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The reference book of Ophthalmology
Eye Care

Are you having any problems with your vision?
How long have you had these problems?
When do these problems occur?
When was your last eye examination?
Do you have any family history of eye problems?
How is your general health?
What medications are you taking?
Do you have any allergies?
Do you wear glasses/contacts now?
Have your glasses/contacts become stronger over the years?
Do you work with a computer?
Do your eyes ever tire (burn, itch) when reading?
Do you ever see double images or halos around images?
Do you suffer from eye strain and/or tension headaches?
Here are further guidelines.

What is an ophthalmologist?
How is an ophthalmologist different from an optometrist and an optician?
What is a subspecialist?
When should I see an ophthalmologist?
What happens during an eye examination?
What treatments are available for my eyes?
Here are further guidelines.
What is an ophthalmologist?
You are first a physician, than a specialist or super specialist.

Q: What should you know and be able to do as an ophthalmologist?
Emergency Care

If you have a problem that you feel is an emergency or life threatening, call 911 immediately or go to the nearest emergency room.

What are ophthalmological medical emergencies?
How should you do a quick assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of a person reported as an ophthalmological medical emergency?

* Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma
* Acute Multifocal Placoid Pigment Epitheliopathy
* Acute Orbital Compartment Syndrome
* Acute Retinal Necrosis
* Alacrima
* Angle Recession Glaucoma
* Aphakic and Pseudophakic Glaucoma
* Best Disease
* Central Serous Chorioretinopathy
* Chalazion in Emergency Medicine
* Complications and Management of Glaucoma Filtering
* Conductive Keratoplasty Hyperopia and Presbyopia
* Congenital Anomalies of the Nasolacrimal Duct
* Corneal Laceration
* Corneal Ulceration and Ulcerative Keratitis in Emergency Medicine
* Dacryoadenitis
* Dacryocystitis
* Drug-Induced Glaucoma
* Dry Eye Syndrome
* Eales Disease
* Emergency Care of Corneal Abrasion
* Emergent Treatment of Acute Conjunctivitis
* Endophthalmitis
* Exudative Retinal Detachment
* Fuchs Heterochromic Uveitis
* Glaucoma, Angle Closure, Acute
* Glaucoma, Angle Closure, Chronic
* Glaucoma, Suspect, Adult
* Globe Rupture
* Hordeolum and Stye in Emergency Medicine
* Hyphema Glaucoma
* Intermediate Uveitis
* Intraocular Foreign Body
* Iris Prolapse
* Iritis and Uveitis
* Juvenile Glaucoma
* Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Uveitis
* Lacrimal Gland Tumors
* LASIK Hyperopia
* Lattice Degeneration
* Lens-Particle Glaucoma
* Low-Tension Glaucoma
* Macular Hole
* Nonpseudophakic Cystoid Macular Edema
* Obstruction Nasolacrimal Duct
* Ocular Burns
* Ocular Hypotony
* Periorbital Infections
* Phacolytic Glaucoma
* Phacomorphic Glaucoma
* Phakic IOL Hyperopia
* Pigmentary Glaucoma
* Plateau Iris Glaucoma
* Posner-Schlossman Syndrome
* Postoperative Corneal Edema
* Postoperative Endophthalmitis
* Primary Congenital Glaucoma
* Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma
* Proliferative Retinal Detachment
* Pseudoexfoliation Glaucoma
* Retinal Artery Occlusion
* Retinal Detachment
* Retinal Vein Occlusion
* Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment
* Secondary Congenital Glaucoma
* Sudden Visual Loss
* Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome
* Tractional Retinal Detachment
* Ultraviolet Keratitis
* Unilateral Glaucoma
* Uveitic Glaucoma
* Uveitis, Anterior, Childhood
* Uveitis, Anterior, Granulomatous
* Uveitis, Anterior, Nongranulomatous
* Vitreous Hemorrhage in Emergency Medicine
Q: How many ophthalmic medical conditions are there?
A: There are more than 350 ophthalmic medical disorders.
Pediatric Ophthalmology

Q: How do you diagnose and treat ophthalmic medical conditions in children?

