Qureshi University, Advanced courses, via cutting edge technology, News, Breaking News | Latest News And Media | Current News
admin@qureshiuniversity.com

Apply for Academic Admission | Academic Guide | About the Founder | Aircraft | Ambassadors | Accreditation | Aviation World | A to Z Degree Fields | Biographies | Books | Blog | Catalog | Calendar | Climate | Collaboration | Colleges | Complaint | Contact Us | Construction | Contracts | Coordinates | Courses | Counseling Services | Create New Account | Credits and Credit Hours | Critical Care | Data Center | Departments | Doctor Consultation | Distance Education | Education materials | Electrical Engineer | Equipment | Emergency | Emergency call centers | Examinations | English Editing Service | Forms | Faculty | Facilities | Grants | Global Military Aircraft | Hardware | Hardware Resources | Helicopters | Hostels | Honorary Doctorate degree | Internet Education | Inspections | Investigations | Internet | Intellectual Property | Investment | Instructors | Islands | Internship | Job Openings | Journal | Kings and Queens | Login | Lecture | Languages | License/Permit/Registration | Maps | Medical Emergency | Manufacturing | Materials | Measurement | Mentor | Meeting Guidelines | Military Equipment Guide | Movies | Money transfer(Pay Now) | Membership | Navy | North America | Non-Emergency Services | Observers | Oceans | Oil | Operating systems | Planet Earth | Police | Products | Professions | Proposals | Publication | Professional Examinations | Paraprofessional | Profile | Progress Report | Recommendations | Referral or Reference | Research Grants | Research | States | Students login | Search | Software | Seminar | Study Center/Centre | Sponsorship | Submit an Issue | Surveillance | Team | Telephone Conversations | Time | Tutoring | Thesis | Universities | Universe & Space | Vehicles | Website | Word processor | Weather | Work counseling | Word Count Tool

Gastroenterology
  1. Assessment of a patient by a physician.

  2. Common GI Symptoms

  3. Common Digestive System Diseases

  4. Digestive Diseases

  5. Digestive system diseases

  6. Digestive system diseases human symptoms

  7. Functional disorders

  8. Gastroenterology

  9. Gastrointesinal Emergency Signs and Symptoms

  10. Gastroenterology Emergencies

  11. Gastroenterology Research

  12. Gastroenterology Sections

  13. Gastrointestinal Disorders

  14. Presentation from Gastroenterologist Guided by Doctor Asif Qureshi

  15. Questions and answers relevant to human digestive system and medical conditions.

  16. Quiz Human Digestive System

  17. Structural disorders

  18. What should a medical doctor know about a medical condition?

What describes your issues?
Take a look at this.

Gastrointesinal Emergency Signs and Symptoms
  1. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding (e.g., blood in the stool, vomiting blood)

  2. Change in bowel habits (e.g., acute diarrhea, severe constipation)

  3. Inability to have a bowel movement or pass gas from the rectum

  4. Inability to swallow (called aphagia)

  5. Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes; caused by excess bilirubin [pigment in bile] in the blood)

  6. Severe abdominal pain or swelling (distention)

  7. Uncontrolled vomiting

  8. Unexplained fever (may be caused by infection of the digestive tract)
Symptoms of digestive disorders
A
  1. Abdominal distension

  2. Abdominal guarding

  3. Abdominal pain

  4. Acute abdomen

  5. Aerophagia

  6. Ascites

  7. B
  8. Bad breath

  9. Bilious fever

  10. Bloating

  11. Burping

  12. C
  13. Castell's sign

  14. D
  15. Defecation

  16. Diarrhea

  17. Dysphagia

  18. E
  19. Encopresis

  20. Esophageal dysphagia

  21. F
  22. Fecal incontinence

  23. Flatulence

  24. G
  25. Gastric distension

  26. H
  27. Heartburn

  28. Hepatomegaly

  29. Hepatosplenomegaly

  30. J
  31. Jaundice

  32. N
  33. Nausea

  34. Nixon's sign

  35. O
  36. Obstructed defecation

  37. Odynophagia

  38. Omental infarction

  39. Organomegaly

  40. Oropharyngeal dysphagia

  41. R
  42. Rectal discharge

  43. Rectal pain

  44. Rectal tenesmus

  45. S
  46. Sonographic Murphy sign

  47. Splenomegaly

  48. Steatorrhea

  49. Stomach rumble

  50. Surgical management of fecal incontinence

  51. T
  52. Tympanites

  53. V
  54. Vomiting

  55. W
  56. Wet burp

  57. Wilderness-acquired diarrhea

  58. X
  59. Xerostomia
Assessment of a patient by a physician.

http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html#Assessment of a patient by a physician.

http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/gastroenterology-patient-Intake-form.html

Gastroenterology Emergencies
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/gastroenterology-emergencies.html

http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/gastroenterology.html

What is a Gastroenterologist?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/gastroenterologist.html

Gastroenterology Sections
* Biliary
* Colon
* Esophagus
* Intestine
* Liver
* Pancreas
* Stomach
* Systemic Disease
Biliary
  1. Acalculous Cholecystitis

  2. Acalculous Cholecystopathy

  3. Bile Duct Strictures

  4. Biliary Colic

  5. Biliary Disease

  6. Biliary Obstruction

  7. Cholangitis

  8. Cholecystitis

  9. Choledochal Cysts

  10. Choledocholithiasis

  11. Cholelithiasis

  12. Clostridial Cholecystitis

  13. Emphysematous Cholecystitis

  14. Empyema, Gallbladder

  15. Pericholangitis

  16. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

  17. Recurrent Pyogenic Cholangitis

    Colon


  18. Angiodysplasia of the Colon

  19. Clostridium Difficile Colitis

  20. Collagenous and Lymphocytic Colitis

  21. Colonic Obstruction

  22. Colonic Polyps

  23. Colonoscopy

  24. Constipation

  25. Cytomegalovirus Colitis

  26. Diverticulitis

  27. Gastroenteritis, Bacterial

  28. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer

  29. Hirschsprung Disease

  30. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

  31. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

  32. Megacolon, Acute

  33. Megacolon, Chronic

  34. Megacolon, Toxic

  35. Neutropenic Enterocolitis

  36. Ogilvie Syndrome

  37. Shigellosis

  38. Ulcerative Colitis

  39. Villous Adenoma

    Esophagus


  40. Achalasia

  41. Barrett Esophagus and Barrett Ulcer

  42. Boerhaave Syndrome

  43. Cytomegalovirus Esophagitis

  44. Esophageal Diverticula

  45. Esophageal Hematoma

  46. Esophageal Leiomyoma

  47. Esophageal Lymphoma

  48. Esophageal Motility Disorders

  49. Esophageal Spasm

  50. Esophageal Stricture

  51. Esophageal Varices

  52. Esophageal Webs and Rings

  53. Esophagitis

  54. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

  55. Hiatal Hernia

  56. Mallory-Weiss Tear

  57. Plummer-Vinson Syndrome

  58. Schatzki Ring

  59. Tracheoesophageal Fistula

    Intestine


  60. Afferent Loop Syndrome

  61. Celiac Sprue

  62. Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia

  63. Diverticulosis, Small Intestinal

  64. Duodenal Ulcers

  65. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

  66. Gastroenteritis, Viral

  67. Giardiasis

  68. Ileus

  69. Intestinal Fistulas

  70. Intestinal Leiomyosarcoma

  71. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia

  72. Intestinal Motility Disorders

  73. Intestinal Polypoid Adenomas

  74. Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction, Surgical Treatment

