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Telecommunications
State department of telecommunications.
Who has duty to provide telecommunications services in the state?
The state department of telecommunications.

How do you determine what location in the state needs telecommunications services?
A needs assessment reveals needs for telecommunications services in addition to other human rights in the state.

What are various telecommunications services?
Telephone service landline.
Telephone service wireless.
Internet service.
Television.
Telecommunications combination services.
Telecommunications equipment

Telecommunications combination services are also called bundled services.

What is a digital telecommunications system?
The basic components of a modern digital telecommunications system must be capable of transmitting voice, data, radio, and television signals.

In data transmission, this step is bypassed because the signals are already in digital form; most television, radio, and voice communication, however, use the analog system and must be digitized.

What professionals are required in state department of telecommunications?
Telecommunications equipment manufacturing engineer.
Telecommunications Systems Managers
Line Installers
Customer Service Representative
Computer Software Engineers
Computer Programmers
Telecommunications Technician Series

Telecommunications equipment manufacturing engineer.
Electrical engineers manufacture telecommunications equipment. Telecommunications equipment is considered one of the categories of electrical equipment.

Can a telephone exchange, data center, or answering machine work without electrical supply?
No.

What are examples of telecommunications equipment?
Here are various examples.
www.qureshiuniversity.com/telecommunicationsequipment.html

Telecommunications equipment
Telecommunications equipment can be broadly broken down into the following categories:
Public switching equipment
    Analogue switches
    Digital switches
Transmission equipment
    Transmission lines
    Optical fiber
    Base transceiver stations
    Multiplexers
    Local loops
    Communications satellites
Customer premises equipment
    Answering machines
    Fax machines
    Landline telephones
    Local area networks
    Mobile phones
    Modems
    Pagers
    Private switches
    Routers
    Teleprinters
A data center is required for telecommunications services in the state or outside the state.

Here are further guidelines.
Telecommunications Systems Managers

Telecommunications systems managers develop, modify, and monitor the various different telecommunications systems. Telecommunications systems exist to gather and transmit data quickly, and enable users to manage the functions of electronic equipment on their own. Telecommunications systems managers have to keep up with the constantly improving and changing technology and create plans to implement the latest technology on existing systems. Additionally, systems managers coordinate and supervise the efforts of teams of engineers and systems analysts. Telecommunications systems managers find the skills developed in pursuit of telecommunications degrees applicable and necessary to appropriately address the requirements of managing telecommunications systems.

Line Installers

Line installers are responsible for the installation of new lines, and they do this by constructing utility poles, towers, and underground trenches to carry the wires and cables necessary to operate communications equipment such as telephones and televisions. After the construction phase is complete, line installers attach and mount cables to poles, towers and other similar devices. In addition to these responsibilities, duties also include setting up services for customers and installing home and business network equipment. Much of this work requires intense physical labor as well as knowledge of telecommunications technology.

Customer Service Representative

Customer service specialists and providers assist new and existing telecommunications customers with various aspects of their accounts, including repair, installation, billing, and selecting appropriate telecommunications services. Customer service representatives communicate with customers in many different ways, including in person, over the telephone, through written and e-mail correspondence, and by fax.

Often, a customer service specialist is the consumer's primary telephone and cable service provider contact. Because this is true, customer service professionals must be friendly, helpful, and able to understand the needs and concerns of consumers. Additionally, successful customer service professionals employed in the telecommunications industry benefit from an educational background specific to the industry.

Computer Software Engineers

Computer software engineers develop and build new computer software technology. Such technology is often crucial to the innovation and growth of telecommunications. This group of technology professionals works in a fast-paced environment. They build, test, and design new software that enables consumers, businesses, and other organizations with the means to utilize technological innovation.

Students interested in pursuing this path to telecommunications career opportunities should have a strong background in engineering and computer science. Computer software engineers are definitely on the cutting edge of innovation and are essential players in developing new technology. Therefore, computer software engineers who are effectively able to communicate and manage other technical professionals are considered strong candidates for telecommunications management positions.

