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Pilot (aeronautics)
Questions pilots must answer before flying an aircraft.

What needs to be accomplished relevant to aircraft flown by a pilot?
Airforce operations.
Aircraft flight test, military aircraft, or passenger cargo aircraft.
Aircraft inspection.
Passenger and cargo aircraft flights.
Emergency landing issues.


Pilot (aeronautics)
Flight Training













Table of contents.
Answers to relevant questions.
Annotation or Definition
Aircraft Payload
Aviation Abbreviations
Aircraft Handbooks & Manuals
Aircraft specifications
Aircraft Weight and Balance
Aircraft Inspections
Air Traffic Services
Aircraft seat map
Area Control Center
Aeronautical chart
Air Force Operations
Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC)
Air traffic control
Airport Traffic Control Towers (ATCT)
Air traffic controller
Air traffic control: Radar Coverage.
Automatic Terminal Information Service
Automated airport weather station
Before the Flight
Compare Aircraft
Different Types of Pilot Careers
En route, center, or area control
Flight data / clearance delivery
Flight Plan Filing
Flight Experience
Flight Duration Calculator
Glossary of airline seating
IFR (Instrument Flight Rules)
Live Flight Tracker
List of Area Control Centers
Payload
Pilot Profile
Pilot licensing and certification
Radar coverage
Service rules in the state and outside the state.
Tail number
Terminal Radar Approach Control Facilities (TRACON)
Types of pilot
Type rating
Visual flight rules
Weather information
World Aviation Administration

Answers to relevant questions.
What should you do before planning to be a pilot?
What is the first step to becoming a pilot?
What are the specifications of aircraft you need to pilot?
What are the specifications of the aircraft engine and aircraft engine controls?
What should you not do if you need to be a pilot?
What is a Pilot?
What does a Pilot do?
What is the workplace of a Pilot like?

Annotation or Definition
What should you do before planning to be a pilot?

What are the specifications of aircraft you need to pilot?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/aircraftspecifications.html

What are the specifications of the aircraft engine and aircraft engine controls?


What should you not do if you need to be a pilot?
Do not go ahead with pilot training with 250 flight hours, with allotted time dedicated to certain conditions and maneuvers, without getting answers to relevant questions.

What is the first step to becoming a pilot?
Decide what you want to fly.

What is a Pilot?
Pilot (aeronautics), a person who flies or navigates an aircraft

An aircraft pilot or aviator is a person who actively and directly operates the directional flight controls of an aircraft while it is in flight. While other members of a flight crew such as flight engineer, navigator, or any other person involved in the direct flight operations of an aircraft (whether it be a fixed wing airplane, rotary-wing, powered, or unpowered), are also considered "aviators", they are not pilots and do not command a flight or aircraft. Aircrew who are not involved in operating the aircraft's flight systems (such as cabin attendants and mechanics) as well as ground crew are not generally classified as aviators.

In recognition of the pilots' qualifications and responsibilities, most militaries and many airlines worldwide award aviator badges to their pilots, as well as other air crews. This includes naval aviators.

What does a Pilot do?
The type of aircraft used depends on the pilot's specialization. Some pilots fly helicopters while others fly larger aircraft to transport tens or even hundreds of passengers. Other pilots fly cargo planes to move large amounts of mail, automobiles, equipment and other goods from one area to another.

What is the workplace of a Pilot like?
Pilots rarely adhere to the standard 40-hour work week. Due to constant changes in airline itinerary and frequent shifts in schedules from weather and equipment malfunctions, pilots may work late at night, on weekends, and even on holidays.

Aircraft
    Boeing 747-8
    Chief Test Pilot
    Flight test engineer
    Flight Test Manager
    Flight Test Director
    Structural Engineer
    A380 Comparison
Q: Is flying an aircraft one person's task or an aviation operation?
Q: How is flying an airplane different than flying a helicopter?

Here are further guidelines.

Aircraft Payload
Payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or launch vehicle, usually measured in terms of weight. Depending on the nature of the flight or mission, the payload of a vehicle may include cargo, passengers, flight crew, munitions, scientific instruments or experiments, or other equipment. Extra fuel, when optionally carried, is also considered part of the payload.

For a rocket, the payload can be a satellite, space probe, or spacecraft carrying humans, animals, or cargo. For a ballistic missile, the payload is one or more warheads and related systems; the total weight of these systems is referred to as the throw-weight. The fraction of payload to the total liftoff weight of the air or spacecraft is known as the "payload fraction". When the weight of the payload and fuel are considered together, it is known as the "useful load fraction". In spacecraft, "mass fraction" is normally used, which is the ratio of payload to everything else, including the rocket structure.

The maximum take-off weight is limited by a combination of the maximum net power of the engines and the lift/drag ratio of the wings. The diagonal line after the range-at-maximum-payload point shows how reducing the payload allows increasing the fuel (and range) when taking off with the maximum take-off weight. How to Calculate Aircraft Payload

1 Get the manufacturer's data for the aircraft. This data will list the following important parameters of the aircraft: •Check the standard weight empty of the aircraft. The standard weight empty will indicate the weight of the aircraft with no fuel, passengers or payload on board. •Find the maximum gross weight of the aircraft. The maximum gross weight is the upper limit of weight that the aircraft may be loaded to without structural damage. •Look up the maximum takeoff weight. The maximum takeoff weight is the most that the aircraft can weigh during take off. •Determine the maximum landing weight. The maximum landing weight is the most that the aircraft can weigh during landing without risking damage to the landing gear. •Note the fuel capacity of the aircraft. The fuel capacity will be listed in either U.S gallons or Imperial gallons.

2 Calculate the weight of fuel carried. The fuel tanks may not be loaded to capacity, so use the weight of only the fuel known to be added. Calculate the weight as 6 lbs. per U.S. gallon (2.72 kg per 3.79 L) or 7.2 lbs per Imperial gallon (3.23 kg per 4.72L) if the fuel used is aviation gas. Calculate the weight as 6.6 lbs per U.S. gallon (3.0 kg per 3.79 L) or 8.0 lbs per Imperial gallon (3.6 kg per 4.72 L) if the fuel used is JP-4.