  75. Intestinal Radiation Injury

  76. Lactose Intolerance

  77. Mesenteric Lymphadenitis

  78. Protein-Losing Enteropathy

  79. Sprue, Tropical

  80. Whipple Disease

    Liver


  81. Acute Liver Failure

  82. Alcoholic Fatty Liver

  83. Alcoholic Hepatitis

  84. Amebic Hepatic Abscesses

  85. Autoimmune Hepatitis

  86. Bilirubin, Impaired Conjugation

  87. Budd-Chiari Syndrome

  88. Chylous Ascites

  89. Cirrhosis

  90. Crigler-Najjar Syndrome

  91. Diagnostic Liver Biopsy

  92. Dubin-Johnson Syndrome

  93. Encephalopathy, Hepatic

  94. Fatty Liver

  95. Gilbert Syndrome

  96. Hemangiomas, Hepatic

  97. Hepatic Cystadenomas

  98. Hepatitis A

  99. Hepatitis B

  100. Hepatitis C

  101. Hepatitis D

  102. Hepatitis E

  103. Hepatitis, Viral

  104. Hepatocellular Adenoma

  105. Hepatorenal Syndrome

  106. Hydatid Cysts

  107. Hyperbilirubinemia, Conjugated

  108. Isoniazid Hepatotoxicity

  109. Liver Disease and Pregnancy

  110. Portal Hypertension

  111. Portal Vein Obstruction

  112. Portal-Systemic Encephalopathy

  113. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    Pancreas


  114. Hyperamylasemia

  115. Pancreatic Divisum

  116. Pancreatic Necrosis and Pancreatic Abscess

  117. Pancreatic Pseudocysts

  118. Pancreatitis, Acute

  119. Pancreatitis, Chronic

  120. Papillary Tumors

    Stomach


  121. Achlorhydria

  122. Dumping Syndrome

  123. Gastric Ulcers

  124. Gastrinoma

  125. Gastritis, Acute

  126. Gastritis, Atrophic

  127. Gastritis, Chronic

  128. Gastritis, Stress-Induced

  129. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

  130. Helicobacter Pylori Infection

  131. Peptic Ulcer Disease

  132. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

    Systemic Disease


  133. Ascites

  134. Chylothorax

  135. Crohn Disease

  136. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy

  137. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

  138. Food Poisoning

  139. Gastrointestinal Disease and Pregnancy

  140. Hemochromatosis

  141. Hyperbilirubinemia, Unconjugated

  142. Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding

  143. Malabsorption

  144. Malignant Atrophic Papulosis

  145. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

  146. Somatostatinomas

  147. Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

  148. WDHA Syndrome

  149. Wilson Disease
What is an endoscopy?
An endoscopy is a medical procedure used to view the digestive tract,and other internal organs, non surgically. Through the use of an endoscope (a flexible tube with a lighted camera attached, the internal body structures are seen on a color monitor by the physician.

Why is an endoscopy performed?
Endoscopy is often used to evaluate severe stomach pain, ulcers, gastritis, digestive tract bleeding, and to investigate polyps or masses in the colon.
Possible Complications: Possible complications of endoscopy include bleeding, tear in the abdominal wall, and reactions to sedation medications.

Is the procedure done under anesthesia?
An endoscopy is performed under sedation, through an IV. The patient usually wakes about an hour after the procedure is done. General anesthesia is given in special circumstances. Preparation: You can prepare for the procedure by fasting 6-8 hours prior to the endoscopy (per doctor's orders) and you will most likely be given a laxative to clear the bowels.

Types of Endoscopy: There are many types of endoscopy procedures, including:
Arthroscopy
Bronchoscopy
Colonoscopy
Colposcopy
Cystoscopy
ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography)
EGD (Esophogealgastroduodensoscopy)
Laparoscopy
Laryngoscopy
Proctoscopy
Thoracoscopy

What is an EGD?
Upper endoscopy, also called esophagogastroduodenoscopy, or EGD, uses a thin scope with a light and camera at its tip to look inside of the upper digestive system -- the esophagus, stomach and first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum.

Usually performed as an outpatient procedure, upper endoscopy sometimes must be performed in the hospital or emergency room to both identify and treat conditions such as upper digestive system bleeding.

The procedure is commonly used to help identify the causes of:

Abdominal
Nausea and vomiting
Heartburn
Bleeding
Swallowing problems

Endoscopy can also help identify inflammation, ulcers and tumors.

Upper endoscopy is more accurate than X-rays for detecting abnormal growths (such as cancer) and for examining the inside of the upper digestive system. In addition, abnormalities can be treated through the endoscope. For example:
Polyps (growths of tissue in the stomach) can be identified and removed, and tissue samples (biopsies) can be taken for analysis.
Narrowed areas or strictures of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum from cancer or other diseases can be dilated or stretched using balloons or other devices. In some cases, a stent (a wire or plastic mesh tube) can be put in the stricture to prop it open.
Objects stuck in the esophagus can be removed.
Bleeding due to ulcers, cancer or varices can be treated.

Q: How do I prepare for the procedure?
A: Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, have a lung or heart condition, or if you are allergic to any medications.
Also tell your doctor if you have:
Ever been told you need to take antibiotics before a dental or surgical procedure.
Ever had endocarditis (an infection of the heart valves).
An artificial heart valve.
Rheumatic heart disease.

If you have any of these conditions or devices, you may need to take antibiotics before the upper endoscopy.

Do not eat or drink anything for eight hours before the procedure.

Medications for high blood pressure heart conditions, or thyroid conditions may be taken with a small sip of water before the procedure. If you have diabetes and use insulin, you must adjust the dosage of insulin the day of the test. Your diabetes care provider will help you with this adjustment. Bring your diabetes medication with you so you can take it after the procedure.

You will need to bring a responsible adult with you to accompany you home after the procedure. The sedation given during the procedure causes drowsiness and dizziness and impairs your judgment, making it unsafe for you to drive or operate machinery for up to 8 hours following the procedure.

Q: What happens during the procedure?
A: Before your doctor performs the test, he or she will explain the procedure in detail, inkling possible complications and side effects. The doctor will also answer any questions you may have.
You will be asked to wear a hospital gown and to remove your eyeglasses and dentures.
A local anesthetic (pain-relieving medication) may be applied at the back of your throat.
You will be given a pain reliever and a sedative intravenously (in your vein) that will make you feel relaxed and drowsy.
A mouthpiece will be placed in your mouth.
You will lie on your left side during the procedure.
The doctor will insert the endoscope into your mouth, through your esophagus (the "food pipe" leading from your mouth into your stomach) and into your stomach.
Most procedures take 15 to 20 minutes.

Q: What happens after the procedure?
A: You will stay in a recovery room for about 30 minutes for observation.
You may feel a temporary soreness in your throat. Lozenges may help.
The doctor who performed the endoscopy will send the test results to your primary or referring doctor.
The specialist or your primary provider will discuss the results with you after the procedure. If the results indicate that prompt medical attention is needed, the necessary arrangements will be made and your referring provider will be notified.
Warning
If you have severe abdominal pain, a continuous cough, fever, chills, chest pain, nausea or vomiting within 72 hours after the procedure, call your doctor's office right away or go to the emergency room.

Q: Is endoscopy safe?
A: Serious risks with an endoscopy are rare. However, excessive bleeding is always a possibility and rarely a tear in the esophagus or stomach wall can occur.

Q: Do you have better answer?
Q: Does anyone else have a better answer?
Q: Would you like to print Dr. Q's research and development in Gastroenterology?
Q: What questions do we need to follow up on?
Have an interesting case?


How Common is Heartburn?
What is Heartburn?
What Are the Treatments for Infrequent Heartburn?
What is GERD?
What are the Complications of GERD?
What are the Treatments for GERD?
What is a Gastroenterologist?
What are Some Severe Complications and Atypical Manifestations of GERD?

How Common is Heartburn?

Over 60 million Americans experience heartburn at least once a month, and some studies have suggested that over 15 million Americans experience heartburn symptoms each day. Symptoms of heartburn, also known as acid indigestion, are more common among the elderly and pregnant women.

What is Heartburn?