Computer Programmers

The work of a computer programmer involves writing, applying, and testing various instructions that computers must follow to perform appropriately. Professionals in this field have a strong background in computer science and information systems. Computer programmers develop solutions and enable telecommunications systems to function optimally through use and understanding of various programming languages.

Computer programming is definitely a field that requires continuously updating and building new skills and capabilities. Professionals in this field are often the first to adopt and to master the application of new technology.

Telecommunications Technician Series

Telecommunications Technician Trainee
Telecommunications Technician
Senior Telecommunications Technician
Telecommunications Maintenance Supervisor I
Telecommunications Maintenance Supervisor II
Telecommunications Maintenance Supervisor III

Definition of Series

The performance of duties of positions in this series requires technical but nonprofessional engineering knowledge of electronics and ability to apply this knowledge to the construction, installation, maintenance, modification, and repair of analog and digital telecommunications equipment such as VHF and UHF radio equipment (mobile units, base stations, relay stations, portable and hand carried units), microwave, lightwave, information switching and carrier systems, closed circuit television systems, telemetry systems, intercom systems, radio control equipment, power supplies, antennas, masts, and related equipment and various electronic measuring and testing devices.

Entry and First Journeyperson Levels

Entry into the series is typically through the classes of Telecommunications Technician Trainee or Telecommunications Technician.

Definition of Levels

Telecommunications Technician Trainee

This is a subjourneyperson level for employees who have knowledge of and familiarity with electronic communications theory. Under close supervision, incumbents repair or identify the more obvious malfunctions of telecommunication equipment including VHF and UHF. The Department will provide training to prepare Trainees for the journeyperson class.

Telecommunications Technician

This is the full journeyperson level. Incumbents interpret the laws, rules and regulations of the Federal Communications Commission relating to radio and microwave; they use precision instruments for measuring radio frequencies, power, deviation, modulation and other data required by the Federal Communications Commission and diagnose and repair the most complex problems connected with a wide range of electronic equipment; they may instruct others in operating, repairing, maintaining, constructing and installing telecommunications systems.

Senior Telecommunications Technician

Incumbents are responsible for telecommunications equipment and networks within an assigned geographic shop area or microwave area including lead responsibility over one or more technicians when assigned, and may also act for the area supervisor in his/her absence in scheduling the work requirements of the shop, coordinating the activities with client agencies, leading the work of subordinate technicians when assigned, and providing technical instruction to lower level technicians.

Telecommunications Maintenance Supervisor I

Incumbents either (1) supervise an office staff and at least eight journeyperson and/or Senior level technicians within an assigned geographic area which may include several shop areas and are responsible for the total telecommunications networks served by these technicians, or (2) exercise functional supervision and coordinate field activities and assist telecommunications engineers in the overall operation of a statewide telecommunications system; they may assist in the design, construction, and installation of complex telecommunications equipment and networks.

Telecommunications Maintenance Supervisor II

Under general direction, incumbents perform second level supervisory and first level administrative duties and are responsible for the planning, organizing and supervision of the operation of a regional radio and microwave network involving more than a single State agency. This level supervises a minimum of 50 subordinates in lower level telecommunications maintenance classes and supporting occupations.

Telecommunications Maintenance Supervisor III

Under general direction of the Assistant Chief, the Telecommunications Manager III has program management responsibility for telecommunications maintenance, including planning, organizing, and directing the work of an extensive statewide communications maintenance program. This level is responsible for all State two-way radio, microwave, and private telephone and data network installation, modification and maintenance. This level supervises a minimum of 150 subordinates in lower level telecommunications maintenance classes and supporting occupations.

