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Flood
Flood control
State Department of Irrigation & Flood Control
What should you know about Irrigation & Flood Control in the state?
  1. Annotations or definition of floods

  2. Dredging

  3. Designations of officers in the State Department of Irrigation & Flood Control and abroad

  4. Monitoring and preventing damage due to floods

  5. Occupations relevant to this department inside and outside the state.

  6. Providing proper drainage systems

  7. Providing irrigation facilities for crops through state rivers, lakes, Tube Wells for non-coastal states, and sea water for coastal states

  8. Participating in planning and development

  9. Place monitoring and recommending resources outside of the state (examples from Kashmir, Asia in Chicago, Illinois, and North America)

  10. Flood control

  11. Weather forecasting

Annotations or definition of floods
What is a flood?
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land which is usually dry.

Which areas are more likely to flood?
Generally, the natural behavior of water (and flowing water) is that it moves from higher ground to lower ground. This means if there is a higher ground adjacent a lower ground, the lower ground is a lot more likely to experience floods.

Additionally, anywhere that rains fall, floods can develop. This is so because anytime there are more rains bringing more water than it can be drained or absorbed by the soil, there is a flood potential.

What can you do before, during, and after a flood?
Sometimes there is no warning of flash floods, and that is why it is important to think of them and prepare for them before they happen. Here are a few things you can do.

Before the floods...
1. Know about your local relief centers and evacuation routes.
2. Keep emergency numbers and important information handy, as well as emergency supplies, kits, first aid items. These may include water, canned food, can opener, battery-operated radio, flashlight and protective clothing.
3. Fold and roll up anything onto higher ground (or upper floors of your home), including chemicals and medicines.
4. Make sure everything that is of importance is secured (jewelry, documents, pets, and other valuables).
5. Plant trees and shrubs and keep a lot of vegetation in your compound if you are in a low-lying area as that can control erosion and help soften the speed of the flowing water.

During the floods...
1. Flash floods occur in a short spate of time. As soon as they start, be quick, keep safe and ensure that children and elderly are safe by leaving the house to a higher ground.
2. Turn off all electrical appliance, gas, heating and the like if there is a bit of time.
3. Leave the area before it gets too late. Do not drive through the water as moving water can sweep you away.
4. Stay away from power lines or broken power transmission cables.
5. Try to keep away from flood water as it may contain chemicals or other hazardous materials.

After the floods...
1. Make sure you have permission from emergency officers to get back inside your house.
2. Keep all power and electrical appliance off until the house is cleaned up properly and an electrical personnel has confirmed that it is OK to put them on.
3. Make sure you have photographs, or a record of all the damage, as it may be needed for insurance claims.
4. Clean the entire home, together with all the objects in it very well before you use them again. They may be contaminated.
5. Wear appropriate gear (mask and gloves) before cleaning begins.

What are the effects of flooding?
Flooding can be very dangerous – only 15cms of fast-flowing water are needed to knock you off your feet! Floodwater can seriously disrupt public and personal transport by cutting off roads and railway lines, as well as communication links when telephone lines are damaged.

Floods disrupt normal drainage systems in cities, and sewage spills are common, which represents a serious health hazard, along with standing water and wet materials in the home. Bacteria, mould and viruses, cause disease, trigger allergic reactions, and continue to damage materials long after a flood.

Floods can distribute large amounts of water and suspended sediment over vast areas, restocking valuable soil nutrients to agricultural lands. In contrast, soil can be eroded by large amounts of fast flowing water, ruining crops, destroying agricultural land / buildings and drowning farm animals.

Flooding can be very dangerous – only 15cms of fast-flowing water are needed to knock you off your feet!

Floodwater can seriously disrupt public and personal transport by cutting off roads and railway lines, as well as communication links when telephone lines are damaged.

Floods disrupt normal drainage systems in cities, and sewage spills are common, which represents a serious health hazard, along with standing water and wet materials in the home. Bacteria, mould and viruses, cause disease, trigger allergic reactions, and continue to damage materials long after a flood.

Floods can distribute large amounts of water and suspended sediment over vast areas, restocking valuable soil nutrients to agricultural lands. In contrast, soil can be eroded by large amounts of fast flowing water, ruining crops, destroying agricultural land / buildings and drowning farm animals.

Severe floods not only ruin homes / businesses and destroy personal property, but the water left behind causes further damage to property and contents. The environment and wildlife is also at risk when damage when damage to businesses causes the accidental release of toxic materials like paints, pesticides, gasoline etc.

