Qureshi University, Advanced courses, via cutting edge technology, News, Breaking News | Latest News And Media | Current News
admin@qureshiuniversity.com

Apply for Academic Admission | Academic Guide | Administrative law | About the Founder | Aircraft | Aviation World | Ambassadors | Accreditation | A to Z Degree Fields | Books | Blog | Catalog | Calendar | Collaboration | Colleges | Complaint | Contact Us | Continents/States | Construction | Contracts | Courses | Doctor Consultation | Distance Education | Education materials | Equipment | Emergency | Emergency call centers | Economy and Budget | Examinations | English Editing Service | Fabrics | Forms | Faculty | Facilities | Fuel | Governor | Glossary | Grants | Hardware | Hardware Resources | Helicopters | Hostels | Honorary Doctorate degree | Human Services | Human Resources | Internet Education | Inspections | Internet | Intellectual Property | Investment | Instructors | Internship | Job Openings | Journal | Login | Lecture | Librarians | Languages | License/Permit/Registration | Medical Emergency | Manufacturing | Materials | Mentor | Military Equipment Guide | Movies | Money transfer(Pay Now) | Membership | North America | Non-Emergency Services | Observers | Planet Earth | Proposals | Publication | Professional Examinations | Programs | Professions | Paraprofessional | Profile | Progress Report | Recommendations | Ration food and supplies | Research Grants | Research | States | State Directories | Students login | School | Search | Software | Seminar | Study Center/Centre | Sponsorship | Submit an Issue | Surveillance | Team | Tutoring | Thesis | Universities | Universe & Space | Vehicles | Work counseling | World economy

Electrical equipment heavy (heavy electrical hardware)
Heavy electrical industry comprises equipment used for the generation, transmission, distribution and utilisation of power. It includes items such as generators, boilers, turbines, transformers, switchgears, etc. The indigenous industry is equipped to meet the entire domestic requirement.

Boilers
Cables and Wires
Electric Motors
Generators
Lifts and Escalators
Power Transformers
Switchgears
Turbines

Light Electrical Goods Industry:

This industry covers a wide range of products which include white goods (refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, etc), household electric appliances, electric fans, storage batteries, dry cells, wiring accessories, fittings, electric lamps, etc.

Air conditioners, etc)
Dry and Storage Batteries
Dry cells
Electric Fans
Electric Lamps
Fittings
Household electric appliances
Radio Receivers
Refrigerators
Storage batteries
Washing machines
Wiring accessories

Electronics

products including television sets, transistor sets, telephone exchanges, cellular telecom, paging, computers, and varied equipments for posts and telegraph, defence, railway and meteorological departments.

Electrical equipment includes any machine powered by electricity. It usually consists of an enclosure, a variety of electrical components, and often a power switch. Examples of these include:
Major appliance
Microcontroller
Power tool
Small appliances
More specifically, often electrical equipment refers only to components part of the electrical distribution system such as:

Electric switchboards
Distribution boards
Circuit breakers and disconnects
Electricity meter
Transformers



Electrical equipment part of the distribution system in a large building

Major appliance

Refrigeration equipment
Freezer
Refrigerator
Water cooler
Stoves
Cooker, also known as range, stove, oven, cooking plate, or cooktop
Microwave oven
Washing equipment
Washing machine
Clothes dryer
Drying cabinet
Dishwasher
Miscellaneous
Air conditioner
Water heater
Computer
Television
Amplifier
Receiver
Projector

Microcontroller

Power tool

Air compressor
Alligator shear
Angle grinder
Bandsaw
Belt sander
Biscuit joiner
Brushcutter
Ceramic tile cutter
Chainsaw
Circular saw
Concrete saw
Cold saw
Crusher
Diamond blade
Diamond tools
Disc sander
Drill
Floor sander
Food Processor
Grinding machine
Heat gun
Hedgecutter
Impact wrench
Iron
Jackhammer
Jointer
Jigsaw
Knitting Machine
Lathe
Lawn Mower
Leafblower
Manual impact drivers
Miter saw
Nail gun (electric and battery as well as powder actuated)
Needle scaler
Pneumatic torque wrench
Powder-actuated tools
Power wrench
Powered impact drivers
Radial arm saw
Random orbital sander
Reciprocating saw
Rotary reciprocating saw
Rotary tool
Rotovator
Sabre saw
Sander
Scrollsaw
Sewing Machine
Steel cut off saw
Strimmer
Table saw
Thickness planer
Vacuum Cleaner
Wall chaser
Washing machine Wood router

Small appliance

Cooking, such as on a hot plate or with a slow cooker, microwave oven, rice cooker, bread machine, a tortilla/roti maker, or a sandwich toaster
Heating, such as an electric heater
Cooling, such as air conditioning
Lighting using light fixtures
Speaker-architectural, as in being of the infrastructure/structural type
Speaker-floorstanding, on-wall or in-wall varieties Beverage-making, such as electric kettles, coffeemakers or iced tea-makers
MP3 Player - including but not limited to the Apple iPod
Computers - laptops, desktops, ultrabooks, etc.

