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How much fish is consumed in the state each year?
What are the sources of fish consumed in the state every year?
What types of fish are consumed in the state each year?
How many workers are associated with fish production in the state?
What is the natural habitat of fish?
What are fish farms?
What is the location of fish farms in the state?
How should fish be distributed in the state?
It should be distributed through state food and supplies.
How does properly cooked fish enhance the health of human beings?
Here are further guidelines.
Fish Entrepreneur-Project Report.

Should You Attempt Fish Farming?

Considerations for Prospective Fish Entrepreneur

They can convert feed into body tissue more efficiently than most farm animals, transforming about 70 percent of their feed into flesh. Fish also have excellent dress-out qualities, providing an average of 60 percent body weight as marketable product and a greater proportion of edible, lean tissue than most livestock. Fish can be intensively cultured in relatively small amounts of water. In Virginia, they can be farmed at densities near 2,000 pounds/acre with careful management. Farm-reared fish offer a new alternative agricultural crop that can potentially replace those which are declining in popularity or profitability. Healthy farm-reared fish, guaranteed free of diseases, pesticides, and other harmful toxicants, are a more desirable substitute for wild fish from potentially polluted waters.

Fish farming is, like most other types of farming, a risky business that requires special knowledge, skills, and careful considerations. Some of the most important factors to consider in determining whether you should begin a fish farming business are listed below. Answering yes to all or most questions does not insure success. Similarly, answering no to all or most questions does not guarantee failure. Individuals with little or no experience in fish farming and few resources available can become successful fish farmers.

Answer Yes or No


1. Do you have suitable land with a good source of high-quality water?
2. Do you have enough land and water necessary for a profitable venture?
3. Is there a high demand and sufficient market for your product?
4. Do you have the equipment and machinery necessary?
5. Is expected profit from fish farming greater than other land uses?
6. Can you really devote the resources, time, and labor necessary?
7. Do you know the costs involved with the following items:

Land & buildings
Building ponds/raceways
Trucks & tractors
Plumbing & pipes
Tanks & aerators
Oxygen meters
Nets & boots

Operating Costs
Purchasing eggs/fingerlings
Fish feed
Electricity & fuel
Labor & maintenance
Chemicals & drugs
Taxes & insurance
Telephone & transportation

l. Is there an established market for your fish?
2. Is the market demand sufficient year-round?
3. Do you have an alternative marketing strategy to rely on?

l. Do you have a continuous source of clean, high-quality water?
2. Does your soil have enough clay content to hold water?
3. Is the water temperature optimal for the fish species reared?
4. Do you have space sufficient to build enough ponds or raceways?
5. Do you have good and easy pond access for feeding and harvesting?
6. Are the pipes sufficient in size for quick draining & easy filling?
7. Is your residence near enough for direct observation and security?

l. Have you had your water tested (chemical and bacteriological)?
2. Do you have a reliable source of fingerlings or eggs at affordable prices?
3. Do you have a reliable source of feed at reasonable cost?
4. Do you have dependable labor available at affordable wages?
5. How long is your growing season (days/year)?
6. What's your production capacity (pounds/year)?
7. What's the best fish species for you to grow?
8. Are you aware of fish reproductive biology and nutritional needs?


1. Are you aware of the federal and state laws about fish farming?
2. Do you know where to apply for the necessary permits and licenses?
3. Does discrimination exist in framing of these rules and regulations?
4. Do you feel the administration is not performing properly?
5. Do you feel the unfair framing of regulations is occurring?

Risk Assessment:

l. Do you have fish crop insurance?
2. Can you conduct water quality tests?
3. Is fish-disease diagnostic-help readily available?
4. Do you know about off-flavor and its causes?
5. Is pesticide, metal,or oil contamination possible?
6. Can you deal with poachers and vandals?
7. Do you know where to go for information and help?

    Striped bass
    Gulf menhaden
    Cat Fish

    External anatomy of the rainbow trout

    External anatomy of the striped bass

    External anatomy of the gulf menhaden

    External anatomy of the channel catfish
    Q) What is a Trout, Where are they from?
    Q) Where does the name �Trout� come from?
    Q) How big does a Trout pond need to be?
    Q) How deep should a Trout pond be?
    Q) How many Trout can I keep in my pond?
    Q) What type and how much filtration does a Trout pond need?
    Q) Are Trout and goldfish related?
    Q) How big do Trout get?
    Q) How long do Trout live?
    Q) What do Trout cost?
    Q) What do Trout eat?
    Q) Where can Trout be purchased?
    Q) Do Trout get sick?
    Q) Do you eat Trout?
    Q) How popular is keeping Trout and building Trout ponds?
    Q) Why has Trout keeping become so popular?
    Q) What does a Trout pond cost? How much maintenance?
    Q) What are the most popular varieties of Trout?
    Q) How are Trout judged at shows?
    Q) Are Trout aggressive?
    Q) How can I learn about Trout and building a Pond?