Floodwater can severely disrupt public and personal transport by cutting off roads and railway lines, as well as communication links when telephone lines are damaged.

Unfortunately, flooding not only disrupts many people’s lives each year, but it frequently creates personal tragedies when people are swept away and drowned.

What’s being done to prevent flooding?
The Environment Agency aims to protect people and their property from flooding, helping organisations like the police to give warnings of possible floods so that people can make arrangements or move out of the area if it is dangerous. We do this by issuing one of the following flood codes:
Flooding Possible. Be aware! Be Prepared! Watch out! Flooding expected. Affecting homes, businesses and main roads.

Act now!
Severe Flooding Expected. Imminent danger to life and property.

Act now!
Flood water levels receding. Check all is safe to return. Seek Advice.

What causes floods?
Flooding occurs in known floodplains when prolonged rainfall over several days, intense rainfall over a short period of time, or a debris jam causes a river or stream to overflow and flood the surrounding area. Severe thunderstorms can bring heavy rain in the spring and summer; or tropical cyclones can bring intense rainfall to the coastal and inland states in the summer and fall.

Flash floods occur within six hours of a rain event, or after a dam or levee failure, and flash floods can catch people unprepared. The Kelly Barnes dam failure near Toccoa in 1977 is an example of this type of flood.

As land is converted from fields or woodlands to roads and parking lots, it loses its ability to absorb rainfall. Urbanization increases the amount of impervious areas, causing runoff to be two to six times over what would occur on natural terrain. During periods of urban flooding, streets can become swift moving rivers and can be dangerous for drivers. Because of the buoyancy effects and power of moving water, even a foot of moving water can be enough to carry away some cars.

Several factors contribute to flooding. Two key elements are rainfall intensity and duration. Intensity is the rate of rainfall, and duration is how long the rain lasts. Topography, soil conditions, and ground cover also play important roles. Most flash flooding is caused by slow-moving thunderstorms, thunderstorms repeatedly moving over the same area, or heavy rains from hurricanes and tropical storms. Floods, on the other hand, can be slow- or fast-rising, but generally develop over a period of hours or days.

What is a recurrence interval?
Even though you may never have heard of "recurrence interval", it may be familiar to you. When a major flood occurs, you might have heard that the stream stage reached the "100-year flood level". This means that a flood of that magnitude has a 1 in 100 chance of occuring in any year.

Statistical techniques, through a process called frequency analysis, are used to estimate the probability of the occurrence of a given event. The recurrence interval is based on the probability that the given event will be equalled or exceeded in any given year. For example, there may be a 1 in 50 chance that 6.60 inches of rain will fall in a county in a 24-hour period during any given year. Thus, the rainfall total of 6.60 inches in a consecutive 24-hour period is said to have a 50-year recurrence interval. Likewise, using a frequency analysis (Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data, 1982) there may be a 1 in 100 chance that a streamflow of 15,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) will occur during any year in a particular stream. Thus, the peak flow of 15,000 ft3/s is said to have a 100-year recurrence interval.

Ten or more years of data are required to perform a frequency analysis for the determination of recurrence intervals. More confidence can be placed in the results of a frequency analysis based on, for example, 30 years of record than on an analysis based on 10 years of record.

Recurrence intervals for the annual peak streamflow at a given location change if there are significant changes in the flow patterns at that location, possibly caused by an impoundment or diversion of flow. The effects of development (conversion of land from forested or agricultural uses to commercial, residential, or industrial uses) on peak flows is generally much greater for low-recurrence interval floods than for high-recurrence interval floods, such as 25-, 50-, or 100-year floods. During these larger floods, the soil is saturated and does not have the capacity to absorb additional rainfall. Under these conditions, essentially all of the rain that falls, whether on paved surfaces or on saturated soil, runs off and becomes streamflow.

How is peak flow determined?
Stream stage (or water level) and streamflow (or discharge) are measured at locations called streamflow gaging stations.

How do stream gages work?
The majority of the District's stream gages use a sensor called a "pressure transducer." This device senses the pressure exerted by the water above it and calculations are made based on the pressure to determine the depth of the water. Once the depth is known, the flow rate, or discharge (represented in cubic feet per second or cfs), is calculated by using a rating curve. A rating curve is a graph of water depth versus discharge. The curve is created through the application of either a mathematical formula or mathematical model to determine the amount of discharge a stream channel may produce based on a given water depth.