Most people will experience heartburn if the lining of the esophagus comes in contact with too much stomach juice for too long a period of time. This stomach juice consists of acid, digestive enzymes and other injurious materials. The prolonged contact of acidic stomach juice with the esophageal lining injures the esophagus and produces a burning discomfort. Many people describe this burning discomfort as localized behind the breastbone. Some even experience the bitter or sour taste of acid in the back of the throat. The burning and pressure symptoms of heartburn can last for several hours and often worsen after eating food.

What Are the Treatments for Infrequent Heartburn?

In many cases, doctors find that infrequent heartburn can be controlled by lifestyle modification and proper use of over-the-counter medicines.

Avoid foods and beverages which contribute to heartburn: chocolate, coffee, peppermint, greasy or spicy foods, tomato products and alcoholic beverages.

Stop smoking. Tobacco inhibits saliva, which is the body's major buffer. Tobacco may also stimulate stomach acid production and relax the muscle between the esophagus and the stomach, permitting acid reflux to occur.

Reduce weight if too heavy.

Do not eat 2-3 hours before sleep.

For infrequent episodes of heartburn, you may get relief from an over-the-counter antacid or an H2 blocker, some of which are now available without a prescription.

What is GERD?

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when a muscular valve at the lower end of the esophagus called the lower esophageal sphincter or "LES" -- malfunctions. Normally this muscle keeps the acid in the stomach and out of the esophagus. However, when the LES relaxes too frequently, it allows stomach acid to reflux, or flow backward, into the esophagus. GERD usually is associated with persistent heartburn episodes that occur two or more times a week.

What are the Complications of GERD?

When GERD is not treated, serious complications can occur, including: severe chest pain that mimics a heart attack, esophageal stricture (a narrowing or obstruction of the esophagus), bleeding, or a pre-cancerous change in the lining of the esophagus called Barrett's esophagus. Symptoms suggesting that serious damage may have already occurred include:

Dysphagia -- difficulty swallowing or a feeling that food is trapped behind the breast bone

Bleeding -- vomiting blood or having black bowel movements

Choking -- sensation of acid refluxed into the windpipe causing shortness of breath, coughing or hoarseness

Weight Loss

What are the Treatments for GERD?

Lifestyle Modification

Individuals seeking to alleviate the discomfort associated with GERD can follow the same guidelines of behavior modification that have been outlined to treat infrequent episodes of heartburn.

Change eating and sleeping habits

Avoid tight clothing

Change your diet

Curtail habits which contribute to GERD such as smoking and use of alcoholic beverages

In addition, in order to decrease the amount of gastric contents which reach the lower esophagus it is suggested to:

Raise the head of the bed

The simplest method is to use a 4" x 4" piece of wood with two jar caps nailed to it. The jar caps should be an appropriate distance apart to receive the legs or casters at the upper end of the bed. Failure to use the jar caps inevitably results being jolted from sleep as the upper end of the bed rolls off the 4" x 4."

Alternatively, one may use an under-mattress foam wedge to elevate the head about 6" x 10" inches. Pillows are not an effective alternative for elevating the head in preventing reflux.

Medical Treatment of GERD

GERD has a physical cause and frequently cannot be curtailed by these lifestyle factors alone. If individuals are using over-the-counter medication more than twice a week or are still having symptoms on the prescription or other medicines they are taking, they need to see their doctor or a gastroenterologist.

What are Some Severe Complications and Atypical Manifestations of GERD?

GERD can Masquerade as Other Diseases

Chest Pain

Patients with GERD may have chest pain similar to angina or heart pain. Usually, they also have other symptoms like heartburn and acid regurgitation.

Asthma

Acid reflux may aggravate asthma. Recent studies suggest that the majority of asthmatics have acid reflux. Clues that GERD may be worsening your asthma include 1) asthma that appears for the first time during adulthood, 2) asthma that gets worse after meals, lying down or exercise, 3) asthma that occurs mainly at night.

Ear, Nose and Throat Problems

Acid reflux may be a cause of chronic cough, sore throat, laryngitis with hoarseness and frequent throat clearing.

People with Longstanding GERD Can Experience Severe

Complications:

Esophageal Stricture

This condition is a characterized by a narrowing of the esophagus in response to frequent acid reflux. Chronic acid injury and scarring of the lower esophagus causes this stricture. Patients may complain of food sticking in the lower esophagus. Heartburn symptoms may actually decrease as the esophageal opening narrows, preventing acid reflux.

Barrett's Esophagus

The most serious complication of chronic GERD is Barrett's Esophagus -- a condition in which the lining of the esophagus changes to resemble the intestine in an adaptation prompted by the recurring injury from acid reflux. Even though patients may complain of less heartburn with Barrett's Esophagus, this is a pre-cancerous condition.

Gastroenterology Procedures

* Upper endoscopy
* Flexible sigmoidoscopy
* Colonoscopy E.R.C.P./papillotomy
* Laparoscopy and liver biopsy
* Endoscopic ultrasound
* Esophageal motility and pH monitoring studies
* Sphincter of Oddi manometry
* Endoscopic hemostasis and sclerotherapy
* Anoscopy and hemorrhoid treatment
* Endoscopic cancer palliation
* Mucosal biopsy
* Anorectal manometry
* Endoscopic foreign body removal
* Anorectal biofeedback
* Gastroduodenal manometry
* Endoscopic polypectomy
* Esophageal dilation
* Capsule endoscopy