3 Determine the maximum payload. The maximum payload is the difference between the standard weight empty plus the weight of fuel carried, and either the maximum gross weight or the maximum takeoff weight, whichever is less. In almost every case, the maximum takeoff weight will be less and should be used for the calculation.

4 Divide the payload between people and cargo. •Count the aircraft crew as people. If known, the actual weight should be used. If the actual weights of the crew are not known, estimate the weights as 174 lbs. (79.0 kg) per male and 127 lbs. (57.6 kg) per female. Add 8 lbs. (3.6 kg) to each crew member weight for summer clothing and 14 lbs. (6.4 kg) per crew member for winter clothing. •Add the passenger weights. Count each male passenger as 174 lbs. (79.0 kg), each female passenger as 127 lbs. (57.6 kg), and each child as 75 lbs. (34.0 kg). Add 8 lbs. (3.6 kg) to each adult for summer clothing and 14 lbs. (6.4 kg) for each adult for winter clothing. Use 75 lbs. (34.0 kg) per child without adding an additional factor for clothing weight.

5 Subtract the crew and passenger weights from the payload. The resulting calculated weight is available for baggage and cargo. Do not consider the volume of the aircraft to carry luggage and cargo. The weight limits will be reached before the aircraft runs out of space to hold the cargo.

6 Take maximum landing weight into account. The maximum landing weight will be less than the maximum takeoff weight. The aircraft must have consumed enough fuel at the manufacturer's fuel consumption per thrust rate to reduce the total aircraft weight below the maximum landing weight before a landing can be made. If emergency conditions require an early landing, fuel or cargo (but not passengers) must be jettisoned to reduce the weight of the aircraft to the maximum landing weight.
Here are further guidelines.

Aviation Abbreviations

A

Autotuned NAVAID

A

At or Above (constrained altitude)

AA

American

AAATS

Australian Advanced Air Traffic Services

AAC

Aeronautical Administration Communication (a class of communication which supports administrative communication)

AAS

Advanced Automation System (the end systems for all FAA air traffic control, located at the ARTCCs)

AATT

Advanced Aviation Transportation Technology

ABM

Abeam

A/C

Aircraft

ACARS

Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System

ACARS

ARINC communications and address reporting system (digital communications system used primarily for aircraft-to-airline messages)

ACARS MU

ACARS Management Unit

ACAS

Airborne Collision and Avoidance System

ACF

Area Control Facility

ACFS

Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (a generic "glass cockpit")

ACK

Acknowledge

ACMS

Aircraft Condition Monitoring System

ACT

Active

ADC

Air Data Computer

ADF

Automatic Direction Finder

ADI

Attitude Director lndicator

ADLP

Aircraft Data Link Processor (the Mode S subnetwork function onboard the aircraft that implements the OSI network layer protocols)

ADMA

Aviation Distributors and Manufactureres Association

ADS

Automatic Dependent Surveillance

AECB

Atomic Energy Control Board

AERA

Automated Enroute ATC

AFCS

Automatic Flight Control System

AFDS

Autopilot Flight Director System (also A/P F/D)

AFS

Automatic Flight System

AGATE

Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments

AGL

Above Ground Level

AHRS

Attitude Heading Reference System

AIRS

Advanced Infrared Sounder

A/l

Anti-ice

AI

Artificial Intelligence

AL

Allegheny

Alert

Indicator (visual or auditory) which provides information to the flightcrew in a timely manner about an event requiring pilot awareness.

ALPA

Air Line Pilots Association

ALT

Altitude

ALT

Alternate

ALTN

Alternate

ALT HOLD

Altitude Hold Mode

AM

Amplitude Modulation

AM

Aeromexico

AMSS

Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Service

ANA

All Nippon Airways

AOA

Angle-of-Attack

AOA Airport Operations Area

AOC

Aeronautical Operation Control (communications which support safety and regularity of flight that normally take place between aircraft and the operator)

AOCS

Attitude and Orbit Control System

AOM

Aircraft Operating Manual

AOPA

Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association

A/P

Autopilot

APA

Allied Pilots Association

APC

Aeronautical Passenger Communication (a class of communication which supports passenger communication)

APMS

Automated Performance Measurement System

APPR

Approach/Approach Mode

APR

April

APRT

Airport

APU

Auxiliary Power Unit

AQP

Advanced Qualification Program

ARAC

Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee

ARINC

Aeronautical Radio In_________d

ARPA

Advanced Research Projects Agency

ARR

Arrival

ARTCC

Air Route Traffic Control Center

ARTS

Automated Radar Terminal System

ASCII

American Standard Code for Interface and Interchange

ASI

Air Speed Indicator

ASR

Airport Surveillance Radar

ASRS

Aviation Safety Reporting System (aviation incident reporting system run by NASA for FAA)

AT

At (an altitude)

A/T

Autothrottle

ATA

Air Transport Association

ATA

Actual Time of Arrival

ATC

Air Traffic Control (a generic term for a joint civil/military system for controlling traffic within a specific area)

ATCS

Advanced Train Control Systems

ATCSCC

Air Traffic Control System Command Center

ATHR

Autothrust System

ATIS

Automatic Terminal Information Service (recorded voice message that provides weather and airport services information)

ATM

Air Transportation Management

ATN

Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (the collection of ground subnetworks, air/ground subnetworks and airborne subnetworks interconnected by ATN routers that support computer-to-computer, internetwork communication and message transfer between host computers using the OSI ISO protocol architecture)

ATS

Automatic Throttle System

ATSC

Air Traffic Service Communications (Communications related to air traffic services. This includes ATC, aeronautical and meteorological information, position reporting and services related to safety and regularity of flight)

AUG

August

AV

Avianca

AVAIL

Available

AVHRR

Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer

AWACS

Airborne Warning And Control System

AWAS

Automated Weather Advisory Station

AWIPS

Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System
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B

At or Below (constrained altitude)

BALPA

British Air Line Pilots Association

BASIS

British Airways Safety Information System

BF

MarkAir

BIT(E)

Built-ln-Test (Equipment)

BRG

Bearing

BRT

Brightness
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- C -

 

C

Centigrade

CAA

Civil Aviation Authority (Great Britain)

CAB

Civil Aeronautics Board

CAS

Calibrated (Computed) Air Speed

CASE

Computer Aided Software Engineering

CAT

Clear Air Turbulence

CAT

Computer Aided Testing

CAT I

Facility providing operation down to 200 feet decision height and runway visual range not less than 2600 feet.