Flood control

What is flood control?
What methods can be used to reduce or prevent the detrimental effects of flood water?
What can you do before, during, and after a flood?
When should helicopter rescue and relocation begin during floods?

Flood control refers to all methods used to reduce or prevent the detrimental effects of flood waters.

Methods of control

Specialist Response - Specialist Rescue
Floods: Evacuation
Dams
Diversion canals
Self-closing flood barrier
River defences
Coastal defences
Temporary perimeter barriers

Specialist Response - Specialist Rescue

Human Rescue Plan
Search and Rescue
Confined space rescue
Trench rescue
Rope rescue
Chainsaw capabilities
Water rescue
Animal rescue

Floods: Evacuation

Preparedness

Planning

Having an evacuation plan in place before a flood occurs can help avoid confusion and prevent injuries and property damage. A thorough evacuation plan should include:

Conditions that will activate the plan
Chain of command
Emergency functions and who will perform them
Specific evacuation procedures, including routes and exits
Procedures for accounting for personnel, customers and visitors
Equipment for personnel
Review the plan with workers

Be Prepared

Have An Evacuation Plan

Discuss what to do in an evacuation with everyone in your family.

Know where you will go if an evacuation is called. Review at least two exit routes from your home or neighborhood to a designated meeting place for your family.

Don't forget about your pets; they are not allowed at most public shelters.

Pack Your Bags

After a disaster, you may not be able to return to your home for some time.

Assemble everything your family will need in advance if you must evacuate your home.

Pack one change of clothes and shoes per person as well as one blanket or sleeping bag per person.

Write down the name of your insurance company, policy number and telephone number and keep it in a safe place.

Include an extra set of car keys, your credit cards, cash and/or traveler's checks. Don't forget your important emergency contact numbers.

Create a first aid kit that includes your family’s prescription medications.

Pack sanitation supplies and special items for babies, senior citizens or disabled family members Bring extra eyeglasses and a favorite family board game to help pass the time away from home. If You Must Evacuate

Before You Go

If there is damage to your home and you are instructed to do so, shut off water, gas and electricity before leaving.

Post a note telling when you left and where you are going.

Don't forget about your pets and be sure to lock your home.

Evacuate Immediately

Evacuate immediately if authorities tell you to do so.

Listen to your battery-powered radio and follow the instructions of local emergency officials. Wear layered warm, dry clothing and sturdy shoes. Be sure to take your disaster supply kit with you to a shelter or safe location. Use travel routes specified by local authorities -- don't use shortcuts.

Flood Hazard Terms

Familiarize yourself with these terms to help identify a flood hazard:

Flood Watch - Flooding is possible. Tune in to NOAA Weather Radio, commercial radio or television for information.

Flash Flood Watch - Flash flooding is possible.

Flood Warning - Flooding is occurring or will occur soon; if advised to evacuate, do so immediately.

Flash Flood Warning - A flash flood is occurring; seek higher ground immediately.

What state department is responsible for monitoring and controlling floods?
• State Department of Irrigation and Flood Control
• Emergency departments of the state
• State Department of Information and Broadcasting
• State Department of Police
• State Department of Defense
• Weather forecasting services
• Other departments in the state

What kind of emergency is a flood?
• A public health emergency

What is the role of helicopters during floods?
• Aerial observation
• Rescue
• Relocation

Explain flood emergency procedures.
• Identify a nearby secure location such as the State Department of Estates building, the State Department of Hospitality building, hospitals, or schools. Relocate to these locations for approximately 10-15 days, or by the time the flood subsides. Move back to original home only once clear of danger.

What are the professional affiliations and rankings of officers in the State Department of Irrigation & Flood Control (in the state and abroad)?
• Chief Engineer
• Global Guide Abroad
• Gauge Reader
• Secretary
• Emergency Team

• On September 6, 2014, Kashmir was literally cut off from other regions’ road connectivity, radio, and TV due to floods. North American locations such as Chicago, Illinois were required to monitor the damage and make safety recommendations in order to restore Kashmir’s severed communications.