Digestive Diseases
A
    * Abdominal Adhesions
    * Acid Indigestion
    * Acid Reflux
    * Acid Regurgitation
    * Adhesions
    * Alagille Syndrome
    * Anal Fissure
    * Anatomic Problems of the Colon
    * Antacids
    * Anus and Rectum
    * Appendicitis
    * Appendix
    * Autoimmune Hepatitis
B
    * Bacteria and Foodborne Illness
    * Barium Enema (See Lower GI Series)
    * Barium Swallow (See Lower GI Series)
    * Barrett’s Esophagus
    * Basics, Digestive System
    * Bile Ducts
    * Biliary Atresia
    * Biopsy, Liver
    * Bleeding in the Digestive Tract
    * Bowel and Intestines
    * Bowel Control (Fecal Incontinence)
    * Bowel Control Problems: What You Need to Know
    * Bowel Diversion Surgeries: Ileostomy, Colostomy, Ileoanal Reservoir, and Continent Ileostomy
    * Bowel Incontinence
    * Bowel Obstruction (See Abdominal Adhesions)
    * Bristol Stool Form Scale
C
    * Celiac Disease
    * Celiac Sprue
    * Children and Digestive Problems
    * Cirrhosis
    * Cirrhosis of the Liver
    * Cirrhosis, Primary Biliary
    * Colitis (See Ulcerative Colitis)
    * Collagenous Colitis
    * Colonoscopy
    * Colon Polyps
    * Colostomy
    * Constipation
    * Constipation in Children
    * Continent Ileostomy
    * Copper Storage Disease (See Wilson Disease)
    * Crohn’s Disease
    * Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome
D
    * Dehydration
    * Delayed Gastric Emptying (See Gastroparesis)
    * Dermatitis Herpetiformis: Skin Manifestation of Celiac Disease (for health care professionals)
    * DH (See Dermatitis Herpetiformis: Skin Manifestation of Celiac Disease)
    * Diagnostic Tests
    * Diarrhea
    * Diarrhea
    * Dietary Fiber and Digestive Diseases
    * Digestion
    * The Digestive Diseases Dictionary
    * Directory of Digestive Diseases Organizations
    * Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis
    * Drug Information
    * Dumping Syndrome
    * Duodenal Ulcers
    * Dysentery (See Diarrhea)
    * Dyspepsia (See Indigestion)
E
    * Eating and Digestive Diseases
    * Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
    * Endoscopy
    * Enterocele (See Hernia)
    * ERCP
    * Esophagus
F
    * Fecal Incontinence
    * Feeding Tube (See Gastroparesis)
    * Fiber
    * Fistula
    * Flatulence
    * Flexible Sigmoidoscopy
    * Foodborne Illness
    * Food Poisoning
G
    * Gallbladder
    * Gallstones
    * Gas
    * Gas, Heartburn, and Indigestion
    * Gas in the Digestive Tract
    * Gastrin
    * Gastritis
    * Gastroenteritis
    * Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER)
    * Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
    * Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children and Adolescents
    * Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants
    * Gastroparesis
    * GER
    * GERD
    * Gluten-free Diet (See Celiac Disease)
    * Gluten Intolerance (See Celiac Disease)
    * Gluten-sensitive Enteropathy (See Celiac Disease)
H
    * Hepatitis A
    * Hepatitis B
    * Hepatitis C
    * Heartburn
    * Heartburn, Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER), and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
    * Hemochromatosis
    * Hemorrhoids
    * Hepatitis Publications
    * Hepatolenticular Degeneration (See Wilson Disease)
    * Hernia
    * Hiatal Hernia
    * Hirschsprung Disease
    * H. pylori and Peptic Ulcers
I
    * IBD (See Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
    * IBS (See Irritable Bowel Syndrome)
    * Ileoanal Reservoir
    * Ileostomy
    * Imaging Studies (See Diagnostic Tests)
    * Incontinence, Fecal
    * Indigestion
    * Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
    * Inguinal Hernia
    * Intestinal Adhesions (See Abdominal Adhesions)
    * Intestinal Gas (See Gas in the Digestive Tract)
    * Intestinal Obstruction (See Abdominal Adhesions)
    * Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction
    * Iron Overload Disease (See Hemochromatosis)
    * Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
    * Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children
J
    * Jaundice (See Biliary Atresia)
K
    * Kasai Procedure (See Biliary Atresia)
L
    * Laboratory Tests (See Diagnostic Tests)
    * Lactose Intolerance
    * Laxatives (See Constipation)
    * Liver
    * Liver Biopsy
    * Liver Cirrhosis
    * Liver Transplantation
    * Lower GI Series
    * Lymphocytic Colitis
M
    * Mallory-Weiss Syndrome (See Bleeding in the Digestive Tract)
    * Medications
    * Ménétrier Disease
    * Microscopic Colitis: Collagenous Colitis and Lymphocytic Colitis
    * Milk Intolerance (See Lactose Intolerance)
    * Milk, Problems Digesting
N
    * Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)
    * Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (See NSAIDs and Peptic Ulcers)
    * Nontropical Sprue (See Celiac Disease)
    * NSAIDs and Peptic Ulcers
O
    * Ostomy
P
    * Pancreas
    * Pancreatitis
    * PBC (See Primary Biliary Cirrhosis)
    * Peptic Ulcers
    * Piles (See Hemorrhoids)
    * Polyps
    * Porphyria
    * Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC)
    * Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC)
    * Proctitis
    * PSC (See Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis)
    * Pseudo-obstruction
    * Pyrosis (See Heartburn)
R
    * Rapid Gastric Emptying
    * Regional Enteritis (See Crohn’s Disease)
    * Regional Ileitis (See Crohn’s Disease)
S
    * Salivary Glands
    * Short Bowel Syndrome
    * Sigmoidoscopy
    * Smoking and Your Digestive System
    * Statistics, Digestive Diseases
    * Stoma (See Bowel Diversion Surgeries: Ileostomy, Colostomy, Ileoanal Reservoir, and Continent Ileostomy)
    * Stomach
    * Stomach Flu (See Viral Gastroenteritis)
    * Stomach Infection (See Bacteria and Foodborne Illness)
    * Stomach Ulcers
    * Stool Diary
    * Summary of Recommendations for Adult Immunization
T
    * Testing for Celiac Disease
    * Tests for Digestive Diseases
    * Transplantation
    * Traveler’s Diarrhea (See Diarrhea)
U
    * Ulcerative Colitis
    * Ulcers
    * Upper GI Endoscopy
    * Upper GI Series
    * Upset Stomach (See Indigestion)
V
    * Vaccinations for Hepatitis A and B
    * Viral Gastroenteritis
    * Viral Hepatitis
    * Virtual Colonoscopy
W
    * Whipple's Disease
    * Wilson Disease
X
    * X-ray Tests (See Diagnostic Tests)
Y
    * Your Digestive System and How It Works
    Why is digestion important?
    How is food digested?
    How is the digestive process controlled?
Z
    * Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
Gastroenterology
Gastroenterology Research
Q: What is an endoscopy?
A: An endoscopy is a medical procedure used to view the digestive tract,and other internal organs, non surgically. Through the use of an endoscope (a flexible tube with a lighted camera attached, the internal body structures are seen on a color monitor by the physician.

Q: Why is an endoscopy performed?
A: Endoscopy is often used to evaluate severe stomach pain, ulcers, gastritis, digestive tract bleeding, and to investigate polyps or masses in the colon.
Possible Complications: Possible complications of endoscopy include bleeding, tear in the abdominal wall, and reactions to sedation medications.

Q: Is the procedure done under anesthesia?
A: An endoscopy is performed under sedation, through an IV. The patient usually wakes about an hour after the procedure is done. General anesthesia is given in special circumstances. Preparation: You can prepare for the procedure by fasting 6-8 hours prior to the endoscopy (per doctor's orders) and you will most likely be given a laxative to clear the bowels.

Types of Endoscopy: There are many types of endoscopy procedures, including:
Arthroscopy
Bronchoscopy
Colonoscopy
Colposcopy
Cystoscopy
ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography)
EGD (Esophogealgastroduodensoscopy)
Laparoscopy
Laryngoscopy
Proctoscopy
Thoracoscopy

Q: What is an EGD?
A: Upper endoscopy, also called esophagogastroduodenoscopy, or EGD, uses a thin scope with a light and camera at its tip to look inside of the upper digestive system -- the esophagus, stomach and first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum.

Usually performed as an outpatient procedure, upper endoscopy sometimes must be performed in the hospital or emergency room to both identify and treat conditions such as upper digestive system bleeding.

The procedure is commonly used to help identify the causes of:

Abdominal
Nausea and vomiting
Heartburn
Bleeding
Swallowing problems

Endoscopy can also help identify inflammation, ulcers and tumors.

Upper endoscopy is more accurate than X-rays for detecting abnormal growths (such as cancer) and for examining the inside of the upper digestive system. In addition, abnormalities can be treated through the endoscope. For example:
Polyps (growths of tissue in the stomach) can be identified and removed, and tissue samples (biopsies) can be taken for analysis.
Narrowed areas or strictures of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum from cancer or other diseases can be dilated or stretched using balloons or other devices. In some cases, a stent (a wire or plastic mesh tube) can be put in the stricture to prop it open.
Objects stuck in the esophagus can be removed.
Bleeding due to ulcers, cancer or varices can be treated.

Q: How do I prepare for the procedure?
A: Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, have a lung or heart condition, or if you are allergic to any medications.
Also tell your doctor if you have:
Ever been told you need to take antibiotics before a dental or surgical procedure.
Ever had endocarditis (an infection of the heart valves).
An artificial heart valve.
Rheumatic heart disease.

If you have any of these conditions or devices, you may need to take antibiotics before the upper endoscopy.

Do not eat or drink anything for eight hours before the procedure.

Medications for high blood pressure heart conditions, or thyroid conditions may be taken with a small sip of water before the procedure. If you have diabetes and use insulin, you must adjust the dosage of insulin the day of the test. Your diabetes care provider will help you with this adjustment. Bring your diabetes medication with you so you can take it after the procedure.

You will need to bring a responsible adult with you to accompany you home after the procedure. The sedation given during the procedure causes drowsiness and dizziness and impairs your judgment, making it unsafe for you to drive or operate machinery for up to 8 hours following the procedure.

