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Anatomy & Physiology
Anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of human beings.
What is Anatomy and Physiology?
Anatomy is the study of the structure and relationship between body parts.
Physiology is the study of the function of body parts and the body as a whole.

Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
There are several branches of anatomy, including the following:
Histology: The study of the microscopic structure of organs, tissues, and cells.
Embryology: Also known as developmental anatomy, the study of embryo development from a single-celled zygote to a fully formed fetus.
Gross anatomy: No, not 'disgusting' anatomy. This branch of anatomy has a large scale focus on organs and body structures as a whole.
Zootomy: The anatomical study of animals.
Phytotomy: The anatomical study of plants.
Human anatomy: Also known as anthropotomy, the anatomical study of the human body.
Comparative anatomy: The comparative study of the anatomy of different organisms.

Anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of human beings.

Anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of human beings.
Why have the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of human beings been put together?
In olden days, a specific physician had to take 18-month courses in anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of human beings. Some such anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of human beings courses were more than required for specific physicians. Anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of human beings resources are relevant to specific physicians’ real-world services. Anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of human beings resources require curriculum reform as recommended by Doctor Asif Qureshi.

What should specific physicians know about the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of human beings?
Here are further guidelines.


What are you expected to know about a matured human?
Annotations or definition.
Drugs required for human medical conditions.
Equipment required for human medical conditions.
Health care settings.
Human anatomy by category.
Resources required for human health care.
Internal organs (main).
Medical conditions.
Systems of the human body
Survival needs.

What is a human?
Human as per scientific classification.
Human as per human body systems.
Human as per matured human abilities.

How many human body systems are there?

What are the names of human body systems?

How many bones, muscles, internal organs, and cells does a mature human have?
Bones: 206
Internal organs (main): 22
Muscles: 600
100 trillion cells

How many human body bones are there in one matured human being?

What are the names of human body bones?

How many human body muscles are there in one matured human being?
600 muscles

What are the names of human body muscles?

Human anatomy by category

How many human anatomy categories are there?

What should you know about human anatomy by category?

How many human body internal organs are there in one human being?
22 internal organs

What are the names of human body internal organs?

How many abilities should a matured human have relevant to age?
24 abilities.

What is a matured human?
A matured human is an individual between 18 to 75 years old.

What are examples of matured human abilities relevant to age?
Abstract reasoning
Cooking food
Communicating through various means (written, spoken, sign language). English language
Caring for oneself (eating, dressing, toileting, etc.)
Creating and using numerous other technologies
Creating and extinguishing fires or heat
Following a variety of values, social norms, and rituals
Getting started after sleep
Intellectual ability knowledge, English language abilities, and able to answer
Language (English language, problem solving)
Moving or manipulating objects
Performing manual tasks
Replying to relevant questions
Sleeping normally
Having sexual desire

This is applicable to 18–75-year-olds.
If an individual is less that 18 or more than 75 and feels issues are not due to age less than 18 or old age, that individual needs evaluation as well.

What are recommendations to other medical colleges?

Various medical colleges start with anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pediatrics, ear nose & throat, forensic medicine, ophthalmology, preventive and social medicine and end with medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology.

They must start directly with a medical condition. Each medical condition should be enumerated in at least 40 questions and answers with relevant anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, and preventive concepts.
What human anatomy should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What human physiology should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What human biochemistry should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What human microbiology should one know relevant to this medical condition?

If one needs these questions and answers, Qureshi University is willing to provide them.

Advice for postgraduate physicians.
Here are few suggestions for you.
This is for those who are counseled to appear for any examination for postgraduation.
Examination before postgraduation is futile exercise.
Relevant questions must be answered.
You must get profiled by your guide for abilities with recommendations.
Any postgraduation cannot teach you more than what is elaborated at www.qureshiuniveristy.com/healthcareworld.html

Because of the computer and Internet, a physician can enhance his/her further abilities at home or home office with computer and Internet and connect to www.qureshiuniveristy.com/healthcareworld.html You need to maintain all these guidelines separately for future review, including guidelines at www.qureshiuniversity.com/healthcareworld.html.

All these useless and unreasonable examinations for further studies or postgraduate studies can be challenged in courts in the state.

Is there any standard examination and justified examination for physicians that can get them a postgraduation training program for further studies?

How should any physician go ahead with any postgraduation in a state?

Questions you need to answer.