Minimum Qualifications

All Levels:

All levels require possession of at least ONE valid certificate or license certified by the Department of General Services, Telecommunications Division, and industry accepted, qualifying the person to perform transmitter installation, operation, maintenance, and repair duties. Those certificates and licenses currently certified by the Telecommunications Division for meeting this qualification are:

1. FCC General Radiotelephone Operator License.

2. FCC 1st Class or 2nd Class Radiotelegraph Operator's Certificate.

3. NABER Two-Way Radio Technician Certificate.

4. APCO Two-Way Radio Technician Certificate.

5. NARTE Technician or Engineer Certificate with Applicable Job Specifications Endorsement(s).

6. DGS, Telecommunications Division, Technician Certification Program.
and

Education: Completion of a two-year technical curriculum in electronic technology at the community college level or equivalent. (Work experience in the field of electronic technology may be substituted for the required education on the basis of one year of experience being equivalent to one year of college.)
and

Possession of a valid ________ driver's license of the appropriate class issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles. Applicants who do not possess the license will be admitted to the examination, but must secure the license prior to appointment.

Telecommunications Technician Trainee

Meets "Minimum Qualifications" for "ALL LEVELS". Telecommunications Technician Either I

One year of experience in the __________ state service performing the duties of a Telecommunications Technician Trainee. Or II

Two years of experience within the last five years in maintaining, repairing, modifying or testing electronic telecommunications equipment, one year of which must have been with VHF, UHF or microwave lightwave telecommunications equipment. (Experience in __________ state service applied toward this pattern must include one year of experience performing the duties of a class comparable in level of responsibility to that of Telecommunications Technician Trainee.) Senior Telecommunications Technician Either I

One year of experience in the _________ state service performing the duties of a Telecommunications Technician. Or II

Three years of experience within the last five years in maintaining, repairing, modifying, and testing electronic telecommunications equipment, at least two years of which shall have been with VHF, UHF or microwave lightwave telecommunications equipment. (Experience in _________ state service applied toward this pattern must include one year experience performing the duties of a class comparable in level of responsibility to that of Telecommunications Technician.) Telecommunications Maintenance Supervisor I Either I

Two years of experience in the _________ state service performing the duties of Senior Telecommunications Technician or three years of experience in the ________ state service performing the duties of a Telecommunications Technician. Or II

Five years of experience within the last ten years in modifying, repairing, maintaining, testing or constructing and installing electronic telecommunications equipment, two years of which must have been in a supervisory capacity, and three years of which must have been with VHF, UHF or microwave lightwave telecommunications equipment. (Experience in ________ state service applied toward this pattern must include two years of experience performing the duties of a class comparable in level of responsibility to that of Senior Telecommunications Technician or three years of experience performing the duties of a class comparable in level of responsibility to that of Telecommunications Technician.) Telecommunications Maintenance Supervisor II Either I

One year of experience performing the duties of a Telecommunications Maintenance Supervisor I. Or II

Broad and extensive experience, (more than five years within the last ten years) in the field of telecommunications maintenance, five years of which must have included supervisory and administrative responsibilities over a group of technicians involved with VHF, UHF and microwave lightwave telecommunications equipment repair, installation, modification and maintenance. (Experience in _________ state service applied towards this pattern must include one year of experience performing the duties of a class comparable in level of responsibility to that of Telecommunications Maintenance Supervisor I.) Telecommunications Maintenance Supervisor III Either I

Two years of experience performing the duties of Telecommunications Maintenance Supervisor II or three years of experience performing the duties of Telecommunications Maintenance Supervisor I. Or II

Broad and extensive experience (more than five years within the last ten years) in the field of telecommunications maintenance management, at least five years of which shall have included management and administrative responsibilities over a group of technicians involved in VHF, UHF microwave, or lightwave telecommunications equipment repair, installation, modification and maintenance. (Experience in _________ state service applied towards this pattern must include two years of experience performing the duties of a class comparable in level of responsibility to that of Telecommunications Maintenance Supervisor II or three years of experience performing the duties of a class comparable in level of responsibility to that of Telecommunications Maintenance Supervisor I.) Knowledge and Abilities

Telecommunications Technician Trainee

Knowledge of: Basic theory of radio communications and electronics; communications mathematics; safety procedures applicable to handling electrical energy and electromagnetic wave propagation.

Ability to: Learn and develop the knowledge and abilities required for the journeyperson class.

Telecommunications Technician

Knowledge of: All of the above, and laws, rules and regulations of the Federal Communications Commission relating to radio and microwave in the public safety service; microwave and complex multiplex carrier equipment, lightwave, information switching and carrier systems, telephone, automatic switchboards, radio control equipment, and closed circuit television systems.