Q: What happens during the procedure?
A: Before your doctor performs the test, he or she will explain the procedure in detail, inkling possible complications and side effects. The doctor will also answer any questions you may have.
You will be asked to wear a hospital gown and to remove your eyeglasses and dentures.
A local anesthetic (pain-relieving medication) may be applied at the back of your throat.
You will be given a pain reliever and a sedative intravenously (in your vein) that will make you feel relaxed and drowsy.
A mouthpiece will be placed in your mouth.
You will lie on your left side during the procedure.
The doctor will insert the endoscope into your mouth, through your esophagus (the "food pipe" leading from your mouth into your stomach) and into your stomach.
Most procedures take 15 to 20 minutes.

Q: What happens after the procedure?
A: You will stay in a recovery room for about 30 minutes for observation.
You may feel a temporary soreness in your throat. Lozenges may help.
The doctor who performed the endoscopy will send the test results to your primary or referring doctor.
The specialist or your primary provider will discuss the results with you after the procedure. If the results indicate that prompt medical attention is needed, the necessary arrangements will be made and your referring provider will be notified.
Warning
If you have severe abdominal pain, a continuous cough, fever, chills, chest pain, nausea or vomiting within 72 hours after the procedure, call your doctor's office right away or go to the emergency room.

Q: Is endoscopy safe?
A: Serious risks with an endoscopy are rare. However, excessive bleeding is always a possibility and rarely a tear in the esophagus or stomach wall can occur.

Q: Do you have better answer?
Q: Does anyone else have a better answer?
Q: Would you like to print Dr. Q's research and development in Gastroenterology?
Q: What questions do we need to follow up on?
Have an interesting case?

What is an ulcer?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/gastro.html
  1. Who should ideally do an assessment of a patient?

  2. How many organ systems are there in the human body?

  3. Can you name the organ systems of the human body?

  4. How many digestive system organs are there in the human body?

  5. Can you name the digestive system organs in the human body?

  6. Can you label the parts of the human digestive tract?

  7. Quiz Human Digestive System

  8. What should specific physicians know about this organ of the human body?

  9. What is Gastroenterology?

  10. What should a medical doctor know about a medical condition?

Who should ideally do an assessment of a patient?
The physician should ideally do an assessment of the patient.

Physician primary care
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/primarycarephysician.html

Physician intensive care unit
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/criticalcareworld.html

Physician medical emergency room
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicinedoctor.html

Physician medical emergency responder
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicalresponder.html

Physician hospitalist (takes care of hospital ward patients)
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/hospitalist.html

Physician forensic psychiatry
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/forensicpsychiatrist.html

How many organ systems are there in the human body?
11

Can you name the organ systems of the human body?
  1. Brain & central nervous system (nervous system)

  2. Cardiovascular System/Circulatory System

  3. Digestive System

  4. Endocrine System

  5. Integumentary system

  6. Lymphatic (immune) system

  7. Muscular system

  8. Reproductive System

  9. Respiratory System

  10. Skeletal System

  11. Urinary system

How many digestive system organs are there in the human body?
11

Can you name the digestive system organs in the human body?
1.Mouth
2.Salivary glands
3.Pharynx
4.Esophagus
5.Stomach
6.Small intestine
7.Large intestine / Large Intestine, Rectum and Anal canal
8.Liver
9.Gallbladder
10.Mesentery
11.Pancreas

What should specific physicians know about this organ of the human body?

Anatomical location and shape of this organ of the human body
Arterial supply
Structural Biochemistry/Cell Signaling Pathways/Digestive System
Digestive Diseases : Symptoms and Signs
Digestive Diseases
Gastroenterology Emergencies http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/gastroenterology.html Embryogenesis development
History
Nerve supply
Physiology
Society and culture
Structure
Venous drainage

What is the development of this organ in the human body?
What is the physiology of this organ of the human body?
What is the structure of this organ of the human body?
What are __________ diseases affecting this organ of the human body?
What is the anatomical location and shape of this organ of the human body?
What organ system does this organ of the human body belong to?
What arteries connect to this organ of the human body?
What is the arterial supply of this organ in the human body?
What are the venous connections of this organ in the human body?
What is the venous drainage of this organ in the human body?
What is the nerve supply of this organ in the human body?
What are the social and cultural implications of this organ of the human body?
What is the history of this organ of the human body?
Who must know everything about this medical condition?
What recent diagnostic tests are available for this organ of the human body?
What recent treatment for various medical conditions is available for this organ of the human body?
What have been various research findings?
What risks are there in the stenting procedure?

What human anatomy should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What human physiology should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What human biochemistry should one know relevant to this medical condition?

What human anatomy should one know relevant to this medical condition?

What should you elaborate about a human organ?
What is the gross anatomy of this human organ?
What are the attachments of this human organ?
What is the arterial, venous supply to this human organ?
What is the nerve supply to this human organ?
What is the lymphatic supply to this human organ?
What are the functions of this human organ?
What medical conditions are associated with any problems with this human organ?


What is Gastroenterology?
Gastroenterology: The medical specialty devoted to the study, diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the digestive system.

Digestive Diseases : Symptoms and Signs
Digestive Diseases
Gastroenterology Emergencies
  • What is a Gastroenterologist?

  • Digestive system diseases human symptoms
    Assessment of a patient by a physician.
    Assessment of a patient by a physician.
    Assessment of a patient by a physician.
    What are the issues?
    1. Abdominal Ascites

    2. Abdominal Fullness Or Bloating

    3. Abdominal Pain In Adults

    4. Abdominal Pain, Age 12 And Older

    5. Abscess, Anal

    6. Abscess, Perianal

    7. Abscess, Perirectal

    8. Acute Abdominal Ascites

    9. Acute Abdominal Pain In Children

    10. Anorexia (R63.0)

    11. Belching (R14)

    12. Bleeding From The Bottom

    13. Bleeding From The Digestive Tract

    14. Bloating (R14)

    15. Blood In Stool:

    16. Burping

    17. Changes In Bowel Habit (usually Constipation Or Diarrhoea)

    18. Chronic Abdominal Pain In Children

    19. Constipation (K59.0)

    20. Diarrhea (A09, K58, K59.1)

    21. Difficulty Swallowing

    22. Dyspepsia (K30)

    23. Dysphagia (R13)

    24. Fecal Incontinence

    25. Flatulence (R14)

    26. Gallstones

    27. Heartburn

    28. Haematemesis

    29. Hematochezia

    30. Incontinence.

    31. Indigestion

    32. Lactose Intolerance

    33. Losing Weight Unexpectedly

    34. Melena (K92.1)

    35. Nausea (R11)

    36. Nausea And Vomiting.

    37. Odynophagia

    38. Pain In The Belly

    39. Pain Or Discomfort In Your Abdomen

    40. Passing Gas

    41. Proctalgia Fugax

    42. Pyrosis (R12)

    43. Rectal Malodor

    44. Reflux

    45. Regurgitation

    46. Steatorrhea

    47. Vomiting (R11)

    48. Worsening Heartburn, Indigestion Or Stomach Pain

    Can you label the parts of the human digestive tract?