What is the profile of your guide?
In what state do you plan to offer professional services of a physician?
Do you plan to be around Asif Qureshi?

If you plan to be around Asif Qureshi, you must visit www.qureshiuniversity.com/healthcareworld.html every day.
You must call every Sunday.
You must call on other days if required.
If required, email or call that you would like to speak with me and I will call or email from this side.
No resource can guide you better than the guidelines at www.qureshiuniversity.com/healthcareworld.html resources.
If others contend that there are better resources, they must display them publicly like those at www.qureshiuniversity.com/healthcareworld.html.

What do I expect from you?
You will maintain all communications and learning materials you get.

You are first a physician, then a specialist and superspecialist.
Here are further guidelines.

Human body
  1. Circulatory system

  2. Digestive system

  3. Endocrine system

  4. Immune system

  5. Integumentary system

  6. Lymphatic system

  7. Musculoskeletal system

  8. Nervous system

  9. Reproductive system

  10. Respiratory system

  11. Urinary system

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Human Anatomy

1. Osteology

1. Introduction
2. Bone
3. The Vertebral Column
    a. General Characteristics of a Vertebra
      1. The Cervical Vertebrae
      2. The Thoracic Vertebrae
      3. The Lumbar Vertebrae
      4. The Sacral and Coccygeal Vertebrae

    b. The Vertebral Column as a Whole
4. The Thorax
      a. The Sternum
      b. The Ribs
      c. The Costal Cartilages
5. The Skull

    a. The Cranial Bones

    1. The Occipital Bone
    2. The Parietal Bone
    3. The Frontal Bone
    4. The Temporal Bone
    5. The Sphenoid Bone
    6. Ethmoid bone

    b. The Facial Bones

    1. The Nasal Bones
    2. The Maxill� (Upper Jaw)
    3. The Lacrimal Bone
    4. The Zygomatic Bone
    5. The Palatine Bone
    6. The Inferior Nasal Concha
    7. The Vomer
    8. The Mandible (Lower Jaw)
    9. The Hyoid Bone

    c. The Exterior of the Skull

    d. The Interior of the Skull

6. The Extremities
    a. The Bones of the Upper Extremity
      1. The Clavicle
      2. The Scapula
      3. The Humerus
      4. The Ulna
      5. The Radius

    b. The Hand
      1. The Carpus
      2. The Metacarpus
      3. The Phalanges of the Hand

    c. The Bones of the Lower Extremity
      1. The Hip Bone
      2. The Pelvis
      3. The Femur
      4. The Patella
      5. The Tibia
      6. The Fibula

    d. The Foot
      1. The Tarsus
      2. The Metatarsus
      3. The Phalanges of the Foot
      4. Comparison of the Bones of the Hand and Foot
      5. The Sesamoid Bones

2. Joints

1. Introduction
2. Development of the Joints
3. Classification of Joints
4. The Kind of Movement Admitted in Joints
5. Articulations of the Trunk
    a. Articulations of the Vertebral Column
    b. Articulation of the Atlas with the Epistropheus or Axis
    c. Articulations of the Vertebral Column with the Cranium
    d. Articulation of the Mandible
    e. Costovertebral Articulations
    f. Sternocostal Articulations
    g. Articulation of the Manubrium and Body of the Sternum
    h. Articulation of the Vertebral Column with the Pelvis
    i. Articulations of the Pelvis
6. Articulations of the Upper Extremity
    a. Sternoclavicular Articulation
    b. Acromioclavicular Articulation
    c. Humeral Articulation or Shoulder-joint
    d. Elbow-joint
    e. Radioulnar Articulation
    f. Radiocarpal Articulation or Wrist-joint
    g. Intercarpal Articulations
    h. Carpometacarpal Articulations
    i. Intermetacarpal Articulations
    j. Metacarpophalangeal Articulations
    k. Articulations of the Digits
7. Articulations of the Lower Extremity
    a. Coxal Articulation or Hip-joint
    b. The Knee-joint
    c. Articulations between the Tibia and Fibula
    d. Talocrural Articulation or Ankle-joint
    e. Intertarsal Articulations
    f. Tarsometatarsal Articulations
    g. Intermetatarsal Articulations
    h. Metatarsophalangeal Articulations
    i. Articulations of the Digits
    j. Arches of the Foot