    A: Field trips, seminars, shows, Administrative resources.

    Some Varieties of Cold Water Trout

    Brook trout

    Brown Trout

    Cutthroat Trout

    Rainbow Trout
Cat Fish
    Q) What is a Cat Fish, Where are they from?
    Q) Where does the name �Cat Fish� come from?
    Q) How big does a Cat Fish pond need to be?
    Q) How deep should a Cat Fisht pond be?
    Q) How many Cat Fish can I keep in my pond?
    Q) What type and how much filtration does a Cat Fish pond need?
    Q) Are Cat Fish and goldfish related?
    Q) How big do Cat Fish get?
    Q) How long do Cat Fish live?
    Q) What do Cat Fish cost?
    Q) What do Cat Fish eat?
    Q) Where can Cat Fish be purchased?
    Q) Do Cat Fish get sick?
    Q) Do you eat Cat Fish?
    Q) How popular is keeping Cat Fish and building Cat Fish ponds?
    Q) Why has Cat Fish keeping become so popular?
    Q) What does a Cat Fisht pond cost? How much maintenance?
    Q) What are the most popular varieties of Cat Fish?
    Q) How are Cat Fish judged at shows?
    Q) Are Cat Fish aggressive?
    Q) How can I learn about Cat Fish and building a Pond?

    A: Field trips, seminars, shows, Administrative resources.
    Q) What is a Koi, Where are they from?
    Q) Where does the name �koi� come from?
    Q) Are koi big goldfish?

    No, koi are not goldfish, they are a type of common carp. Goldfish are classified as Carassius auratus while both koi and common carp are classified as Cyprinus carpio. Goldfish and common carp (which include koi) are both members of the Carp and Minnow family (Cyprinidae).

    Q) How big does a koi pond need to be?

    While very young koi can be kept in a relatively small container, they grow rapidly and require considerable room in which to do so. Also part of the consideration is the amount of filtration associated with the pond. We recommend an absolute minimum of 900 gallons as a koi pond. A much better size, even for a beginning hobbyist, would be 2000 to 5000 gallons. Some koi ponds are 10,000 gallons to over 200,000 gallons.

    Q) How deep should a koi pond be?

    Koi can live in very shallow water, but are not comfortable without access to deep water. Particularly in hot climates, like Texas, they require deepwater and shade as refuge from the hot summer sun. We recommend an absolute minimum depth of 42 inches for a koi pond. Koi derive musculature by swimmingup and down in the water and a better depth for a koi pond would be 60� to 84�.Koi ponds can and should have both deep and shallow areas.

    Q) How many koi can I keep in my pond?

    Koi can grow very large, as long as three feet in some cases. While many small koi can be kept in a pond, the same pond will hold only a few large koi. The capacity of a pond is also very dependent on the type and amount of filtration the pond has. For most koi keepers, about 50 to 100 gallons per small koi (under 12�), and 500 to 1000 gallons per large koi (over 24�) is a good rule of thumb in a properly filtered pond. A good philosophy for collecting koi is to be very selective and have a smaller number of higher quality specimens.

    Q) What type and how much filtration does a koi pond need?

    Koi will eat a lot; this is especially true in warm weather.This implies a great deal of wastes that must be filtered from the pond. Biological wastes come in many forms and require different approaches tofiltration in the same system (pond). We recommend that koi ponds be plumbed insuch a way as to remove water from the bottom, mid-level, and the surface for filtration. We also recommend at least two separate filtration systems including two pumps. Usually this consists of one system for bottom water filtration and another system for surface (skimmer) and/or mid-level water filtration. We do not recommend circulating any water that is not filtered. The combined filtration system should filter and return at least one pond volume per hour on small ponds (under 5000 gallons) and one volume per hour and a half on larger ponds (over 5000 gallons).

    Q) Are koi and goldfish related?

    A: Not closely. Koi are fancy ornamental carp. Goldfish are related to the minnow family. Both are hardy and often kept in ornamental ponds and have been breed for their vibrant colors and patterns.

    Q) How big do koi get?

    A: Depends on genetics and size of pond & quality of filtration. Koi are usually 6�-8� long at 1 year of age. 12�-16� at 2 years, with potential of 24� to 36� and 20-30 lbs. in 7 to 10 years. The largest koi have approached five feet in length. Females usually get much larger and therefore cost more than males. Males usually look their best when small. Females usually look their best and develop peak colors at a larger size when they mature.