    Digestive Diseases
    Digestive system diseases
    Oral disease
    Oesophageal disease
    Gastric disease
    Intestinal disease / Small intestine / Large intestine
    Rectum and anus
    Digestive gland disease
      Hepatic
      Pancreatic
      Gallbladder and biliary tract


    A
    1. Abdominal Adhesions

    2. Acid Indigestion

    3. Acid Reflux

    4. Acid Regurgitation

    5. Adhesions

    6. Alagille Syndrome

    7. Anal Fissure

    8. Anatomic Problems of the Colon

    9. Antacids

    10. Anus and Rectum

    11. Appendicitis

    12. Appendix

    13. Autoimmune Hepatitis

      B


    14. Bacteria and Foodborne Illness

    15. Barium Enema (See Lower GI Series)

    16. Barium Swallow (See Lower GI Series)

    17. Barrett’s Esophagus

    18. Basics, Digestive System

    19. Bile Ducts

    20. Biliary Atresia

    21. Biopsy, Liver

    22. Bleeding in the Digestive Tract

    23. Bowel and Intestines

    24. Bowel Control (Fecal Incontinence)

    25. Bowel Control Problems: What You Need to Know

    26. Bowel Diversion Surgeries: Ileostomy, Colostomy, Ileoanal Reservoir, and Continent Ileostomy

    27. Bowel Incontinence

    28. Bowel Obstruction (See Abdominal Adhesions)

    29. Bristol Stool Form Scale

      C


    30. Celiac Disease

    31. Celiac Sprue

    32. Children and Digestive Problems

    33. Cirrhosis

    34. Cirrhosis of the Liver

    35. Cirrhosis, Primary Biliary

    36. Colitis (See Ulcerative Colitis)

    37. Collagenous Colitis

    38. Colonoscopy

    39. Colon Polyps

    40. Colostomy

    41. Constipation

    42. Constipation in Children

    43. Continent Ileostomy

    44. Copper Storage Disease (See Wilson Disease)

    45. Crohn’s Disease

    46. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

      D


    47. Dehydration

    48. Delayed Gastric Emptying (See Gastroparesis)

    49. Dermatitis Herpetiformis: Skin Manifestation of Celiac Disease (for health care professionals)

    50. DH (See Dermatitis Herpetiformis: Skin Manifestation of Celiac Disease)

    51. Diagnostic Tests

    52. Diarrhea

    53. Diarrhea

    54. Dietary Fiber and Digestive Diseases

    55. Digestion

    56. The Digestive Diseases Dictionary

    57. Directory of Digestive Diseases Organizations

    58. Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis

    59. Drug Information

    60. Dumping Syndrome

    61. Duodenal Ulcers

    62. Dysentery (See Diarrhea)

    63. Dyspepsia (See Indigestion)

      E


    64. Eating and Digestive Diseases

    65. Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

    66. Endoscopy

    67. Enterocele (See Hernia)

    68. ERCP

    69. Esophagus F



    70. Fecal Incontinence

    71. Feeding Tube (See Gastroparesis)

    72. Fiber

    73. Fistula

    74. Flatulence

    75. Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    76. Foodborne Illness

    77. Food Poisoning

      G


    78. Gallbladder

    79. Gallstones

    80. Gas

    81. Gas, Heartburn, and Indigestion

    82. Gas in the Digestive Tract

    83. Gastrin

    84. Gastritis

    85. Gastroenteritis

    86. Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER)

    87. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

    88. Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children and Adolescents

    89. Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants

    90. Gastroparesis

    91. GER

    92. GERD

    93. Gluten-free Diet (See Celiac Disease)

    94. Gluten Intolerance (See Celiac Disease)

    95. Gluten-sensitive Enteropathy (See Celiac Disease)

      H


    96. Hepatitis A

    97. Hepatitis B

    98. Hepatitis C

    99. Heartburn

    100. Heartburn, Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER), and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

    101. Hemochromatosis

    102. Hemorrhoids

    103. Hepatitis Publications

    104. Hepatolenticular Degeneration (See Wilson Disease)

    105. Hernia

    106. Hiatal Hernia

    107. Hirschsprung Disease

    108. H. pylori and Peptic Ulcers

      I


    109. IBD (See Inflammatory Bowel Disease)

    110. IBS (See Irritable Bowel Syndrome)

    111. Ileoanal Reservoir

    112. Ileostomy

    113. Imaging Studies (See Diagnostic Tests)

    114. Incontinence, Fecal

    115. Indigestion

    116. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

    117. Inguinal Hernia

    118. Intestinal Adhesions (See Abdominal Adhesions)

    119. Intestinal Gas (See Gas in the Digestive Tract)

    120. Intestinal Obstruction (See Abdominal Adhesions)

    121. Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction

    122. Iron Overload Disease (See Hemochromatosis)

    123. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

    124. Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children

      J


    125. Jaundice (See Biliary Atresia)

      K


    126. Kasai Procedure (See Biliary Atresia)

      L


    127. Laboratory Tests (See Diagnostic Tests)

    128. Lactose Intolerance

    129. Laxatives (See Constipation)

    130. Liver

    131. Liver Biopsy

    132. Liver Cirrhosis

    133. Liver Transplantation

    134. Lower GI Series

    135. Lymphocytic Colitis

      M


    136. Mallory-Weiss Syndrome (See Bleeding in the Digestive Tract)

    137. Medications

    138. Ménétrier Disease

    139. Microscopic Colitis: Collagenous Colitis and Lymphocytic Colitis

    140. Milk Intolerance (See Lactose Intolerance)

    141. Milk, Problems Digesting

      N


    142. Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)

    143. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (See NSAIDs and Peptic Ulcers)

    144. Nontropical Sprue (See Celiac Disease)

    145. NSAIDs and Peptic Ulcers

      O


    146. Ostomy

      P


    147. Pancreas

    148. Pancreatitis

    149. PBC (See Primary Biliary Cirrhosis)

    150. Peptic Ulcers

    151. Piles (See Hemorrhoids)

    152. Polyps

    153. Porphyria

    154. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC)

    155. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC)

    156. Proctitis

    157. PSC (See Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis)

    158. Pseudo-obstruction

    159. Pyrosis (See Heartburn)

      R


    160. Rapid Gastric Emptying

    161. Regional Enteritis (See Crohn’s Disease)

    162. Regional Ileitis (See Crohn’s Disease)

      S


    163. Salivary Glands

    164. Short Bowel Syndrome

    165. Sigmoidoscopy

    166. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    167. Statistics, Digestive Diseases

    168. Stoma (See Bowel Diversion Surgeries: Ileostomy, Colostomy, Ileoanal Reservoir, and Continent Ileostomy)

    169. Stomach

    170. Stomach Flu (See Viral Gastroenteritis)

    171. Stomach Infection (See Bacteria and Foodborne Illness)

    172. Stomach Ulcers

    173. Stool Diary

    174. Summary of Recommendations for Adult Immunization

      T


    175. Testing for Celiac Disease

    176. Tests for Digestive Diseases

    177. Transplantation

    178. Traveler’s Diarrhea (See Diarrhea)

      U


    179. Ulcerative Colitis

    180. Ulcers

    181. Upper GI Endoscopy

    182. Upper GI Series

    183. Upset Stomach (See Indigestion)

      V


    184. Vaccinations for Hepatitis A and B

    185. Viral Gastroenteritis

    186. Viral Hepatitis

    187. Virtual Colonoscopy

      W


    188. Whipple's Disease

    189. Wilson Disease

      X


    190. X-ray Tests (See Diagnostic Tests)

      Y

    191. Your Digestive System and How It Works
      Why is digestion important?
      How is food digested?
      How is the digestive process controlled?


      Z


    192. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

    Quiz Human Digestive System

    Gastroenterology
    Gastroenterology Research
    Gastrointestinal Disorders
    Functional disorders
    Structural disorders

    Functional disorders

    Functional disorders are those in which the bowel looks normal but doesn't work properly. They are the most common problems affecting the colon and rectum, and include constipation and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The primary causes for functional disorders include:

    Eating a diet low in fiber
    Not getting enough exercise
    Traveling or other changes in routine
    Eating large amounts of dairy products
    Being stressed
    Resisting the urge to have a bowel movement
    Resisting the urge to have bowel movements due to pain from hemorrhoids
    Overusing laxatives (stool softeners) that, over time, weaken the bowel muscles
    Taking antacid medicines containing calcium or aluminum
    Taking certain medicines (especially antidepressants, iron pills, and strong pain medicines such as narcotics)
    Being pregnant

    Constipation

    Constipation is the difficult passage of stools (bowel movements) or the infrequent (less than three times a week) or incomplete passage of stools. Constipation is usually caused by inadequate "roughage" or fiber in the diet, or a disruption of the regular routine or diet. Constipation causes a person to strain during a bowel movement. It might include small, hard stools, and sometimes causes anal problems such as fissures and hemorrhoids. Constipation is rarely the sign of a more serious medical condition.

