker, marked “Depose. Numismetre. Etalon”
    7. Sovereign rocker By Charles Simmons, Birmingham, c1845
    8. Letter balance by William Poupard, London, c1850
    9. Medicine rocker marked “Dr. Fitch’s Prescription Scale”, USA. “Patented Sept. 29th . 1885”
    10. Triple coin rocker by unknown maker, mid 19th century for weighing the half-crown, shilling and sixpence

    11. Coin rocker patented by John Allender, USA, Nov 27th, 1855
    12. Egg rocker by unknown British maker, c1935
    13. Cruciform rocker for coins of Turkey, Greece and Egypt, late 19th century
    14. “Martini Scale”, American, 20th century, bismar type rocker
    15. Sovereign rocker marked M. Hammond. Registered Jan 5.1845
    16. Coin rocker patented by H. Maranville of America in 1857
    17. Rocker for an unidentified single coin, 19th century
    18. Sovereign rocker, English, 19th century
    19. Coin rocker by the Berrian Mfg Co, New York, for weighing US gold and silver coins, patented by J. A. Thompson in 1877

    Platform Scales

    1. Decimal scale made in Germany, late 19th century
    2. “One Horse Scale” made by Jones of Binghamton, New York, c1885
    3. Early type of platform scale called the “Caledonian Scale”
    4. Person scale by George Salter & Co, England, 1912
    5. Counter platform scale with loose-weight steelyard by W. & T. Avery Ltd, Birmingham, c1900
    6. Kitchen scale marked “Royal. A Tower Product. Made in Germany”, c1958
    7. “Mayfair” bathroom scale by Geo. Salter & Co. Ltd, c1960
    8. Person scale marked “Weeks’ Museum, Tichbourne Street”, c1790
    9. Table scale marked “Hanovaria. 25kg”, German, late 19th century

    Miscellaneous Scales
    MiscellaneousScales.jpg" height="300" width="500">
    1. “Weight-collecting” scale made by Joseph & Edmund Ratcliff and patented by R. Willis in 1840
    2. Combined letter balance, pen, pencil and toothpick by John Sheldon, Birmingham, England, c1845
    3. Stylus balance, the “Variscale” by Colton & Co, London, 1971
    4. Hydraulic letter balance, the “Eldon”, USA, mid 20th century
    5. Weighing scoop patented in England by F.C. Howe of America in 1906
    6. “Ladder scale” made by DeGrave, Short, Fanner & Co, London, c1870
    7. Letter balance marked DBP, German, 1978
    8. General purpose scale patented by Robert Salmon, London, in 1796
    9. Counting scale by W. & T. Avery Ltd, 1965
    10. Sovereign scale by Isaac Brown, London, registered in 1842
    11. Weight-lifting letter scale registered by F. Gye of London in 1840
    12. Hydraulic letter balance, registered by A. F. Osler of Birmingham in 1839
    13. Letter scale registered by Joseph Gillot, Birmingham, England, in 1839
    14. Sovereign balance by R. W. Winfield, Birmingham, weights marked with the maker’s name and the date 1842
    15. Candy scale by Henry Troemner, Philadelphia, USA, 1926
    16. Laboratory scale by W. Bochkoltz, Germany, mid 19th century
    17. Stylus balance, the “Transcriptor”, English, 1976
    18. Parcel scale by S. Mordan & Co., London, half-roberval and hanging pan system, parcel postage rates for the period 1883 to 1886
    UNITS CONVERSION HOME
    Energy Units Conversion
    Length Units Conversion
    Mass Units Conversion
    Surface Units Conversion
    Temperature Units Conversion
    Volume Units Conversion
    Pressure Units Conversion
    Speed Units Conversion
    Coordinates conversion (polar-cartesian) Here are further guidelines.

    Volume
    Measuring Volume
    How many liters in a gallon?
    1 Gallon [Fluid, North America] = 3.7854118 Liters
    1 Gallon [Dry, North America] = 4.4048838 Liters
    1 Gallon [England] = 4.54609 Liters

    How many milliliters in a liter?
    1 Liter = 1000 Milliliters

    How many gallons of fuel does a c5 hold?
    The C-5 has 12 internal wing tanks with a total capacity of 51,150 gallons (194,370 liters) of fuel — enough to fill 6 1/2 regular-size railroad tank cars. A full fuel load weighs 332,500 pounds (150,820 kilograms).

    How many gallons in an oil and fluid barrel?
    1 Barrel [Oil] = 42 Gallons [North America, Oil]
    1 Barrel [Fluid] = 31.5 Gallons [North America, Fluid]
    1 Barrel [Dry] = 26.24975569 Gallons [North America, Dry]

    Drum

    1 Drum = 200-litre/55-gallon drum or 44-gallon drum.

    What instrument is used to measure volume?
    A graduated cylinder is one instrument used to measure volume.
    A second volume-measuring device used in the laboratory is the pipette.
    Measuring Spoons
    Dry Measuring Cups
    Liquid Measuring Cups
    Clap-o-meter volume of applause
    Dilatometer volume changes caused by a physical or chemical process
    Eudiometer change in volume of a gas mixture following combustion
    Fuel gauge fuel level
    Gas pycnometer volume and density of solids
    Mass flow meter mass flow rate of a fluid travelling through a tube

    Volume in calculus
    Volume formulas
    Volume in differential geometry
    Volume in thermodynamics


    A household measuring jug is used to measure the volume of liquids in the kitchen
    Here are further guidelines.
    Last Updated: March 1, 2017