CAT II

Facility providing operation down to 100 feet decision height and runway visual range not less than 1200 feet.

CAT II a

Facility providing operation with no decision height limit to and along the surface of the runway with external visual reference during final phase of landing and with a runway visual range not less than 700 feet.

CBT

Computer Based Training

CDI

Course Deviation Indicator

CDU

Control display unit (pilots' interface to the FMS)

CDTI

Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

CENA

Centred' Études de la Navigation Aérienne (France)

CFIT

Controlled Flight Into Terrain

CG

Center of Gravity

CGS

Centimeter-gram-second

Cl

Cost Index

CI

China Airlines

CIT

Compressor Inlet Temperature

CLB

Climb Detent of the Thrust Levers

CLR

Clear

CMC

Central Maintenance Computer

CNS

Communications Navigations and Surveillance

CO

Continetnal

COM

Cockpit Operating Manual

CON

Continuous

CO ROUTE

Company Route (also CO RTE)

COTR

Contracting Officer's Technical Representative

COTS

Commercial Off The Shelf

CP

Control Panel

CPCS

Cabin Pressure Control System

CPDLC

Controller Pilot Datalink Communications

CPU

Central Processing Unit

CRC

Cyclic Redundancy Check

CRITTER

Civil Rotorcraft IFR Terminal-Area Technology Enhancement Research

CRM

Cockpit Resource Management

CRM

Crew Research Management

CRS

Course

CRT

Cathode Ray Tube

CRZ

Cruise

CSD

Constant Speed Drive

CTA

Controlled-Time of Arrival

CTA

Control Area (ICAO Term)

CTAS

Center TRACON Automation System

CTC

Centralized Train Central

CTR

Center

CTR

Civil Tilt Rotor

CTRL

Control

CWS

Control Wheel Steering
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- D -

 

D

Derated

DA

Descent Advisor

DBS

Direct Broadcast Satellite

DE-TO PR

Derated Takeoff Engine Pressure Ratio

D-TO Nl

Derated Takeoff Engine Fan Speed

DADC

Digital Air Data Computer

DATALINK

Digitized Information Transfer (air/ground)

DC

Direct Current Electricity

D/D

Drift Down

DEC

December

DEC

Digital Equipment Corporation

DECR

Decrement

DEL

Delete

DEP

Departure

DES

Descent

DEST

Destination

DEV

Deviation

DFDAU

Digital Flight Data Acquisition Unit

DFDR

Digital Flight Data Recorder

DFGS/C

Digital Flight Guidance System/Computer

DFW

Dallas Fort Worth International Airport

DGPS

Differential GPS

DH

Decision Height

DIR

Direct

DIR/INTC

Direct Intercept

DIS

Distance

DISCR

Discrepancy

DIST

Distance

DL

Delta

DME

Distance Measuring Equipment (ground navigational aid that can provide display of distance to selected ground navigational radio transmitter)

DMU

Data Management Unit

DNTKFX

DownTrack Fix

DOT

Department of Transportation

DOD

Department of Defense

DRU

Data Retrival Unit

DSPY

Display (annunciation on CDU)

DTG

Distance-to-go
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- E -

 

E

East

EADI

Electronic Attitude Director Indicator

EAS

Equivalent Airspeed

ECAM

Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor

ECON

Economy (minimum cost speed schedule)

ECS

Environmental Control System

E/D

End-of-Descent

EDF

Electricité de France

EEC

Electronic Engine Control

EFC

Expected Further Clearance

EFIS

Electronic Flight Instrument System

EGT

Exhaust Gas Temperature

EHSI

Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator

EICAS

Engine Indicating Crew Alerting System

EIU

Electronic Interface Unit

ELT

Emergency Locator Transmitter

EMP

Electromagnetic Pulse

EMS

Emergency Medical Services

ENG

Engine

E/O

Engine-Out

EPR

Engine Pressure Ratio

EPROM

Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory

EST

Estimated

ETA

EstimatedTime of Arrival

ETX

End of Transmission

EXEC

Execute
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- F -

 

F

Fahrenheit

FA

Final Approach

FADEC

Full Authority Digital Engine Control

FAIL

FMC Fail

Failure

The inability of a system, subsytem, unit or part to perform within previously specified limits.

FAF

Final Approach Fix

FANS

Future Air Navigation Systems

FAR

Federal Aviation Regulations (federal rules under which flight operations are conducted)

FAR

Federal Acquisition Regulation

FAST

Final Approach Spacing Tool

FBO

Fixed Based Operator

FCC

Flight Control Computer

FCU

Flight Control Unit

F/D (FD)

Flight Director

FDAMS

Flight Data Acquisition and Management System

FDC

Flight Data Company

FDR

Flight Data Recorder

FEATS

Future European Air Traffic System

FEB

February

FF

Fuel Flow

FGS/C

Flight Guidance System/Computer

FIR

Flight Information Region

Fix

Position in space usually on aircraft's flight plan

FL

Flight Level

FL 310

For example, FL310 is an altitude 31,000 ft. above sea level; used for altitudes above 18,000 ft

FLCH

Flight Level Change

FLIDRAS

Flight Data Replay and Analysis System

FLT

Flight

FMA

Flight Mode Annunciator: display on or near the PFDs of the current modes of autoflight system

FMC

Flight Management Computer (also FMCS - FMC System)

FMGC

Flight Management Guidance Computer

FMGS

Flight Management Guidance System

FMS

Flight Management System

FO

First officer

FOQA

Flight Operations Quality Assurance

FPA

Flight Path Angle

FPA

Focal Plane Array

FPM

Feet Per Minute

FQIS

Fuel Quantity Indicating System

FR

From

FRA

Flap Retraction Altitude

FRA

Federal Railroad Administration

FREQ

Frequency

FSF

Flight Safety Foundation

FT

Feet
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- G -

 

GA

Go-Around

GA

General Aviation

GAR

Go-Around

GCA

Ground-controlled Approach

GDLP

Ground Data Link Processor (the Mode S subnetwork function within the ground system that implements the OSI network layer protocols)

GHz

Gigahertz

GMT

Greenwich MeanTime

GNSS

Global Navigation Satellite System

GPS

Global Positioning System

GPWS

Ground Proximity Warning System (warns of inadequate separation from ground and excessive sink rate close to ground)

GRAF

Ground Replay and Analysis Facility

GRP

Geographical Reference Points

GS

Glide Slope

GS

Ground Speed

G/S

Glideslope

GSFC

Goddard Space Flight Center

GW

Gross Weight
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- H -

 

HAC

Hughes Aircraft Co.