    Treatment of constipation includes increasing the amount of fiber you eat, exercising regularly, and moving your bowels when you have the urge (resisting the urge causes constipation). If these treatment methods don't work, laxatives are a temporary solution. Note that the overuse of laxatives can actually aggravate symptoms of constipation. Always follow the package instructions on the laxative medicine, as well as the advice of your doctor.

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

    Irritable bowel syndrome (also called spastic colon, irritable colon, or nervous stomach) is a condition in which the colon muscle contracts more readily than in people without IBS. A number of factors can trigger IBS including certain foods, medicines, and emotional stress. Symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain and cramps, excess gas, bloating, and a change in bowel habits such as harder, looser, or more urgent stools than normal. Often people with IBS have alternating constipation and diarrhea.

    Treatment includes avoiding caffeine, increasing fiber in the diet, monitoring which foods trigger IBS (and avoiding these foods), minimizing stress or learning different ways to cope with stress, and sometimes taking medicines as prescribed by your health care provider.

    Structural disorders

    Structural disorders are those in which the bowel looks abnormal and doesn't work properly. Sometimes, the structural abnormality needs to be removed surgically. The most common structural disorders are those affecting the anus, as well as diverticular disease and cancer.

    Anal disorders

    Hemorrhoids

    Hemorrhoids are swollen blood vessels that line the anal opening caused by chronic excess pressure from straining during a bowel movement, persistent diarrhea, or pregnancy. There are two types of hemorrhoids: internal and external.

    Internal hemorrhoids

    Internal hemorrhoids are normal structures cushioning the lower rectum and protecting it from damage by stool. When they fall down into the anus as a result of straining, they become irritated and start to bleed. Ultimately, internal hemorrhoids can fall down enough to prolapse (sink or protrude) out of the anus.

    Treatment includes improving bowel habits (such as avoiding constipation, not straining during bowel movements, and moving your bowels when you have the urge), using elastic bands to pull the internal hemorrhoids back into the rectum, or removing them surgically. Surgery is needed only for a small number of patients with very large, painful, and persistent hemorrhoids.

    External hemorrhoids

    External hemorrhoids are veins that lie just under the skin on the outside of the anus. Sometimes, after straining, the external hemorrhoidal veins burst and a blood clot forms under the skin. This very painful condition is called a pile.

    Treatment includes removing the clot and vein under local anesthesia in the doctor's office.

    Anal fissures

    Anal fissures are splits or cracks in the lining of the anal opening. The most common cause of an anal fissure is the passage of very hard or watery stools. The crack in the anal lining exposes the underlying muscles that control the passage of stool through the anus and out of the body. An anal fissure is one of the most painful problems because the exposed muscles become irritated from exposure to stool or air, and leads to intense burning pain, bleeding, or spasm after bowel movements.

    Initial treatment for anal fissures includes pain medicine, dietary fiber to reduce the occurrence of large, bulky stools, and sitz baths (sitting in a few inches of warm water). If these treatments don't relieve pain, surgery might be needed to decrease spasm in the sphincter muscle.

    Perianal abscesses

    Perianal abscesses can occur when the tiny anal glands that open on the inside of the anus become blocked, and the bacteria always present in these glands cause an infection. When pus develops, an abscess forms. Treatment includes draining the abscess, usually under local anesthesia in the doctor's office.

    Anal fistula

    An anal fistula often follows drainage of an abscess and is an abnormal tube-like passageway from the anal canal to a hole in the skin near the opening of the anus. Body wastes traveling through the anal canal are diverted through this tiny channel and out through the skin, causing itching and irritation. Fistulas also cause drainage, pain, and bleeding. They rarely heal by themselves and usually need surgery to drain the abscess and "close off" the fistula.

    Other perianal infections

    Sometimes the skin glands near the anus become infected and need to be drained. Just behind the anus, abscesses can form that contain a small tuft of hair at the back of the pelvis (called a pilonidal cyst).

    Sexually transmitted diseases that can affect the anus include anal warts, herpes, AIDS, chlamydia, and gonorrhea.

    Diverticular disease

    Diverticulosis is the presence of small outpouchings (diverticula) in the muscular wall of the large intestine that form in weakened areas of the bowel. They usually occur in the sigmoid colon, the high-pressure area of the lower large intestine.

    Diverticular disease is very common and occurs in 10 percent of people over age 40 and in 50 percent of people over age 60 in Western cultures. It is often caused by too little roughage (fiber) in the diet. Diverticulosis rarely causes symptoms.

    Complications of diverticular disease happen in about 10 percent of people with outpouchings. They include infection or inflammation (diverticulitis), bleeding, and obstruction. Treatment of diverticulitis includes antibiotics, increased fluids, and a special diet. Surgery is needed in about half the patients who have complications to remove the involved segment of the colon.

    Colon polyps and cancer

    Each year 130,000 Americans are diagnosed with colorectal cancer, the second most common form of cancer in the United States. Fortunately, with advances in early detection and treatment, colorectal cancer is one of the most curable forms of the disease. By using a variety of screening tests, it is possible to prevent, detect, and treat the disease long before symptoms appear.

    The importance of screening

    Almost all colorectal cancers begin as polyps, benign (non-cancerous) growths in the tissues lining the colon and rectum. Cancer develops when these polyps grow and abnormal cells develop and start to invade surrounding tissue. Removal of polyps can prevent the development of colorectal cancer. Almost all precancerous polyps can be removed painlessly using a flexible lighted tube called a colonoscope. If not caught in the early stages, colorectal cancer can spread throughout the body. More advanced cancer requires more complicated surgical techniques.

    Most early forms of colorectal cancer do not cause symptoms, which makes screening especially important. When symptoms do occur, the cancer might already be quite advanced. Symptoms include blood on or mixed in with the stool, a change in normal bowel habits, narrowing of the stool, abdominal pain, weight loss, or constant tiredness.

    Most cases of colorectal cancer are detected in one of four ways:

    By screening people at average risk for colorectal cancer beginning at age 50
    By screening people at higher risk for colorectal cancer (for example, those with a family history or a personal history of colon polyps or cancer)
    By investigating the bowel in patients with symptoms
    A chance finding at a routine check-up
    Early detection is the best chance for a cure.

    Colitis

    There are several types of colitis, conditions that cause an inflammation of the bowel. These include:

    Infectious colitis
    Ulcerative colitis (cause not known)
    Crohn's disease (cause not known)
    Ischemic colitis (caused by not enough blood going to the colon)
    Radiation colitis (after radiotherapy)
    Colitis causes diarrhea, rectal bleeding, abdominal cramps, and urgency (frequent and immediate need to empty the bowels). Treatment depends on the diagnosis, which is made by colonoscopy and biopsy.

    Summary

    Many diseases of the colon and rectum can be prevented or minimized by maintaining a healthy lifestyle, practicing good bowel habits, and submitting to cancer screening.

    If you have a family history of colorectal cancer or polyps, you should have a colonoscopy beginning at age 40, or 10 years younger than your youngest family member with cancer. (For example, if your brother was diagnosed with colorectal cancer or polyps at age 45, you should begin screening at age 35).

    If you have no family history of colorectal cancer and no personal history of other cancers, you should have a colonoscopy at age 50.

    If you have symptoms of colorectal cancer you should consult your doctor right away. Common symptoms include:

    A change in normal bowel habits
    Blood on or in the stool that is either bright or dark
    Unusual abdominal or gas pains
    Very narrow stool
    A feeling that the bowel has not emptied completely after passing stool
    Unexplained weight loss
    Fatigue

    Common GI Symptoms
    Heartburn
    Indigestion/dyspepsia
    Bloating
    Constipation

    Common Digestive System Diseases
    Celiac Disease This digestive disorder affects roughly 2 million people in the United States. Celiac disease damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. Those with Celiac disease are intolerant or sensitive to gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Symptoms and signs of Celiac disease include:
    •Diarrhea
    •Abdominal pain and bloating
    •Food intolerance
    •Weight loss
    •Vomiting
    •Constipation
    •Depression or anxiety
    •Tingling numbness in hands and feet
    •Seizures
    •Fatigue
    •Itchy skin rash called dermatitis herpetiformis

    The inflammation associated with Celiac disease carries a risk of some gastrointestinal cancers. Treatment for Celiac disease consists of following a strict, gluten-free diet.

