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Oncology
What is Oncology?
Oncology is the field of medicine that involves the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Oncologists work in hospitals, medical centers, and research organizations.
Tumor
    What is a tumor?
    Are all tumors cancer?
    What are the types of tumor?
    What is tumor grade?
    How is tumor grade determined?
    What do the different tumor grades signify?
    Does the same grading scale apply to all tumors?
    Does tumor grade affect a patient's treatment options?
    Here are further guidelines.
Cancer
What are the categories of cancer?
In what tissues can carcinoma arise?
In what tissues can sarcoma arise?
In what tissues can leukemia arise?
In what tissues can lymphoma and myeloma arise?
In what tissues can central nervous system cancer arise?
Oncologist
    What should an oncologist be able to answer about cancer?
    What is the type of cancer?
    What is the category of cancer?
    What is the stage of cancer?
    What is the treatment?

    If a medical doctor or oncologist is not willing to answer relevant questions, file a complaint. An incompetent medical doctor has been assigned to serve people.
Cancer
    What is cancer?
    What are we made of?
    What causes cancer?
    Where do cancer cells come from?
    How does cancer grow and spread?
    Why do faulty genes lead to cancer?
    How is cancer detected?
    How is cancer treated?
    Why does cancer make people ill?
    How many different types of cancer are there?
    What are cancer stem cells?
    What are cancer symptoms and signs?
    How many different types of cancer are there?
    What are the types of cancer?
    What is the difference between the types and categories of cancer?
    Here are further guidelines.
What are cancer symptoms and signs?
Symptoms and signs of cancer depend on the type of cancer, where it is located, and/or where the cancer cells have spread. For example, breast cancer may present as a lump in the breast or as nipple discharge while metastatic breast cancer may present with symptoms of pain (if spread to bones), extreme fatigue (lungs), or seizures (brain). A few patients show no signs or symptoms until the cancer is far advanced. However, there are some signs and symptoms, although not specific, which usually occur in most cancer patients that are fairly easy for the person to detect. They are as follows:
Fever (no clear infectious source, recurrent or constant)

Fatigue (not relived by rest)

Weight loss (without trying to lose weight)

Pain (usually persistent)

Skin changes (coloration, sores that do not heal, white spots in mouth or on tongue, wart changes)

Change in bowel or bladder functions (including trouble swallowing or constipation)

Unusual bleeding (mouth, vaginal, and bladder) or discharge

Persistent cough or change in voice

Lumps or tissue masses

Anyone with these signs and symptoms should consult their doctor.

Many cancers will present with some of the above general symptoms but often have one or more symptoms that are more specific for the cancer type. For example, lung cancer may present with common symptoms of pain, but usually the pain is located in the chest. The patient may have unusual bleeding, but the bleeding usually occurs when the patient coughs. Lung cancer patients often become short of breath, and then become very fatigued.

Because there are so many cancer types (see next section) with so many nonspecific and sometimes more specific symptoms, the best way to learn about signs and symptoms of specific cancer types is to spend a few moments researching symptoms of a specific body area in question. Conversely, a specific body area can be searched to discover what signs and symptoms a person should look for in that area that is suspected of having cancer.

How many different types of cancer are there?

There are more than 200 different types of cancer. You can develop cancer in any body organ. There are over 60 different organs in the body where a cancer can develop.

However, cancers can be broadly grouped into different types, depending on which tissues they come from.

Carcinomas, the most common types of cancer, arise from the cells that cover external and internal body surfaces. Lung, breast, and colon are the most frequent cancers of this type.

Sarcomas are cancers arising from cells found in the supporting tissues of the body such as bone, cartilage, fat, connective tissue and muscle.

Lymphomas are cancers that arise in the lymph nodes and tissues of the body's immune system.

Leukaemias are cancers of the immature blood cells that grow in the bone marrow and tend to accumulate in large numbers in the bloodstream.
These terms often have prefixes that describe exactly what type of cell the cancer originated from. For example, an osteosarcoma is a cancer of the bone.

Adeno- = gland
Chondro- = cartilage
Haemangio- = blood vessels
Hepato- = liver
Lipo- = fat
Lympho- = white blood cell
Melano- = pigment cell
Myelo- = bone marrow
Myo- = muscle
Osteo- = bone
For Oncologists/Physicians
On November 27, 2010, it was revealed that 17 cases of lymphoma of the brain have been diagnosed in the last four years at SKIMS, Srinagar, Kashmir.
Mr Sheikh Aejaz from Medical Oncology chaired the session: Is that correct?
Mr Sheikh Aejaz: What is the proof of your competence?
You should be able to answer these questions.

What is lymphoma?
What are the different types of lymphoma?
How did you reach the diagnosis of lymphoma of the brain?
What type of treatment was administered?
Who supervised you during treatment of these cases?
Where were these 17 cases of lymphoma of the brain you diagnosed and treated as on November 28, 2010?
What should a medical doctor or an oncologist know about cancer?
Here are important guidelines.
Mr. Mushtaq Ahmad of the Department of Medical Oncology SKIMS.
On January 5, 2010, you declared to have diagnosed Multiple Myloma cases-is that correct?
I/we first need to know if you can properly diagnose Multiple Myloma; then we will discuss treatment.
How many Multiple Myloma cases have you diagnosed?
How did you reach this diagnosis?
If you have not answered the relevant questions displayed above, is it justified to take new issues, topics and cases?
Breast Cancer
Eye Cancer
Colon Cancer
Cervical Cancer
Kidney Cancer
Liver Cancer
Lymphoma
Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin's Type)
Lung Cancer
Multiple Myeloma
Melanoma
Pancreatic Cancer
Prostate Cancer
Skin Cancer
Stomach Cancer
Skin Cancer
Testicular Cancer
Chemotherapy
Radiotherapy
Surgical Oncology
Counseling

Do you have a question?
For Patients/Family/Relatives