HAI

Helicopter Association International

HBARO

Barometric Altitude

HDG

Heading

HDG SEL

Heading Select

HDOT

Inertial Vertical Speed

HE

Altitude Error

HF

High Frequency

Hl

High

HIRS

High-Resolution Infrared Sounder

Host Computer

Facility located at the ARTCC which operates user application software, as well as certain peer network layer protocols required to communicate with adjacent ATN routers.

Host Processor

"End system" as defined by ISO that includes the OSI upper layer protocols (i.e., transport layer and above) and application processes

HP

Holding Pattern

HPRES

Pressure Altitude

HSI

Horizontal Situation Indicator

HUD

Head-Up Display
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- I -

 

IA

Inspection Authorization

IAOA

Indicated Angle-of-Attack

IAS

Indicated Airspeed

ICAAS

Integrated Control in Avionics for Air Superiority

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organization

ID

Identifier

IDENT

Identification

IEPR

Integrated Engine Pressure Ratio

IF

Intermediate Frequency

IFR

Instrument Flight Rules

IFRB

International Frequency Registration Board

IGFET

Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor

ILS

Instrument Landing System (uses precision localizer and glide-slope radio transmitters near a runway to provide landing approach guidance)

IMC

Instrument Meteorological Conditions

INBD

Inbound

INFO

Information

in.hg

. inches of mercury

INIT

Initialization

INR

Image Navigation and Registration

INS

Inertial Navigation System

INTC

Intercept

IPT

Integrated Product Team

IRS

Inertial Reference System

IRU

Inertial Reference Unit

ISA

International Standard Atmosphere

ISO

International Standards Organization

ITU

International Telecommunications Union
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- J -

 

JAL

Japan Air Lines

JAN

January

JAR

Joint Airworthiness Regulations

JATO

Jet Assisted Takeoff

JL

Japan Air Lines

JSRA

Joint Sponsored Research Agreement

JUL

July

JUN

June
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- K -

 

KG

Kilogram

kHz

kilohertz

KLM

Royal Dutch Airlines

km

Kilometer

KT (kts)

Knots

kW

Kilowatt
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- L -

 

L

Left

LAT

Latitude

LAX

Identifier for Los Angeles

LCN

Local Communications Network.

LDGPS

Local DGPS

LFR

Low-frequency Radio Range

LIM

Limit

LMM

Compass locator at the middle marker

LNAV

Lateral Navigation (provides computer description of aircraft's planned lateral flight path that can be tracked by the autoflight system; lateral path can be shown on map display.)

LO

Low

LOC

Localizer Beam

LOE

Line Oriented Evaluation

LOFT

Line Oriented Flight Training

LOM

Compass Locator at the Outer Marker

LON

Longitude

LORAN

Long Range Navigation

LOS

Line-Oriented Simulation

LRC

Long Range Cruise

LRU

Line Replaceable Unit

LVL CHG

Level Change
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- M -

M

Mach Number

M

Manual Tuned NAVAID

MAA

Maximum Authorized IFR Altitude

MAG

Magnetic

MAINT

Maintenance

MAN

Manual

MAP

Missed Approach

MAR

March

M/ASI

Mach/Airspeed Indicator

MAX

Maximum

MAX CLB

Maximum engine thrust for two-engine climb

MAX CRZ

Maximum engine thrust for two-engine cruise

MCA

Minimum Crossing Altitude

MCDU

Multipurpose Control Display Unit

MCP

Mode Control Panel (pilots' interface to the autoflight system; usually located centrally just below cockpit glare shield)

MCT

Maximum Continuous Thrust

MCW

Modulated Continuous Wave

MDA

McDonnell-Douglas Aerospace

MDA

Minimum Descent Altitude

MDL

Multipurpose Data Link

MEA

Minimum Enroute Altitude

MEL

Minimum Equipment List

MIDAS

Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (NASA Ames)

MIDAS

Multi-discipline Data Analysis System

MILSPEC

Military Specifications

MIN

Minutes

MIN

Minimum

MIT

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MLA

ManeuverLimited Altitude

MLE

Landing Gear Extended Placard Mach Number

MLS

Microwave Landing System

MMO

Mach Max Operating

MN

Magnetic North

MOA

Memorandum of Agreement

MOCA

Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude

MOD

Modified/Modification

Mode S

Type of secondary surveillance radar (SSR) equipment which provides Mode A and Mode C interrogations, discrete address (Mode S) interrogations from the ground or air, and a data link capability

MODIS

Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectrometer

MRA

Minimum Reception Altitude

MSG

Message

MSL

Mean Sea Level

MTBF

Mean Time Between Failures

MU

Management Unit

MWP

Meteorological Weather Processor
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- N -

N

North

N/A

Not Applicable

NAV

Navigation

NAVAID

Navigational Aid

NGATM

New Generation Air Traffic Manager

ND

Navigation Display

NDB

Nondirectional Radio Beacon

NLM

Network Loadable Module

NM

Nautical Mile

NOTAM

Notice for Airman

NOV

November

NW

Northwest Airlines

Nl

Engine Revolutions per Minute (percent)
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- O -

 