Eye Testing for Newborn
    How do you do an eye exam of a newborn?
    Who should do an eye exam of a newborn?
    What should you look for in an eye exam of a newborn?
Eye Testing for Infants
    Q: How do you do an eye exam for a six month-old?
Eye Testing for Preschool Children
    Q: Does your child seem to see well?
    Q: Does your child hold objects close to his or her face when trying to focus?
    Q: Do your child's eyes appear straight or do they seem to cross or drift or seem lazy?
    Q: Do your child's eyes appear unusual?
    Q: Do your child's eyelids droop or does 1 eyelid tend to close?
    Q: Have your child's eye(s) ever been injured?
History of Ophthalmology
Snellen Eye Test
Digital Retinal Photography
Corneal Topography
Computerized Automated Refractor
    What is a computerized automated refractor?
    Who are the manufacturers of automated refractors?
    What are the uses of a computerized automated refractor?
    How is a computerized automated refractor test administered?
    What are common types of glasses/spectacles?
Automated Non-contact Tonometer
Automated Visual Field Perimetry
Marco TRS Automated Refraction System
Computerized Patient Records System
Ophthalmic instrument and equipment manufacturers
    What are various ophthalmic instruments and equipment?
    Who are the quality ophthalmic instrument and equipment manufacturers?
    What materials do you need to manufacture ophthalmic instruments and equipments?
    How are ophthalmic instruments and equipments manufactured?
Refractive errors
    Q: What is normal vision?
    Q: What does it mean when someone has 20/20 vision?
    Q: What are refractive errors?
    Q: What causes refractive errors?
    Q: What are the symptoms?
    Q: What is the difference between reading glasses and distance glasses?
    Q: How often and how long should plus lenses be used?
    Q: What if problems such as tired eyes are experienced when using plus lenses?
    Q: Why do many people need stronger minus glasses year after year?
    Q: Are plus lenses harmful in any way?
    Q: How far should the eyes be from the book or computer or other close object when using the reading glasses?

    Fashionable Frames
    Quality Lenses

    Q: What are Polarised lenses?
    Q: What are Transition lenses?
    Q: What are Polycarbonate lenses?
Eye Injuries
    Q: What are the symptoms of eye injuries?
    Q: How are eye injuries diagnosed?
    Q: How are eye injuries treated?
Low Vision
Eye Safety
Retinal Detachment
    Eye Cataract is quite common especially in the old age. What are the reasons responsible for this condition?
    What is the best treatment available for treating cataract?
Diabetic retinopathy
    How does Diabetes affect the eyes and what is the treatment?
Health care and desktop computer monitor
Laser vision correction surgery
Retina and vitreous consultation including evaluation and treatment of age related macular degeneration
Cornea transplantation
Management and treatment of eyelid and orbital cancers
Management and treatment of thyroid eye disease
Cosmetic eyelid surgery
Reconstructive eyelid and orbital surgery
Glaucoma evaluation and treatment
Evaluation of all pediatric eye conditions
Evaluation of genetic conditions which affect the eye or visual system
Eye Health Organizations
People often complain of red eyes, frequent watering, and eye strain. What precautions should people take to avoid it?
Computer vision syndrome is getting common these days with the increased use of computers.
What is the solution?
What are the precautions you would advise for general eye care?

What is the difference between an ophthalmologist, an optometrist and an optician?
What are the best things about your specialty?
What are the worst things about your specialty?
Why did you choose your specialty?
What types of clinical cases do you commonly see?
Briefly describe a typical day.
What are the varieties of lifestyles within your field?
How do you see your discipline changing over the next decade?
On November 14, 2010, an 18-year-old boy from Baramullah was diagnosed with trauma and retinal detachment at SKIMS. Is that correct?
Treatment outside the state was advised.
Why does a retinal detachment need treatment outside the state?
How many ophthalmologists are there in the state?
Why didn't the state department of health impart training to existing medical doctors or ophthalmologists to treat such cases within the state?
Eye Disability
    When do you declare that a person has eye disability?
There is no exact verified number of blind people in the state.
There is no exact verified number of people with eye disabilities in the state.
A Community Ophthalmology Unit is opened at a primary health center.
How did they determine that a Community Ophthalmology Unit at a primary health center at specific location is required?
Who has the duty to maintain an exact verified number of blind people and those with eye disabilities in the state?
Who has the duty to research and treat these cases?

How many people in your state are completely blind?
What is the cause of blindness?
What is their profile?
Where is the exact lesion?
Is their a hope for them to regain their vision?
What have you done?
How can I/we help?

Are you as an ophthalmologist facing a most difficult case?
If yes, feel free to communicate and consult.