    Q) How long do koi live?

    A: 20 years is common. Koi are a very hardy fish when kept in ponds with good filtration and water quality.

    Q) What do koi cost?

    A: Small pond-quality koi can sell for less than $5. Small show-quality koi sell for $25 and up. Large high quality show koi and major koi show champions are valued at as much as $25,000-$250,000 for show or breeding purposes. $850,000 is the current record price paid for a koi. On average the majority of koi sell for $10-$50.

    Q) What do koi eat?

    A: Koi are omnivorous and will eat almost anything. Most koi keepers feed a commercial koi food. Koi will also eat many vegetables, fruits, cereal, worms, shrimp, and many types of water plants. Koi are cold-blooded animals with no stomach, and feeding should be stopped when water temperature drops below 50F. Koi can sometimes survive under frozen-over ponds in cold climates but are very stressed and do much better when winter temps are kept above 55F. Koi are also adaptable to tropical climates.

    Q) Where can koi be purchased?

    A: There are koi dealers in many major cities selling koi from Japan and/or from local breeders. Pond quality koi are sold in many pet stores. Now, you can view photos and order koi via the internet from across many cities and even directly from Japan. Our koi club hosts a special Japanese imported Koi & Goldfish sale and free pond seminars annually each Spring usually late March or early APril. Check out our events page to see the date for this years event.

    Q) Do koi get sick?

    A: Koi can get parasites and bacterial infections that cause skin sores or fin and gill infections if kept in poor water conditions or damaged in some manner. Treatment is by medicated food, medicated baths, medication in the pond, or in serious cases by inject able antibiotics. The best way to have healthy fish is to maintain good water quality and a large healthy filter system in a pond free of sharp or abrasive objects.

    Q) Do you eat koi?

    A: No. however, carp were transported all around the world as an easy to raise additional source of protein. Carp can to be raised in the rice paddy supply ponds and harvested in the fall along with the rice crops. Today koi are special pets and much too valuable to eat.

    Q) Can Koi be trained?

    A: Koi can be conditioned to eat out of your hand, ring a dinner bell, and even allow itself to be picked up out of the water without struggling for a few seconds. Many owners claim their koi seem to recognize them vs strangers.

    Q) How popular is keeping koi and building koi ponds?

    A: Very, there are more than 100 koi clubs. There are local and international koi & pond associations and magazines. There are more than koi shows hosted, It is free and open to the public

    Q) Why has koi keeping become so popular?

    A: In Japan koi are believed to bring happiness, good luck, prosperity, and health to their owners. Watching koi swim around their pond is soothing and peaceful.

    Q) What does a koi pond cost? How much maintenance?

    A: Koi Ponds are recommended to be larger and deeper than a typical water garden, a minimum of 1,000 gallons and 36� deep to allow koi room to grow. Smaller ponds built by DIY�s using special plastic liners can completed for $500+. Large professionally constructed concrete ponds can cost $20,000+. Koi ponds must have a large well designed filter system and pump operating 24 hours per day with all pond water volume pumped through the filter system every 2 hours minimum. Maintenance depends on pond/filter design, but one hour per week is a minimum. One of the best ways to learn about ponds is to locate your area koi club and attends some of their meetings or special events.

    Q) What are the most popular varieties of Koi?

    A: The Kohaku (white with red accents), Sanke (white with red & black dorsal oriented accents) and Showa (white with red dorsal and black wrapping accents) are the �big three.� They are oldest and most valued varieties winning most major awards. There are twelve varieties of koi recognized today. With many sub varieties and new types being developed. There are �metallic� koi with iridescent fins and colors. There are koi without scales which have very vibrant colors since the color is not viewed through the scales. There are also koi with glittery "diamond" scales. Many koi also change colors and patterns as they grow and Koi can be almost any color or combination of colors including red, white, black, gray, blue, yellow, green, and brown.

    Q) How are koi judged at shows?

    A: There are 12 classes defined by color, pattern, and scale type. This is really a little more complicated than just a pretty fish contest. Judging criteria varies but is usually evaluated at something like 50% - conformation (body shape and size), 30% - color uniformity and skin quality, 20% pattern, sharpness, and balance left-right and front-back as viewed from the top.

    Q) Are Koi aggressive?

    A: It has been commonly observed that if a koi gets sick other koi will try to help the distressed koi swim.

    Q. How can I learn about Koi, goldfish and building a Pond?

    A: Field trips, seminars, shows, Administrative resources.

    Q. What about the health benefits of eating fish?
    A: Fish is a low fat source of protein that is rich in nutrients.

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