OAG

Official Airline Guide

OAT

Outside AirTemperature

OATS

Orbit and Attitude Tracking

OBTEX

Offboard Targeting Experiments

OCT

October

ODAPS

Operational OGE Data Acquisition and Patch Subsystem

OFST

Lateral Offset Active Light

OGE

Operational Ground Equipment

OIS

OGE Input Simulator

OO

SkyWest Airlines

OP

Operational

OPT

Optimum

O-QAR

Optical Quick Access Recorder

OSI

Open Sytem Interconnection (ISO defined communications architecture used in data link to permit heterogeneous data communication systems to be interconnected in order to allow the reliable exchange of messages without regard to the implementation of the networks and physical media through which the messages pass)

OTFP

Operational Traffic Flow Planning

OV

Overseas National Airways
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- P -

 

P

Procedure-Required Tuned NAVAID

PA

Pan Am

PAR

Precision Approach Radar

PAWES

Performance Assessment and Workload Evaluation

PBD

Place Bearing/Distance (way point)

PD

Profile Descent

PDB

Performance Data Base

PDC

Pre Departure Clearance

PERF

Performance

PF

Pilot Flying

PFD

Primary Flight Display

PHARE

Program for Harmonized ATC Research in Europe

PHIBUF

Performance Buffet Limit

PHINOM

Nominal Bank Angle

PIREPS

Pilot Reports

PMS

Performance Management System

PND

Primary Navigation Display

PNF

Pilot Not Flying

POS

Position

POS INIT

Position Initialization

POS REF

Position Reference

PPI

Plan Position Indicator

PPOS

Present Position

PREV

Previous

PROC

Procedure

PROF

Profile

PROG

Progress Page on MCDU

PROV

Provisional

PS

Pacific Southwest Airways

PT

Total Pressure

PTH

Path

PVD

Plan View Display
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- Q -

 

QAR

Quick Access Recorder

QNH

Quantity

QRH

The barometric pressure as reported by a particular station

QTY

Quantity

QUAD

Quadrant
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- R -

 

R

Right

R

Route Tuned NAVAID

RAD

Radial

RAD

Radio

RAPS

Recovery Access Presentation System

RASCAL

Rotorcraft Air Crew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory

RCP

Radio Control Panel

R/C

Rate of Climb

RDP

Radar Data Processing (system)

REF

Reference

REQ

Required/Requirement

REQ

Request

RESTR

Restriction

RESYNCING

Resynchronizing

rf

radio frequency

RMPs

Radio Management Panels

RNAV

Area Navigation (generic acronym for any device capable of aircraft guidance between pilot-defined waypoints

RNP

Required Navigation Performance

Router

An ATN network layer gateway which performs the relaying and routing of data packets across interconnecting subnetworks based on the source and destination network layer addresses and the desired quality of network service

RTA

Required Time of Arrival

RTCA

Radio Technical Committee on Aeronautics

RTE

Route

RVR

Runway Visual Range

RW

Runway
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- S -

 

S

South

SA

Situation Awareness

SAS

Scandinavian Airlines System

SAT

Static Air Temperature

SATCOM

Satellite Communications

SBIR

Small Business Innovative Research

S/C

Step Climb

SEA/TAC

Seattle/Tacoma International Airport

SEL

Selected

SEP

September

SESMA

Special Event Search and Master Analysis

SID

Standard Instrument Departure

SIGMET

Significant Meteorological Information

SITA

Société Internationale Télécommunique Aéronautique

SO

Southern Airways

SOP

Standard Operating Procedure

SOPA

Standard Operating Procedure Amplified

SP

Space

SPD

Speed Mode

SPS

Sensor Processing Subsystem

SQL

Structured Query Language

SRP

Selected Reference Point

SSFDR

Solid-State Flight Data Recorder

SSM

Sign Status Matrix

STAB

Stabilizer

STAR

StandardTerminal Arrival Route

STEPCLB

StepClimb

STOL

Short Takeoff and Landing

STTR

Small Business Technology Transfer Resources

SUA

Special Use Airspace

SWAP

Severe Weather Avoidance Program
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- T -

TACAN

Tactical Air Navigation

TACH

Tachometer

TAI

Thermal Anti-lce

TAP

Terminal Area Productivity

TAS

True Airspeed

TAT

Total AirTemperature

TATCA

Terminal Air Traffic Control Automaiton

TBD

To Be Determined

TBO

Time between Overhauls

TBS

To Be Specified

TCA

Terminal Control Area

TCAS

Traffic Alert & Collision Avoidance System

T/C (TOC)

Top-of-Climb

T/D (TOD)

Top of-Descent

TDWR

Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR located and classifies windshear conditions and provides advisories in the terminal area. These data are available through the DLP.)

TEMP

Temperature

TFM

Traffic Flow Management

TGT

Target

THDG

True Heading

THR

Thrust

THR HOLD

Throttle Hold

TI

Texas International

TIAS

True Indicated Airspeed

TKE

TrackAngle Error

TMA

Traffic Management Advisor

TMC

Thrust Management Computer

TMF

Thrust Management Function

TMU

Traffic Management Unit

TN

True North

T/O (TO)

Takeoff

TOD

Top of Descent

TO EPR

Takeoff Engine Pressure Ratio

TO Nl

Takeoff Engine Fan Speed

TOGA

Takeoff/Go-Around

TOT

Total

TRA

Thrust Reduction Altitude

TRACON

Terminal Radar Approach Control Facility.

TRANS

Transition

TRK

Track (to a NAVAID)

TRU

True

TSRV

Transport Systems Research Facility

TT

Total Temperature

TURB

Turbulence
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- U -

 

UA

United

UHF

Ultra-high Frequency
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- V -

 

V

Velocity

VA

Heading to an Altitude

VA

Design Maneuvering Speed

VAR

Variation

VAR

Volt-amps Reactive

VAR

Visual-aural Radio Range

VASI

Visual Approach Slope Indicator

VBF(LO)

Flaps up minimum buffet speed at current maneuver load factor minus altitude dependent variable

VBFNG(HI)

High speed CAS at N g's to buffet onset

VBFNG(LO)

Low speed CAS at N g's to buffet onset

VCMAX

Active Maximum Control Speed

VCMIN

Active Minimum Control Speed

VC

Design Cruising Speed

VD

Design Diving Speed

VD

Heading to a DME distance

VF

Design Flap Speed

VFE

Flaps Extended Placard Speed

VFR

Visual Flight Rules

VFXR(R)