Ability to: All of the above, and interpret the laws, rules and regulations of the Federal Communications Commission relating to radio and microwave in the public safety service; use precision instruments for measuring radio frequencies, deviation, modulation, and other data required by Federal Communications Commission; perform tests on equipment and complex electronic circuitry; instruct others in operating, repairing, maintaining, constructing, and installing telecommunications equipment; speak clearly and concisely; analyze situations accurately and take effective action; carry out written and oral directions; demonstrate skill in modifying, maintaining, repairing, constructing and installing various types of telecommunications equipment.

Senior Telecommunications Technician

Knowledge of: All of the above, and principles of training.

Ability to: All of the above, and lead and train technicians; keep records or schematics and make reports of work proposed, in process, or completed; read plans, clarify work requests and any unusual work needs; work cooperatively with persons contacted in the course of the work.

Telecommunications Maintenance Supervisor I

Knowledge of: All of the above, and principles of supervision and personnel management; the Department's Affirmative Action Program objectives; a manager's role in the Affirmative Action Program and the processes available to meet affirmative action objectives.

Ability to: All of the above, and utilize appropriate supervision and personnel management practices related to directing the work of others; and effectively contribute to the Department's affirmative action objectives.
Telecommunications Maintenance Supervisor II

Knowledge of: All of the above, and State administrative, personnel and budget procedures and practices.

Ability to: All of the above, and prepare and present the telecommunications maintenance budget for a region; to maintain cooperative relations with client agencies and other governmental jurisdictions; to act as a focal point in resolving labor relation matters affecting telecommunications maintenance employees; to plan a regional telecommunications program which includes development of recruiting methods for minorities, women and disabled persons. Telecommunications Maintenance Supervisor III

Knowledge of: All of the above.

Ability to: All of the above, and plan, organize and direct a complex statewide telecommunications maintenance program. Special Personal Characteristics

All Levels:
Willingness to relocate for purposes of training and permanent assignment.

Willingness to work at night or on weekends and to be available in case of emergency; willingness to stay abreast of current technological changes in the field of telecommunications and electronics.

Willingness to perform work, after safety training, on antenna structures and towers for purposes of maintenance, construction, installation and modification of VHF, UHF and SHF (microwave) antenna systems and their components.

Ability to frequently lift and carry by hand, unassisted, items of equipment weighing up to fifty pounds. With appropriate physical and mechanical aid, assist others in lifting and carrying objects weighing more than fifty pounds.
Electrical equipment manufacture
Telecommunications


How does one configure a telecommunication server?
Which server is best for telecommunications? Why?
What are the merits and demerits of each?
Would you like to enhance this product?
How can you enhance this product?
Can you handle this project?
How many materials do you need?
Landline Telephone Service



Which is better: landline or wireless telephone service?
What resources and equipment are required to establish landline telephone service?
How is a landline telephone server different from a wireless telephone server?
How many workers and what equipment are required to establish uninterrupted telephone service with Internet in a state with 1 million subscribers?
Can one live in Asia and get an American telephone number?
Can one live in America and get an Asian telephone number?
How do you configure a telecommunication system to get this type of service?
How do you establish worldwide telephone service so that students from any location in the world can call free to Qureshi University?
Computers and Internet
Fault Management Solutions
Research
VoIP
Internet service.
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
Computer repair services
Wireless Telephone Service

When did wireless telephones come into existence?
What resources and equipment are required to establish worldwide wireless telephone service?
What is telecommunications?
What is the difference between landline telephone service and wireless telephone service?
How do you manufacture various equipment utilized in telecommunications?
What workers are required in telecommunications?
What equipment is required by telecommunications workers?
Wireless Phone Systems

Q) What are the components of a GSM network?

    Subscriber Equipment

    Mobile Station (MS) - The mobile telephone.

    The Switching System (SS)

    Home Location Register (HLR) - A database which stores data about GSM subscribers, including the Individual Subscriber Authentication Key (Ki) for each Subscriber Identity Module (SIM).

    Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) - The network element which performs the telephony switching functions of the GSM network. The MSC is responsible for toll ticketing, network interfacing, common channel signaling.

    Visitor Location Register (VLR) - A database which stores temporary information about roaming GSM subscribers.

    Authentication Center (AUC) - A database which contains the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) the Subscriber Authentication key (Ki), and the defined algorithms for encryption.

    Equipment Identity Register (EIR) - A database which contains information about the identity of mobile equipment in order to prevent calls from stolen, unauthorized, or defective mobile stations.

    The Base Station System (BSS)

    Base Station Controller (BSC) - The network element which provides all the control functions and physical links between the MSC and BTS. The BSC provides functions such as handover, cell configuration data, and control of radio frequency (RF) power levels in Base Transceiver Stations.

    Base Transceiver Station (BTS) - The network element which handles the radio interface to the mobile station. The BTS is the radio equipment (transceivers and antennas) needed to service each cell in the network.

    The Operation and Support System (OSS)

    Message Center (MXE) - A network element which provides Short Message Service (SMS), voice mail, fax mail, email, and paging.

    Mobile Service Node (MSN) - A network element which provides mobile intelligent network (IN) services.

    Gateway Mobile Services Switching Center (GMSC) - A network element used to interconnect two GSM networks.

    GSM Interworking Unit (GIWU) - The network element which interfaces to various data networks.
GSM network
How Cordless Telephones Work
What is the telephone?
Technology
Each Telephone:
Q) What will it look like?
Q) What are the components of a mobile telephone?
Q) What Are The Materials Used To Manufacture A Telephone?
Radio Frequency (RF)

Mobile Communication Services on Aircraft

Q) What is meant by mobile communication services on aircraft (MCA)?
Q) What are the technical requirements for airlines that wish to offer mobile services to passengers during flights?
Q) During flight, each aircraft will effectively be a single "network in the sky" for MCA customers, so the price will not be affected by the aircraft's location.

Q) Who will provide in-flight mobile phone services?
Q) How can I find out more about it?
Q) Will all mobile devices be allowed on board?


Q) Do you have a better answer?
Q) Does anyone have a better answer?
Q) Does anyone else have an answer better than the answers I already have, we have?
Q) Would you like to add anything?
Q) Can you make me wiser? How?
Q) Can you make us wiser? How?
Q) Do you have any recommendations?
Q) What is a monopoly?
Q) What is corruption in the politics of regulations?


State department of telecommunications.
    How do you calculate requirements of telecommunications products and services in the state?
    What and how many telecommunications products are manufactured in the state?
    How many total telephone connections with Internet are required in the state?
    How many telephone connections with Internet existed in the state as of June 10, 2014?
    How many workers relevant to this product and service are in the state?
    How many more are required?
Here are further guidelines.
Q) What is a Toll Free Number?
Q) Where do I fit into the toll free world?
Q) How do toll-free numbers work?
Q) Why are Toll Free Numbers so popular?
Intercom
Telephone service landline.
General Information: Telephone Diagrams & Terms

Shown below is a diagram of a single-line telephone. The terms listed provide information about the physical features of the telephone set and tones or signals received from the system, and can help when describing telephone troubles.



Dial: Rotating disk or push-button assembly used for entering digits and accessing features.

Direct-In-Dial: A telephone number which rings directly at a person's desk; the call does not go through an operator or receptionist. (See also Private Branch Exchange below).

Handset: The portion of the telephone containing the transmitter and receiver which is hand held when the telephone is in use.

Handset Cord: The coiled connection between the handset and the base of the telephone.

Hookflash: The process of pressing the switchhook down for one-half second and releasing. The Hookflash is used to access system features. (Refer to Introduction above for further information about hookflash.)

Hunt Group: A series of telephones or telephone numbers on multi-button or single-line phones, which search for a free line when the main number is called. If the first line is busy, the call will ring at the next available line. Members of a hunt group are often referred to as terminals or "terms" of the main number.

Key Telephone System: Electronic (EKS) or electromechanical (KS) telephone system allowing several users access to the same lines. Telephone instruments are usually multi-button (line) sets with a hold button and internal intercom features.