3. Muscles

1. Mechanics of Muscle
2. Development of the Muscles
3. Tendons, Aponeuroses, and Fasci�
4. The Fascae and Muscles of the Head.
    a. The Muscles of the Scalp
    b. The Muscles of the Eyelid
    c. The Muscles of the Nose
    d. The Muscles of the Mouth
    e. The Muscles of Mastication
5. The Fascae and Muscles of the Anterolateral Region of the Neck
    a. The Superficial Cervical Muscle
    b. The Lateral Cervical Muscles
    c. The Supra- and Infrahyoid Muscles
    d. The Anterior Vertebral Muscles
    e. The Lateral Vertebral Muscles
6. The Fascae and Muscles of the Trunk
    a. The Deep Muscles of the Back
    b. The Suboccipital Muscles
    c. The Muscles of the Thorax
    d. The Muscles and Fasci� of the Abdomen
    e. The Muscles and Fasci� of the Pelvis
    f. The Muscles and Fasci� of the Perineum
7. The Fascia and Muscles of the Upper Extremity
    a. The Muscles Connecting the Upper Extremity to the Vertebral Column
    b. The Muscles Connecting the Upper Extremity to the Anterior and Lateral Thoracic Walls
    c. The Muscles and Fasci� of the Shoulder
    d. The Muscles and Fasci� of the Arm
    e. The Muscles and Fasci� of the Forearm
    f. The Muscles and Fasci� of the Hand
8. The Muscles and Fasci� of the Lower Extremity.
    a. The Muscles and Fasci� of the Iliac Region
    b. The Muscles and Fasci� of the Thigh
    c. The Muscles and Fasci� of the Leg
    d. The Fasci� Around the Ankle
    e. The Muscles and Fasci� of the Foot

4. Angiology

1. Introduction
2. The Blood
3. Development of the Vascular System
4. The Thoracic Cavity
    a. The Pericardium
    b. The Heart
    c. Peculiarities in the Vascular System in the Fetus

5. The Arteries

1. Introduction
2. The Aorta
3. The Arteries of the Head and Neck
    a. The Common Carotid Artery
      1. Relations
      2. The External Carotid Artery
      3. The Triangles of the Neck
      4. The Internal Carotid Artery
    b. The Arteries of the Brain
4. The Arteries of the Upper Extremity
    a. The Subclavian Artery
    b. The Axilla
      1. The Axillary Artery
      2. The Brachial Artery
      3. The Radial Artery
      4. The Ulnar Artery
5. The Arteries of the Trunk
    a. The Descending Aorta
      1. The Thoracic Aorta
      2. The Abdominal Aorta

    b. The Common Iliac Arteries
      1. The Hypogastric Artery
      2. The External Iliac Artery
6. The Arteries of the Lower Extremity
    a. The Femoral Artery
    b. The Popliteal Fossa
    c. The Popliteal Artery
    d. The Anterior Tibial Artery
    e. The Arteria Dorsalis Pedis
    f. The Posterior Tibial Artery

6. The Veins

1. Introduction
2. The Pulmonary Veins
3. Th. The Veins of the Heart
    b. The Veins of the Head and Neck
      1. The Veins of the Exterior of the Head and Face
      2. The Veins of the Neck
      3. The Diploic Veins
      4. The Veins of the Brain
      5. The Sinuses of the Dura Mater. Ophthalmic Veins and Emissary Veins

    c. The Veins of the Upper Extremity and Thorax
    d. The Veins of the Lower Extremity, Abdomen, and Pelvis
4. The Portal System of Veins

7. The Lymphatic System

1. Introduction
2. The Thoractic Duct
3. The Lymphatics of the Head, Face, and Neck
4. The Lymphatics of the Upper Extremity
5. The Lymphatics of the Lower Extremity
6. The Lymphatics of the Abdomen and Pelvis
7. The Lymphatic Vessels of the Thorax