Flap Retraction Speed

VFXR(X)

Flap Extension Speed

VG

Ground Velocity

VGND

Ground Velocity

VH

Maximum Level-flight Speed with Continuous Power

VHF

Very-high Frequency

VHRR

Very High-Resolution Radiometer

VISSR

Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer

Vl

Heading to a course intercept

Vls

Lowest Selectable Airspeed

VLE

Landing Gear Extended Placard Airspeed

VLO

Maximum Landing Gear of Operating Speed

VLOF

Lift-off Speed

VM

Heading to a manual termination

VMC

Visual Meteorological Conditions

VMC

Minimum Control Speed with Critical Engine Out

VM(LO)

Minimum Maneuver Speed

VMAX

Basic Clean Aircraft Maximum CAS

VMIN

Basic Clean Aircraft Minimum CAS

VMO

Velocity Max Operating

VNAV

Vertical Navigation (provides computer description of aircraft's speed and altitude that can be tracked by autoflight system)

VNE

Never-exceed Speed

VNO

Maximum Structural Cruising Speed

VOM

Volt-ohm-milliammeter

VOR

VHF OmniRange Navigatgion System (ground navigational aid that can provide display of aircraft position relative to course through selected ground navigational radio transmitter)

VORTAC

VHF Omni Range Radio/Tactical Air Navagation

VPATH

Vertical Path

VR

Heading to a radial

VR

Takeoff Rotation Velocity

VREF

Reference Velocity

VS

Design Speed for Maximum Gust Intensity

V/S

Vertical Speed/Vertical

VSCS

Voice Switching and Control System

VSI

Stalling Speed in a Specified Flight Configuration

VSO

Stalling Speed in the Landing Configuration

VSTOL

Vertical or Short Takeoff and Landing

VTK

Vertical Track Distance

VTOL

Vertical Takeoff and Landing

V/TRK

Vertical Track

VTR

Variable Takeoff Rating

VU

Utility Speed

VX

Speed for Best Angle of Climb

VY

Speed for Best Rate of Climb

Vl

Critical Engine Failure Velocity (Takeoff Decision Speed)

V2

Takeoff Climb Velocity
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- W -

 

W

West

WAAS

Wide Area Augmentation System

Waypoint

Position in space usually on aircraft's flight plan

WBC

Weight and Balance Computer

WINDR

Wind Direction

WINDMG

Wind Magnitude

WPT

Way point

W/MOD

With Modification of Vertical Profile

WMSC

Weather Message Switching Center

WMSCR

Weather Message Switching Center Replacement

WO

World Airways

W/STEP

With Step Change in Altitude

WT

Weight

WX

Weather

WXR

Weather Radar
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- X -

X-BAND
The frequency range between 8000 and 12500 MHz

XCVR

Transceiver

XFR

Transfer

XLTR

Translater

XM

External Master

XMIT

Transmit

XMITR

Transmitter

XPD

ATC Transponder (also XPDR, XPNDR, TPR)

XTK

Crosstrack (cross track error)

XY

Ryan Air
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- Y -

YSAS
Yaw Stability Augmentation System
 
YD
Yaw Damper
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- Z -

 

Z

Zulu (GMTtime)

ZFW

Zero Fuel Weight

ZNY

New York Air Route Traffic Control Center
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Different Types of Pilot Careers
Types of pilot
Military
What are the types of pilot?
Military pilot intercontinental
Military pilot regional
Nonmilitary pilot intercontinental
Nonmilitary pilot regional

Pilot Careers

Flying the most advanced aircraft in the world is only one of the many responsibilities associated with a career as an Air Force pilot. Your leadership skills and character are of paramount importance as you take charge of training and commanding crews to accomplish missions. Each type of pilot specializes in different aircraft and skill sets. To learn more, browse through the job descriptions below.

Bomber Pilot flies bomber aircraft and commands crews to accomplish combat operations and training missions.

Test Pilot plans, conducts, directs and reports on flight test programs associated with the design, development and modification of aircraft, aerospace vehicles, flight simulators and related systems.

Fighter Pilot operates fighter-type aircraft and commands crews to accomplish combat, training and other missions.

Generalist Pilot develops plans and policies, monitors and evaluates operations, coordinates staff activities and advises commanders.

Helicopter Pilot operates rotary-wing aircraft and commands crews to accomplish combat, training and other missions.

Trainer Pilot is responsible for flying trainer aircraft in furtherance of the pilot-training mission.

Mobility Pilot flies a variety of mobility aircraft and commands crews to accomplish tanker, airlifts, training and other missions.

Reconnaissance/Surveillance/Electronic Warfare Pilot operates specialized mission aircraft and commands flight crews to accomplish reconnaissance, surveillance, search and rescue, electronic warfare, training and other missions.

Special Operations Pilot flies special operations aircraft (fixed-wing or helicopter) and commands crews to accomplish special operations, training and other missions.

Tanker Pilot operates tanker aircraft and commands crews to accomplish air refueling, airlifts, training and other missions.

Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Pilot operates specialized mission aircraft and commands flight crews to accomplish reconnaissance, surveillance, combat, training and other missions

What happens if a navy aircraft is unable to land on an aircraft carrier due to adverse weather conditions?
Can a C-130 Hercules land/take-off from an aircraft carrier?
Here are further guidelines.

Glossary of airline seating
AC Power

AC actually means alternating current. It's the exactly same type of power that comes out of the wall in your home or office. Thus, if your seat is fitted with AC Power, you need nothing else but the standard wall power adapter which your laptop is equipped with. Generally speaking, the power on the plane is of 110V AC and features a semi-universal socket. Sometimes it's a two-prong outlet, and sometimes there's a grounding plug.

Adjustable Headrests

The majority of the long-haul planes have seats equipped with adjustable headrests in all classes which enables the traveler to adjust allowing the passenger to adjust the headrest for more cosiness.

Air Conditioning Nozzle

It may be tilted as well as adjusted by the traveler to induce or reduce the output. It is commonly found on almost any narrow-body plane and left out on wider ones.