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

    Studies estimate that approximately 10 to 15 percent of the adult population is affected by irritable bowel syndrome, with twice as many women as men affected by the disorder.

    Symptoms of this gastrointestinal (GI) disorder are caused by changes in how the GI tract works and can include both diarrhea and constipation. The most common symptoms of IBS are abdominal pain or discomfort, cramping, and changes in bowel habits.

    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

    GERD results when the lower esophageal sphincter–the muscle that acts as the valve between the esophagus and stomach–becomes weak or relaxes when it should not. This causes stomach contents to travel up the esophagus, triggering heartburn.

    Common symptoms of this GI disorder include:
    •Dry, chronic cough
    •Weezing
    •Nausea
    •Vomiting
    •Sore throat, hoarseness, or laryngitis
    •Difficult or painful swallowing
    •Pain in the chest or upper abdomen
    •Dental erosion and bad breath

    To diagnose GERD, a gastroenterologist may use an upper endoscopy (LINK to page) to see the upper GI tract and evaluate the severity. Treatment for GERD may involve lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery, depending on the severity of the issue.

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

    IBD is an umbrella for some serious digestive disorders including Crohn’s diease and ulcerative colitis. According to the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America, these digestive illnesses affect around 1.4 million Americans.

    Though researchers have not found a specific cause of IBD, it is suspected to be a combination of a faulty immune system, genetics, and environmental factors.

    Major symptoms of both conditions include:
    •Persistent diarrhea
    •Rectal bleeding
    •Urgent need to move bowels
    •Abdominal pain
    •Constipation

    Your gastroenterologist may recommend an upper endoscopy or colposcopy to diagnose IBD. Treatment for Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis includes a combination of options including medication, changes in diet and nutrition, and surgery.

    Gastroparesis

    This digestive disorder reduces the ability of the stomach to empty its contents, slowing or stopping the movement of food from the stomach to the small intestine. Gastroparesis typically affects more women than men, though the reason for this is unknown.

    Diabetes is the most common known cause of gastroparesis but other identifiable causes include intestinal surgery and nervous system disease such as Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis.

    Common sympotoms of gastroparesis include are nausea, vomiting undigested food, and a feeling of fullness after eating only a small portion of food. Other symptoms of this digestive illness include:
    •Acid reflux
    •Pain in the stomach area
    •Abdominal bloating
    •Lack of appetite

    Eating greasy, rich foods or consuming beverages high in fat or carbonation may aggravate these symptoms in some patients.

    Gastroparesis may be diagnosed through a physical exam, medical history evaluation, and blood tests to rule out structural problems in the GI tract through an upper GI endoscopy, upper GI series, and/or ultrasound.

    In many cases, gastroparesis is a chronic condition. However, a combination of nutritional changes and medication can help manage symptom severity

    The best way to minimize the threat these five conditions pose on your digestive health is to learn their symptoms and promptly report any concerns to your doctor or gastroenterologist.

    What should a medical doctor know about a medical condition?
    1. What is it?

    2. What causes it?

    3. What are the risk factors?

    4. What's normal?

    5. How is it diagnosed?

    6. What are the types of this medical condition?

    7. What are the symptoms?

    8. What are the signs?

    9. What are the clinical findings?

    10. What human anatomy should one know relevant to this medical condition?

    11. What human physiology should one know relevant to this medical condition?

    12. What human biochemistry should one know relevant to this medical condition?

    13. What human microbiology should one know relevant to this medical condition?

    14. What are the lab or investigation findings?

    15. What are the workable treatment options?

    16. What is the best setting or location to treat this medical condition?

    17. What do you think can help?

    18. When is counseling required?

    19. When is medication required?

    20. How long should medication last?

    21. What type of medication is available?

    22. When is surgical intervention indicated?

    23. How could this be prevented?

    Presentation from Gastroenterologist Guided by Doctor Asif Qureshi
    Why was there need to elaborate on these issues?
    Not many gastroenterologists are required.
    Ideally, the presentation should be in English language with a simultaneous translation into the local language.
    If you do not elaborate on human digestive diseases relevant to human healthcare settings, people will not know where to forward their issues.

    How should you elaborate on these issues?
    Emergency medical issues
    Nonemergency medical issues
    Public health preventive healthcare deliberations.

    What types of specific physicians are required inside and outside the state?
    At least 21 types of specific physicians are required inside and outside the state.
    All the listed specific physicians are expected to know everything about human digestive disease symptoms, assessment, diagnosis, and treatment in specific human health settings.

    What are the signs and symptoms that may indicate a gastrointestinal emergency?
    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding (e.g., vomiting blood, blood in the stool)
    Change in bowel habits (e.g., acute diarrhea, severe constipation)
    Inability to have a bowel movement or pass gas from the rectum
    Inability to swallow (called aphasia)
    Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes; caused by excess bilirubin [pigment in bile] in the blood)
    Severe abdominal pain or swelling (distention)
    Uncontrolled vomiting
    Unexplained fever (may be caused by infection of the digestive tract)

    Nowadays physician medical emergency responders, physicians in medical emergency rooms, and physicians in the intensive care unit have to manage these issues.
    After diagnosis and treatment, follow-up is necessary with the primary care physician or physician hospitalist (takes care of hospital ward patients), who understand human healthcare system’s government departments inside and outside the state.
    Understand issues elaborated upon at these resources:
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicians.html

    Questions and answers relevant to human digestive system and medical conditions.

    How many emergency signs and symptoms are there related to the human digestive?
    At least 8.

    What are various examples?
    Here are further facts.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/gastroenterologyworld.html#Gastrointesinal Emergency Signs and Symptoms

    How many digestive system organs are there in the human body?
    11

    Can you name the digestive system organs in the human body?
    1.Mouth
    2.Salivary glands
    3.Pharynx
    4.Esophagus
    5.Stomach
    6.Small intestine
    7.Large intestine / Large Intestine, Rectum and Anal canal
    8.Liver
    9.Gallbladder
    10.Mesentery
    11.Pancreas

    How many total human digestive signs and symptoms are there?
    At least 44.

    What are various examples?
    Here are further facts.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/gastroenterologyworld.html#Gastrointesinal Emergency Signs and Symptoms

    How many human digestive medical conditions are there?
    At least 149.

    What are various examples?
    Here are further facts.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/gastroenterologyworld.html#Gastroenterology Sections

    What are 11 common human digestive conditions, ranked from most to least common?
    1. Gastroesophageal Reflux
    2. Gallstones
    3. Celiac Disease
    4. Crohn’s Disease
    5. Ulcerative Colitis
    6. Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    7. Gastroenteritis
    8. Diverticulitis
    9. Gastritis, Acute
    10. Peptic ulcer
    11. Hemorrhoids

    What have been various findings relevant to unethical practices and criminal wrongdoings among individuals falsely claiming to be gastroenterologists (but are actually criminals)?
    Young females 18 to 30 were asked to undergo colonoscopies that were not indicated. The actual motive of the fake gastroenterologist was to see the female’s vagina for pleasure; that is a criminal wrongdoing. Family members and community leaders have complained.

    A review is needed of all such cases with criminal wrongdoings and punishments. All specific physicians must know there is an entity for physician forensic psychiatry.

    How many such incidents have happened at Soura Institute of Medical Sciences in Srinagar, Kashmir, prior to 10 AM on June 11, 2018?
    How many forensic psychiatrists are required at Soura Institute of Medical Sciences in Srinagar, Kashmir, at this point after 10 AM on June 11, 2018?
    Last Updated: June 12, 2018