Mounting cord: The connection between the base of the telephone and the wall or floor.

On-hook: The handset is in the cradle.

Off-hook: You are talking, the handset is in your hand.

Private Branch Exchange (PBX): Local departmental automatic telephone system providing internal features and connection of extensions as well as access to the UT campus and public network. (See also Direct-in-Dial, above.)

Receiver: The earpiece or portion of the handset through which you hear the other party's voice.

Station Number: The last five-digits of an on-campus phone number. (Also used to refer to a two- or three-digit intercom number or a three-digit PBX extension.)

Switchhook: A device in the cradle, on the side, or on the top of the telephone which signals the status of the telephone to the switching equipment; on-hook (not in use), or off-hook (in use).

Transmitter: The portion of the handset into which you speak.

Notes

  • Dialing 71 on a rotary dial telephone is equivalent to the * on a tone dial telephone.

  • Dialing # after some phone numbers or a speed call number will speed up the completion of that call. There is no rotary dial equivalent for a #.

  • Features are activated by either a two-digit code xx or an asterisk followed by a two-digit code *xx. Be sure to note the difference when attempting new features.

Telephone Exchange

What is a Telephone Exchange?

Telephone exchanges are usually identified in the United States by the three-digit area code (NPA) and the first three digits of the phone number (NPA-NXX).

Long distance (interexchange carrier, or IXCs)

Local exchange carrier, or LECs). Different exchanges are generally in different geographic locations, such as separate central offices (COs, also called "wire centers").

When it comes to a discussion of telecommunications, referring to a telephone exchange may be used in a couple of different ways. One usage refers to specific forms of telephone equipment, while the second has to do with the use of it as a term of designation.

As a reference to telephony equipment, a telephone exchange is often also called a telephone switch. Originally, the exchange was created as a means of a provider receiving an inbound phone signal, interacting with a subscriber, and then switching the signal to whomever the subscriber wished to speak with. This was referred to early on in the history of telephony as "exchanging a call."

Over time, the process became more complicated, as technological advances allowed for the creation of exchanges that would allow calls to be routed from a local exchange to one in neighboring cities, states, and ultimately to international locations. The creation of switching overlays that worked in conjunction with the local exchanges led to the creation of the term “telephone switch.”

The first hints of the automatic switching to come came in 1891, with the creation of the stepping switch. A stepping switch allowed for the first real automation, which involved being able to reach subscribers in the immediate area by using a telephone dial to signal a four number sequence. This allowed the phone exchange operators to focus on exchanging inbound and outbound signals that needed to be processed outside a local calling area. The stepping switch helped with the designation of the terminating number, however, as the caller could ask the operator to connect the call to a neighborhood and then give the four digit number for the subscriber in that neighborhood.

In time, the term “telephone exchange” came to also be associated with the actual location and number designation for an individual subscriber. The four digit number referred to a local exchange within the city or town, while the addition of the name of the neighborhood calling area added to the front end of the numbers allowed operators to switch a call from another telephone switch into the local area.

Eventually, the procedure of using both proper names and a number sequence became extremely complicated, and many areas began to switch to three digit number prefixes to replace the older neighborhood designations. Since the 1960s, all areas of the United States now use a local seven digit calling plan for local calls within the area, and have the ability to dial the numbers directly through an automatic switch.

In time, the creation of area codes were added to the overall number designation, allowing for direct dial of both national and international long distance calls with no operator intervention. While the amount of numbers used in the dialing plans of various ________ varies, all of them now use numeric telephone exchanges, with no use of letters to access any point around the world.

Whether using the term to refer to the original designation for a telephone switch, or the newer designation to refer to a telephone number, a telephone exchange serves the purpose of connecting people around world, both locally and on an international basis.
Here are further guidelines.
Glossary of Frequently Used Telecommunications Terms
Telephone Directory
Telephone Exchange Area
Telephone Exchange Finder
Telephone Area Code Exchange
Telephone Exchange Information
Telephone Exchange Office
Telephone Exchange Names
Telephone Exchange Number