ASM

Available Seat Miles. This standard industry measurement of airline output refers to a flight's passenger carrying capacity. It considers an aircraft seat flown one mile, whether occupied or not. So, it is determined by multiplying the number of seats on a plane by the distance traveled in miles. Therefore, an plane fitted with 100 passenger seats that has traveled a distance of 100 miles will generate 10,000 available seat miles. It is used to estimate an airline's capacity to transport passengers.

ASK

Available seat kilometers. This transportation standard is determined by multiplying the number of seats on an aircraft by the distance traveled in kilometers. It is also used to estimate an airline's capacity to transport passengers.

AVOD

Audio and Video on Demand is a system that permits its users to select and watch or listen to video or audio content on demand. There are airlines that offer AVOD as in-flight entertainment to passengers through individually controlled video screens embedded in seat-backs or armrests. This system is also provided by portable media players. AVOD systems existing on planes offer the travelers the possibility of choosing a certain audio or video content and play it on demand with all its inherent options such as fast forward, rewind and pause. AVOD gives you the opportunity to control the pace you choose to watch a film or listen to an album.

Bulkhead

A bulkead in actually a rigid partition in a plane. It is is practically a dividing wall between cabins on long haul flights and in case of short flights, it is commonly a sliding curtain. A bulkhead is therefore a divider which separates the classes or sections of a plane. You may find more information on bulkhead in our article about The Advantages and Disadvantages of Bulkhead Seats.

Bumped

A specific term used to refer to a passenger being offloaded from a flight. Airline companies usually overbook their flight because they need to compensate for the passengers that do not show up. Getting bumped from a flight greatly depends on the moment you officially check-in for your flight, so they best way to avoid this is to make an effort to arrive early. You may find more information on your rights in case you get bumped from a flights in our two articles dealing with oversold flights in US as well as Europe.

Cabin

This is the inside area of the aircraft. Commonly, there are separate cabins for First Class travelers, Business Class travelers and even one or more cabins for Economy Class travelers.

Call Button

A button that will alert a flight attendant to assist passengers.

Cigarette Power

It also known as DC Power Cigarette. This is the same type of power that is provided in your car, with what is yet commonly names cigarette lighter. You'll need a cigarette power adapter if you want to use this type of power with your laptop. Still, Cigarette and EmPower adapters are available in all IT shops.

Closet

A closet in more than often reserved for First Class passengers. It is a limited section which is designed to garment bags or other odd-shaped items to be hung. The flight attendant is the one who decides on who and where to hand their items in the closet.

Cradle/Recliner Seat

This is a seat that reclines as far as 160 degrees from the seat base. They're quite cosy in case of shorter-haul flights but they may only allow you to relax. Most of the passengers consider that it is quite difficult to sleep in them. They do not lie back as much as the Lie-flat and Flat Bed Seats do and they are only available in Business Class of some carriers.

Crew Rest

It is a specific division on the plane which is specially reserved tfor he Flight Attendants or Pilots as a rest area. It is common on long-haul flights.

DC Power

DC actually means direct current and it is the type of power that you get from a battery. Also, it exactly the same type of power port which may be found in practically every car. On a common plane, it bears 15V DC Power at up to 75 watts per outlet. So, unless you have a special adapter, you may not be able to use your laptop with it.

Domestic flights

This is airline jargon referring to a flight that does not go beyond the borders of a country. This site refers to domestic flights as ones in the USA.

Emergency Equipment

Oxygen containers, rafts, flashlights, and other emergency equipment that is often stored in a designated overhead bin, which can make it hard to find room for your bags if this equipment is directly above your seat.

Emergency Exit

A structure specially designed for emergencies. In case of planes, it is a full-sized exit door just. Most of the times there is an emergency slide placed into the door. This feature generates a protusion inside the aircraft. Such a lump may be quite inconvenient to the seat located beside the emergency exit door as it trespasses your own comfort zone.

EmPower®

Aircraft power adapter. It is, in fact, is the in-seat power system which you are more than likely to encounter on every contemporary aircraft. The system is restricted to 75 watts and features 15V DC power. You'll need a special EmPower adapter in order to be able to make use of this system, or you may employ a cigarette power adapter.

Exit Row

This is a row of seats located next to an emergency exit. These rows may also be located next to overwing exits or even full-sized exit doors. If an exit door or a window exit is placed in the row you are sitting in, the whole row is nominated as the exit row.

FA

Flight Attendant

FEBO

Acronym for Front Even, Back Odd. This is a method used by American Airlines when taking meal orders in premium class based on flight number. In case of an even flight number the meal order is taken from the front while with odd flight numbers, the meal orders are taken from the back. You may keep this in mind when choosing your seats.

Flat Bed Seat

This seat goes to a perfectly horizontal position when fully reclined. Thus, it creates a fully flat bed. Such a seat will only be available in Business and/or First Class. They are widely praised by passenger as they are the most comfortable for sleeping.

Foot Cutout

There are bulkheads which have a small cutout at foot level. This small enlargement enables your feet to enjoy some extra space.

Foot-rest / Leg-rest

This device is frequent on international flights and permits the passenger to have one of his/her legs or feet supported and therefore relaxed. Business or First Class passengers will more that frequently enjoy this advantage as it is not normally found in Coach or Economy.

International Flights

This is airline jargon referring to a flight that goes between two countries. We refer to International flights as the ones that travel outside the US. This term is used to separate International Flights from Domestic Flights.

Jump Seat

It denotes a separate seat for flight attendants and crew members who are not operating the aircraft. The passengers are not permitted to use these seats and they are employed during take-off and landing.

Leg-rest

See Foot-rest.

Lie-Flat Seat

Even though its name would make you think that the seat would lie completely flat, it doesn't actually. Its back as well as leg-rest recline at a slight angle. Some seat recline as much as 172 degrees. Passengers frequently consider that these seats are tremendously cosy if your plan to unwind and work. On the other hand, they are not too helpful for sleeping or even catching a wink due to its inconvenient angle when placed in the fully reclined position. This seat will only be available in Business and/or First Class.

Long Haul

This term refers to a flight that lasts for more than 4 hours. Passengers greatly depend on the roominess as well as cosines of their environment when taking on long haul flights.

