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Patient assessment
A medical emergency with an individual victim.
Critical and noncritical medical emergency

How do you differentiate between critical and noncritical medical emergency?
How does a doctor conclude a situation is not a medical emergency?

All these functions should be normal relevant to age.

Answers to these questions will determine if this is a medical emergency.

All these functions should be normal relevant to age.

Is the patient able to talk normally?

___________________________

Is the patient able to move his or her extremities normally?

___________________________

Is the patient able to walk normally?

___________________________

Are vital signs like consciousness (able to hear, see, talk), pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and temperature relevant to age normal?

___________________________

Are survival needs — food, clothing, housing, health care, transportation, communications, etc. – available from the state?

___________________________

Is it correct that the patient is not agitated or sleepy?

___________________________

Is it correct that the patient is not having acute functional loss or abbreation?

___________________________

Is it correct that the patient is not in acute pain?

___________________________

Is it correct that patient does not have a history of recent harms relevant to symptoms?

___________________________

Is it correct that the patient is not a danger to him/herself or others?

___________________________

Is it correct in the case of a female of child-bearing age who is not pregnant or does not having pregnancy-related complications if pregnant, and is not in labor if pregnant, or no post-delivery complications if she has delivered?

___________________________

Is it correct that there is no woman’s sexual exploitation situation?

___________________________

Is it correct that there is not a situation in which the individual does not know the whereabouts of family members?

___________________________

Is it correct that there is not a situation of a child who does not have a caregiver?

___________________________

(If the answer to any one of these questions is no, this is a critical medical emergency.)
If yes, it is not a critical medical emergency.
If the answers to all these questions are yes, this is not a critical medical emergency.

If the answer to any one question is no, this is a critical medical emergency.
Here is another method to differentiate between critical and noncritical medical emergency.

What best describes this medical emergency situation?
Individual survival needs — food, clothing, housing, health care, transportation, communications, etc. – are not available from the state.
The patient is not able to talk normally.
The patient is not able to move his or her extremities normally.
The patient is not able to walk normally.
The patient’s vital signs, like consciousness (able to hear, see, talk), pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and temperature relevant to age are not normal.
The patient is agitated or sleepy.
The patient is having acute functional loss or abbreation.
The patient is in acute pain.
The patient has a history of new problems/complaints with recent harms relevant to symptoms.
The patient is a danger to him/herself or others.
The patient is a female of child-bearing age who needs medical termination of pregnancy.
The patient has pregnancy-related complications.
This is a woman’s sexual exploitation situation.
This is an individual does not know the whereabouts of family members.
This is a situation involving a child who does not have a caregiver.
This is a situation with symptoms, signs, statements, questions, issues, or history that has been elaborated in the list of symptoms, signs, statements, questions, issues, or history of medical emergencies.
(If the answer to any one of questions is yes, this is a medical emergency.)

What are examples of emergency relevant to an individual?
What are various symptoms, signs, statements, questions, issues, and histories that should raise suspicion of a medical emergency?