Dredging
State Department of Irrigation & Flood Control
Uses
Types of dredging vessels
Disposal of materials
Environmental impacts

Capital: dredging carried out to create a new harbor, berth or waterway, or to deepen existing facilities in order to allow larger ships access. Because capital works usually involve hard material or high-volume works, the work is usually done using a cutter suction dredge or large trailing suction hopper dredge; but for rock works, drilling and blasting along with mechanical excavation may be used.
Preparatory: work and excavation for future bridges, piers or docks/wharves, often connected with foundation work.
Maintenance: dredging to deepen or maintain navigable waterways or channels which are threatened to become silted with the passage of time, due to sedimented sand and mud, possibly making them too shallow for navigation. This is often carried out with a trailing suction hopper dredge. Most dredging is for this purpose, and it may also be done to maintain the holding capacity of reservoirs or lakes.
Land reclamation: dredging to mine sand, clay or rock from the seabed and using it to construct new land elsewhere. This is typically performed by a cutter-suction dredge or trailing suction hopper dredge. The material may also be used for flood or erosion control.
Beach nourishment: mining sand offshore and placing on a beach to replace sand eroded by storms or wave action. This is done to enhance the recreational and protective function of the beaches, which can be eroded by human activity or by storms. This is typically performed by a cutter-suction dredge or trailing suction hopper dredge.
Harvesting materials: dredging sediment for elements like gold, diamonds or other valuable trace substances.
Seabed mining: a possible future use, recovering natural metal ore nodules from the sea's abyssal plains.
Construction materials: dredging sand and gravels from offshore licensed areas for use in construction industry, principally for use in concrete. Very specialist industry focused in NW Europe using specialized trailing suction hopper dredgers self discharging dry cargo ashore.
Contaminant remediation: to reclaim areas affected by chemical spills, storm water surges (with urban runoff), and other soil contaminations, including silt from sewage sludge and from decayed matter, like wilted plants. Disposal becomes a proportionally large factor in these operations.
Anti-eutrophication: A kind of contaminant remediation, dredging is an expensive option for the remediation of eutrophied (or de-oxygenated) water bodies; one of the causes is like mentioned above, sewage sludge. However, as artificially elevated phosphorus levels in the sediment aggravate the eutrophication process, controlled sediment removal is occasionally the only option for the reclamation of still waters.
Removing trash and debris: often done in combination with maintenance dredging, this process removes non-natural matter from the bottoms of rivers and canals and harbors.
Flood prevention: this can help to increase channel depth and therefore increase a channel's capacity for carrying water.
Peat extraction: in former times, so-called dredging poles or dredge hauls were used on the back of small boats to manually dredge the beds of peat-moor waterways before extracting the peat for use as a fuel. This tradition has now become more or less obsolete and the tools used to do this have also changed significantly.
Oyster dredging or harvesting: in Louisiana and other states with salt water estuaries that can sustain bottom oyster beds. A heavy metal rectangular scoop device is towed astern of a moving boat with a chain bridle attached to a cable and winch which scoops up oysters as it drags along the bottom. The device is periodically hauled aboard and the oysters in it are sorted and bagged for shipment to an oyster processing facility.

Types of dredging vessels

Suction
Trailing suction
Cutter-suction
Auger suction
Jet-lift
Air-lift
Bucket
Clamshell
Backhoe/dipper
Water injection
Pneumatic
Bed leveler
Krabbelaar
Snagboat
Amphibious
Submersible
Fishing dredges are used to collect various species of clams, scallops, oysters or crabs from the seabed.
A small dredge (sometimes called a drag, and sometimes pulled by persons walking on shore) may be used by investigators to find and recover bodies or evidence from rivers or lakes./Police drag[

Occupations relevant to this department inside and outside the state.
State Department of Irrigation & Flood Control
For whom are these training programs meant in the state or outside the state around the world?
Helicopter pilots regarding their role in floods
Chief Engineers
Global Guides Abroad
Gauge Readers
Secretaries
Emergency Team Members
Physicians, in case flood occurs

Helicopter Pilot and Role in Floods
What is the helicopter pilot’s role in floods in the state or outside the state?
To monitor the likely possibility of floods in the state in case of heavy rains.
To perform rescue operations with helicopters.

Gauge Reader
What are the duties of a Gauge Reader in the state?
To record the water levels of specific rivers at specific locations in the state. To raise alert in case river water level records above a danger mark. To report abnormal findings immediately to Chief Engineer of Irrigation and Flood Control in the state. To circulate this to all via media.

How do you calculate if the river is flowing above the danger mark?
This example will make you understand:
On September 4, 2014, the Jhelum at Munshi Bagh Srinagar, Kashmir, was flowing at 22 feet, which is four feet above the danger mark. This should have been reported immediately to the Chief Engineer.