Lumbar Support

This is a device that is meant to support to the muscles and the lower back. It is ususally built in a seat and may be adjusted manually or even electronically dependeding on the needs of the passengers. This option will normally be available in Business and/or First Class.

Misaligned Window

In this case the seat is not perfectly aligned to its adjacent window. Sometimes, there is even a seat between two window. You won't be able to enjoy the view in this seat as you'll need to make an extra effort in order to get a good view.

Missing Window

Sometimes a seat, despite its location beside a wall and despite having been advertised as as window seat, is placed next to a wall devoid of anything but white paint. The window is missing in this case because the space was needed for the wires as well as any other connections running behind the uninspiring wall.

Op-Up

Acronym for Operational Upgrade - a technical term used for instances when all the tickets in the Economy section have been over-sold but there are some available seats in a superior class. So, the gate agent is compelled to move the passenger from the Economy class to a Business/First class cabin. This "on the house" complimentary upgrade is very rare, though.

Overhead Bin

A common compartment located above the seats which is meant to store the luggage of the passengers. There are some restrictions in so far as baggage size and weight is concerned, so it's good to check them out before your depart.

Overhead TV

Just as its name informs you, this TV-set is placed above the heads of the passengers every three or four rows so that the passengers in these seats may watch it. Of course, they will all watch the same movie or program but they will be able to have the audio in their own language.

Over-wing exits

These exits are meant to allow passengers to evacuate onto the wing. They are smaller than the standard emergency exits existing on a plane. Their size does not allow too many passengers to evacuate at the same time so the have a limited evacuation capacity. They are usually fitted on planes whose evacuation capacity at the main doors is insufficient.

Personal TV

A miniature TV placed right at your seat. You are the possibility of selection your own films or programs.

Pilot Rest

A section from the plane specially reserved for the pilots to rest on long haul flights. This area is customarily located in the First/Business Class section.

Power Port

It is normally fitted in the seat arm rest and allows your to plug in various electronic devices while traveling. Thus, you can freely use your own laptop or portable DVD player as it suits you.

Reading Light

A device that is more than often similar in appearance to the air-conditioning nozzle. You may adjust the intensity of the light you need particularly when the lights are off.

Recline

The extend of how much a seat will lie back. It is measured differently depending on the carrier, i.e. inches or degree.

Recliner Seat

See Cradle Seat.

Seat Pitch

The distance between a seat and the same point on another seat directly in front or behind. It is often confused with "legroom" but it is not exactly the same thing. Legroom is the space available for passengers to stretch their legs while seated. You should be looking for the seats that have the largest pitch. You may read more about seat pitch in our article On Legroom and Airplane Seat Pitch.

Seat Plans

Charts depicting the interior of an aircraft and displaying the layout of the seats.

Seat Width

The distance from armrest to armrest. In economy class this is typically around 17 inches but it varies greatly between airline carriers and aircraft types. If a seat is missing an armrest, the seat cushion will be your reference. You should be looking for the seats that have the largest width.

Service Cart

A cart that is designed to fit through the narrow aisle and that is used but the flight attendants to bring passengers food and drinks.

Slimline Economy Seating

These seats that are intorduced in the economy class are lighter and enable the aircraft to increase its capacity without affecting the amount of legroom or comfort.

Short Haul Flight

A flight that lasts for less than four hours.

Standard Seat

A common, customary and ordinary seat.

Stationary Armrest

When the armrest can't be lifted up, it is called a stationary armrest. These are typically found on the aisle, or when a tray table is located inside the armrest at a bulkhead.

Storage Area

This is a reduced-size area on the plane that is frequently used by the plane crew to keep protective or other items used by the flight attendants during the flight.

Tray Table

The small table that is normally found on the back of the seat in front of you. The tray table may also be located in the armrest, case in which is usually folds out in most first class, business class, bulkhead as well as exit row seats.

Upper Deck

Airplanes such as Boeing 747-400 as well as Airbus A380 were designed with an Upper Deck which also includes passenger seats.

16G seats

These seats are used for transport category airplanes and are meant to withstand withstand 16 times the force of gravity. They meet the 9g requirements of Sec. 25.561 alongside with the dynamic requirements of Sec. 25.562. They are tested in a manner that simulates the loads that could be expected in an impact-survivable accident. Moreover, creating a seat to withstand more than 16g's wouldn't make sense, since any force greater than that would not be survivable. This is why these seats are commonly referred to as 16g seats.

Compare Aircraft
Airbus Boeing
Airbus A 300 Boeing 717
Airbus A 310 Boeing 737
Airbus A 320 Boeing 747
Airbus A 330 Boeing 767
Airbus A 350 Boeing 777
Airbus A 380 Boeing 787

Military
Compare Aircraft
Military


Flight Duration Calculator
How long will your Flight take?

Flying From:
Flying To:

How is duration of flight categorized?
Short-haul flight: <3 hours
Medium-haul flight: 3 to 6 hours
Long-haul flight: >6 hours

World's Longest Flights

Los Angeles to Bangkok on Thai Airways
Miles: 8,260*
Scheduled Duration: 17 Hours 30 Minutes

Los Angeles to Singapore, Singapore Airlines
Miles: 9,500
Scheduled Duration: 18 Hours 30 Minutes

Pilot Profile
Are you an experienced pilot?
What should an experienced pilot display in his or her profile?
What types of aircrafts have you piloted?
How would you describe being a pilot: military pilot intercontinental, military pilot regional, nonmilitary pilot intercontinental, nonmilitary pilot regional, a combination, or all of them?
On what intercontinental flight have you been pilot and when was the flight?
On what aircraft routes have you been pilot?
At what airports have you landed?
Have you done any research relevant to aircraft manufacturing and aerospace engineering?
Have you done any safe emergency landing that could have been an aviation disaster?
When and what route was your first flight as a pilot?
When was your most recent flight and air route as a pilot?
What do you know about world aviation administration?
What do you know about state aviation department, for example Aviation department of California, North America?
What do you know about the crash of Asiana Airlines Flight 214 at San Francisco International Airport (SFO), California, North America, on July 6, 2013?


Circulate this to all pilots.
Last Updated: January 17, 2017