There are at least 143 such symptoms, signs, statements, questions, issues, histories, and scenarios.
Agitated Patient (Acute stress reaction.)
Attempted suicide.
Attempted homicide.
Abuse.
Abdominal Pain.(Stomach pain)
Altered sensorium.
Any sudden or severe pain.
Animal bites (may require rabies or tetanus shot).
Armed Robbery.
Allergic reactions.
Breathing difficulties.
Behavior that is dangerous to self or others and cannot be managed.
Bleeding from any orifice or any part of human body that will not stop.
Bleeding which does not stop after applying pressure.
Being beaten by someone.
Burns.
Bites.
Bloody Sputum
Broken bones.
Behavior-related emergencies.
Change in mental status (such as unusual behavior, confusion, and difficulty arousing).
Changes in vision.
Chest pain.
Choking.
Cough with fever.
Coughing up or vomiting blood.
Confusion or changes in mental status
Cuts and abrasions.
Chest or upper abdominal pain or pressure lasting two minutes or more.
Difficulty breathing.
Difficulty speaking.
Disoriented.
Difficulty getting up.
Difficulty in passing urine.
Difficulty in passing feces.
Domestic Violence
Drowning or near drowning
Dental emergencies.
Emergency diagnosis and treatment in neonatal period.
Emergency diagnosis and treatment after neonatal period.
Earaches and ear infections.
Electrical injury shock.
Emergency Food
Environmental factors (hostile environment).
Fainting.
Fever.
Foreign bodies in nose or ears.
Fainting or loss of consciousness.
Fainting, sudden dizziness, weakness, seizure.
Feeling of committing suicide or murder.
Fever with breathlessness.
Functional impairment (not taking care of self. inability to gain relevant skills and knowledge relevant to age).
Human Rights Violations
Head or spine injury.
Head injury.
Human Pregnancy Emergencies
Hypothermia - frostbite.
Head pain that lasts longer than five minutes.
Intentional enforced harms.
Involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility
Loss of consciousness.
Loss of consciousness not related to a seizure
Loosening of social inhibitions.
Likely to be harmful to self or others.
Low abdominal pain.
Medicine overdose.
Major burns.
Medicolegal cases
Nosebleeds.
No pulse
Pain.
Palpitations.
Poisoning.
Poisoning including overdoses of medication.
Persistent or severe vomiting.
Persistent unexplained fever even with Tylenol use.
Puncture wounds.
Personality disorders (harmful to others). Panic attacks.
Psychosis(delusions, hallucinations, catatonia, thought disorder, loss of contact with reality).
Rape.
Pregnancy-related emergencies.
Possible serious bone fractures.
Rashes.
Survival Needs
Starvation
Suicidal feelings.
Significant trauma (to the head, stomach, chest)
Syncope.
Seizures.
Seizure lasting over five minutes or continuous seizures
Severe asthmatic attack when prescribed medications do not work
Severe injuries as a result of accidents such as broken bones
Severe reactions to a medication with difficulty breathing or itching.
Severe reactions to insect bites or other previously unknown allergic reactions
Sore throat & fever
Sunburn.
Severe neck or back injury.
Sexual intercourse due to conspiracy.
Severe or persistent vomiting.
Severe or persistent vomiting or diarrhea.
Severe headache.
Severe burns.
Severe pain in any part of the body that does not subside.
Serious drug reactions with psychiatric or non-psychiatric medications.
Syncope or unconsciousness.
Sudden or severe pain.
Sudden loss of vision.
Suicidal or homicidal feelings.
Sudden asthma attack that does not stop.
Sudden numbness or not being able to move an arm, leg, or one side of the body.
Sever headache with fever or vomiting.
Sudden injury or trauma due to a motor vehicle crash, burns, smoke inhalation, near drowning, wound, etc.
Substance abuse.
Sudden severe pain anywhere in the body.
Sudden dizziness, weakness, or change in vision.
Swallowing a poisonous substance.
Shock symptoms, e.g., confusion, disorientation, cool/clammy, pale skin.
Severe or persistent vomiting or diarrhea.
Stroke or suspected stroke (paralysis, numbness, confusion)
Trauma with unconsciousness.
Trauma with cuts, sprains, or abrasions.
Trauma with open fracture.
Trauma with pain on mobility.
Trauma with swelling.
Unable to detect breathing
Unconsciousness.
Unconsciousness with diabetes.
Unconsciousness at a public location.
Sudden unconsciousness at home.
Unable to move
Uncontrolled bleeding
Upper abdominal pain.
Uncontrolled bleeding.
Unusual abdominal pain.
Unusual or persistent abdominal pain.
Unexplained stupor, drowsiness or disorientation.
Violence
Violence or other rapid changes in behavior.
Vomiting
Vomiting or coughing blood.
Vomiting and diarrhea.
If this is not a medical emergency, it can be a medical disability or prolonged intentional enforced harms.
Is there any medical disability, non-emergency problem or prolonged intentional enforced harms? If yes, a follow-up is required via e-mail, call, postal mail, or a doctor’s appointment.