What is the water level at the Jhelum at Munshi Bagh Srinagar, Kashmir?
If any other location, what is the water level at specific points relevant to danger marks?
What is the water level of the river?
What is the danger mark water level for the river?

What are the indicators that flood is likely to occur?

If it rains continuously for more than three days.
If a 24-hour rainfall on a hilly area is recorded at 156.7 mm.
Gauge reading at the danger mark at specified locations in rivers in the state.

Physicians’ Duties in Case Flood Occurs
What is the role of physicians before, during and after floods?
During floods, physicians should know everything about drowning and suffocation; Drowning due to floods, suffocation due to avalanche, landslides, land sinking, and house and building collapse.

What can happen during floods?
Landslide: A slide of a large mass of dirt and rock down a mountain or cliff.
Land sinking: A sudden sinking of land due to underground erosion.
House, building collapse
Drowning
Injuries during floods
Water logging: When a person is saturated by overexposure to water.
Avalanche: A large amount of a substance that falls from a higher elevation to a lower elevation; An avalanche could be comprised of rock, stones, mud, or snow, or any combination of these.

People living near a river should move to safer areas during flood warnings.
People of the area have been advised not to venture in avalanche-prone sectors.

Chief Engineers
What should you know about Irrigation & Flood Control in the state?
What is a flood?
Which areas are more likely to flood?
What can you do before, during, and after a flood?
What are the effects of flooding?
What’s being done to prevent flooding?
What causes floods?
What is a recurrence interval?
How is peak flow determined?
How do stream gages work?
What is flood control?
What methods can be used to reduce or prevent the detrimental effects of flood water?
When should helicopter rescue and relocation begin during floods?
What state department is responsible for monitoring and controlling floods?
What kind of emergency is a flood?
What is the role of helicopters during floods?
Explain flood emergency procedures.
What are the professional affiliations and rankings of officers in the State Department of Irrigation & Flood Control (in the state and abroad)?
Kashmir floods September 3 to September 17, 2014.
Relief
Why is needs assessment essential while giving relief?
Needs like food, clothing, housing, health care, transportation, consumer goods, communications, family needs, and educational needs have to be elaborated.

If anyone mentions an amount, that amount may not fulfill the needs, including human rights.
In some situations, no amount can fulfill the irreparable harms. Punitive and pecuniary damages may be required.

Who usually should profile needs of an individual in the state?
State department of human services.
State department of food and supplies.
State department of law.
State department of health.
Other similar departments in the state.

What have been various findings while relief in the form of food, clothing, housing, health care, transportation, security, communications, and consumer goods need to be distributed to individuals?
Criminals from finance, banking, tourism, and similar coterie try to exploit victims by enhancing their malicious agenda and thus inflicting further harms.
They must be directed to stay away from public issues.
There must be punishment of others who have harmed.

How should relief go ahead in this situation?
Immediate and delayed services have to be mobilized to bring relief to residents of the state.

How do you do a needs assessment of an individual?
Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/needsassessment.html

Have you fully profiled the needs of residents of the state?
How many of these needs can be fulfilled by resources within the state?
How many resources are required from outside the state?

If houses and buildings have to be constructed, ask for building materials, including Iron.
Do not ask for money.
There is no need for excise, passenger tax, VAT, and income tax in Kashmir.

All factories in the state are state factories.
All factories must be directed to increase the production of all products required.
The state must start immediately to manufacture products that are not now manufactured in the state.

What kind of relief should be distributed in this situation?
1. Food items – rice, flour, vegetables, meat, pulses, tea, sugar, salt.
2. Blankets and quilts
3. Beddings and bedsheets
4. Clothes, shoes (new)
5. Disinfectants and cleaners – phenol, dettol, savlon, soaps, hand sanitizers, gloves, face masks
6. Medicines
7. Housing
8. Consumer goods
9. Communications
10. Public transportation

What are directives for media in the state and outside the state?
Circulate products, services, and directives from various essential departments in the state to public.

Do not circulate directives of any bad charactered, badly behaved, harmful, or fraudulently placed individuals involved in felony or misdemeanor in the state and outside the state.

Media must know they belong to the state department of information and broadcasting.
All printers, machines, and office resources are state resources.
They must know media law. If the media violates media law, they can get punished.

This is Asif Qureshi founder Qureshi University and Global Democratic party at your service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

Al Hajj Harb bo zerab Zile le Illahi Maqdoom Mohmed Asif Syed Qureshi, doctorate in philosophy.
Last Updated: October 15, 2017