8. Neurology

1. Structure of the Nervous System
2. Development of the Nervous System
3. The Spinal Cord or Medulla Spinalis
4. The Brain or Encephalon
    a. The Hind-brain or Rhombencephalon
    b. The Mid-brain or Mesencephalon
    c. The Fore-brain or Prosencephalon
    d. Composition and Central Connections of the Spinal Nerves
    e. Composition and Central Connections of the Spinal Nerves
    f. Pathways from the Brain to the Spinal Cord
    g. The Meninges of the Brain and Medulla Spinalis
    h. The Cerebrospinal Fluid i. The lateral brain
    j. The Ventral brain
5. The Cranial Nerves
    a. The Olfactory Nerves
    b. The Optic Nerve
    c. The Oculomotor Nerve
    d. The Trochlear Nerve
    e. The Trigeminal Nerve
    f. The Abducent Nerve
    g. The Facial Nerve
    h. The Acoustic Nerve
    i. The Glossopharyngeal Nerve
    j. The Vagus Nerve
    k. The Accessory Nerve
    l. The Hypoglossal Nerve
    Multiple Choice Q's
6. The Spinal Nerves
    a. The Posterior Divisions
    b. The Anterior Divisions
    c. The Thoracic Nerves
    d. The Lumbosacral Plexus
    e. The Sacral and Coccygeal Nerves
7. The Sympathetic Nerves
    a. The Cephalic Portion of the Sympathetic System
    b. The Cervical Portion of the Sympathetic System
    c. The Thoracic Portion of the Sympathetic System
    d. The Abdominal Portion of the Sympathetic System
    e. The Pelvic Portion of the Sympathetic System
    f. The Great Plexuses of the Sympathetic System

9. The Organs of the Senses and the Common Integument

1. The Peripheral Organs of the Special Senses
    a. The Organs of Taste
    b. The Organ of Smell
    c. The Organ of Sight
      1. The Tunics of the Eye
      2. The Refracting Media
      3. The Accessory Organs of the Eye

    d. The Organ of Hearing
      1. The External Ear
      2. The Middle Ear or Tympanic Cavity
      3. The Auditory Ossicles
      4. The Internal Ear or Labyrinth

    e. Peripheral Terminations of Nerves of General Sensations
2. The Common Integument

10. Splanchnology

1. The Respiratory Apparatus
    a. The Larynx
    b. The Trachea and Bronchi
    c. The Pleuae
    d. The Mediastinum
    e. The Lungs
    2. The Digestive Apparatus
      a. The Mouth
      b. The Fauces
      c. The Pharynx
      d. The Esophagus
      e. The Abdomen
      f. The Stomach
      g. The Small Intestine
      h. The Large Intestine
      i. The Liver
      j. The Pancreas
    3. The Urogenital
      a. Development of the Urinary and Generative Organs
      b. The Urinary Organs
        1. The Kidneys
        2. The Ureters
        3. The Urinary Bladder
        4. The Male Urethra
        5. The Female Urethra

      c. The Male Genital Organs
        1. The Testes and their Coverings
        2. The Ductus Deferens
        3. The Vesicul� Seminales
        4. The Ejaculatory Ducts
        5. The Penis
        6. The Prostate
        7. The Bulbourethral Glands

      d. The Female Genital Organs
        1. The Ovaries
        2. The Uterine Tube
        3. The Uterus
        4. The Vagina
        5. The External Organs
        6. The Mammary
    4. The Ductless Glands
      a. The Thyroid Gland
      b. The Parathyroid Glands
      c. The Thymus
      d. The Hypophysis Cerebri
      e. The Pineal Body
      f. The Chromaphil and Cortical Systems
      g. The Spleen

    11. Surface Anatomy and Surface Markings

    1. Surface Anatomy of the Head and Neck
    2. Surface Markings of Special Regions of the Head and Neck
    3. Surface Anatomy of the Back
    4. Surface Markings of the Back
    5. Surface Anatomy of the Thorax
    6. Surface Markings of the Thorax
    7. Surface Anatomy of the Abdomen
    8. Surface Markings of the Abdomen
    9. Surface Anatomy of the Perineum
    10. Surface Markings of the Perineum
    11. Surface Anatomy of the Upper Extremity
    12. Surface Markings of the Upper Extremity
    13. Surface Anatomy of the Lower Extremity
    14. Surface Markings of the Lower Extremity
    Review Questions

    12. Embryology

    1. The Cell
    2. The Ovum
    3. The Spermatozo�n
    4. Fertilization of the Ovum
    5. Segmentation of the Fertilized Ovum
    6. The Neural Groove and Tube
    7. The Notochord
    8. The Primitive Segments
    9. Separation of the Embryo
    10. The Yolk-sac
    11. Development of the Fetal Membranes and Placenta
    12. The Branchial Region
    13. Development of the Body Cavities
    14. The Form of the Embryo at Different Stages of Its Growth

    Review Questions in Anatomy