More specifically, often electrical equipment refers only to components part of the electrical distribution system such as:

Electric switchboards
Distribution boards
Circuit breakers and disconnects
Electricity meter
Transformers

Electric switchboard



Distribution board



Circuit breaker



Electricity meter



Transformer


Cutaway view of liquid-immersed construction transformer. The conservator (reservoir) at top provides liquid-to-atmosphere isolation as coolant level and temperature changes. The walls and fins provide required heat dissipation balance.
Classification parameters

Transformers can be classified in many ways, such as the following:

Power capacity: From a fraction of a volt-ampere (VA) to over a thousand MVA.

Duty of a transformer: Continuous, short-time, intermittent, periodic, varying.

Frequency range: Power-frequency, audio-frequency, or radio-frequency.

Voltage class: From a few volts to hundreds of kilovolts.

Cooling type: Dry and liquid-immersed - self-cooled, forced air-cooled; liquid-immersed - forced oil-cooled, water-cooled.

Circuit application: Such as power supply, impedance matching, output voltage and current stabilizer or circuit isolation.

Utilization: Pulse, power, distribution, rectifier, arc furnace, amplifier output, etc.. Basic magnetic form: Core form, shell form. Constant-potential transformer descriptor: Step-up, step-down, isolation.

General winding configuration: By EIC vector group - various possible two-winding combinations of the phase designations delta, wye or star, and zigzag or interconnected star;[p] other - autotransformer, Scott-T, zigzag grounding transformer winding. Rectifier phase-shift winding configuration: 2-winding, 6-pulse; 3-winding, 12-pulse; . . . n-winding, [n-1]*6-pulse; polygon; etc..

Types

Various specific electrical application designs require a variety of transformer types. Although they all share the basic characteristic transformer principles, they are customize in construction or electrical properties for certain installation requirements or circuit conditions.

Autotransformer: Transformer in which part of the winding is common to both primary and secondary circuits.

Capacitor voltage transformer: Transformer in which capacitor divider is used to reduce high voltage before application to the primary winding.

Distribution transformer, power transformer: International standards make a distinction in terms of distribution transformers being used to distribute energy from transmission lines and networks for local consumption and power transformers being used to transfer electric energy between the generator and distribution primary circuits.

Phase angle regulating transformer: A specialised transformer used to control the flow of real power on three-phase electricity transmission networks. Scott-T transformer: Transformer used for phase transformation from three-phase to two-phase and vice versa.

Polyphase transformer: Any transformer with more than one phase.

Grounding transformer: Transformer used for grounding three-phase circuits to create a neutral in a three wire system, using a wye-delta transformer, or more commonly, a zigzag grounding winding.

Leakage transformer: Transformer that has loosely coupled windings.

Resonant transformer: Transformer that uses resonance to generate a high secondary voltage. Audio transformer: Transformer used in audio equipment.

Output transformer: Transformer used to match the output of a valve amplifier to its load.

Instrument transformer: Potential or current transformer used to accurately and safely represent voltage, current or phase position of high voltage or high power circuits.


An electrical substation in Melbourne, Australia showing three of five 220 kV 66 kV transformers, each with a capacity of 150 MVA


Transformer at the Limestone Generating Station in Manitoba

Electricity generation


Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from other sources of primary energy. electricity is generated by the movement of a loop of wire, or disc of copper between the poles of a magnet.[1] For electric utilities, it is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. The other processes, electricity transmission, distribution, and electrical power storage and recovery using pumped-storage methods are normally carried out by the electric power industry. Electricity is most often generated at a power station by electromechanical generators, primarily driven by heat engines fueled by chemical combustion or nuclear fission but also by other means such as the kinetic energy of flowing water and wind. Other energy sources include solar photovoltaics and geothermal power.



There are seven fundamental methods of directly transforming other forms of energy into electrical energy:
Static electricity, from the physical separation and transport of charge (examples: triboelectric effect and lightning)
Electromagnetic induction, where an electrical generator, dynamo or alternator transforms kinetic energy (energy of motion) into electricity. This is the most used form for generating electricity and is based on Faraday's law. It can be experimented by simply rotating a magnet within closed loops of a conducting material (e.g. copper wire)>
Electrochemistry, the direct transformation of chemical energy into electricity, as in a battery, fuel cell or nerve impulse Photoelectric effect, the transformation of light into electrical energy, as in solar cells Thermoelectric effect, the direct conversion of temperature differences to electricity, as in thermocouples, thermopiles, and thermionic converters.
Piezoelectric effect, from the mechanical strain of electrically anisotropic molecules or crystals. Researchers at the US Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have developed a piezoelectric generator sufficient to operate a liquid crystal display using thin films of M13 bacteriophage.
Nuclear transformation, the creation and acceleration of charged particles (examples: betavoltaics or alpha particle emission)

Turbines



Large dams such as Three Gorges Dam in _______ can provide large amounts of hydroelectric power; it has a 22.5 GW capability.

Reciprocating engines

220px-Hoover_dam_from_air.jpg" height="200" width="200">

Large dams such as Hoover Dam can provide large amounts of hydroelectric power; it has 2.07 GW capability.

Photovoltaic panels



A coal-fired power plant in Laughlin, Nevada

Other generation methods

Here are further guidelines.