Table of contents
  1. Annotations or definition.

  2. Active and Passive Voice: Tense-wise Rules

  3. Alphabetical listing of English language topics

  4. Analysis of English language documents.

  5. Action verbs

  6. Analogies

  7. Auxiliary verbs

  8. Business English

  9. Books

  10. Call for papers

  11. Catalog

  12. Classes of words (parts of speech).

  13. Courses

  14. Complaint

  15. Catalog

  16. Classification of Sentences

  17. Clauses

  18. Declarative sentences

  19. Dictionary

  20. Direct and indirect speech

  21. Document Types

  22. Discussion

  23. Early Learning Guidelines/Early Childhood Standards

  24. English language books

  25. English Editing Service

  26. English Grammar Rules

  27. English language books

  28. English language research

  29. English Grammar Topic & Subject Index

  30. English Grammar Classes of Words

  31. English Job

  32. English Language and Mathematics

  33. English Teacher/Teachers Education

  34. English Language Style Guide

  35. Essay

  36. English Language Reports

  37. Expressions heard in negotiating sessions

  38. English as a Second Language (ESL)

  39. Editor

  40. English Language
      English History
      English Statistics

  41. English Pronunciation
      English Sounds
      English Vowels
      English Consonants
      English Suprasegmentals

  42. English Grammar
      Verbs be, have, do, work
      Nouns man, town, music
      Adjectives a, the, 11, big
      Adverbs loudly, well, often
      Pronouns you, ours, some
      Prepositions at, in, on, from
      Conjunctions and, but, though
      Interjections ah, dear, er, um

  43. English Vocabulary
      English Alphabet
      English Numbers
      English Colors
      English Phrases

  44. Existing English Language Authors

  45. English Language Tools
      English Verb Conjugation
      English Test
      English Dictionaries

  46. Learning English
      English courses Online
      English courses Abroad

  47. Teaching English
      Tips for teachers of English
      Courses for teachers of English

  48. English Culture
      English Recipes
      English Literature

  49. English Sentences

  50. English Sentence Patterns

  51. English Software

      When should teachers, editors, and lexicographers encourage students to use English editing software?
      Here are further guidelines.

  52. Elementary School English Curriculum - Lesson Plans

  53. English schools

  54. English Language Learners

  55. English Language Degree

  56. Example Sentences

  57. English Editing Service

  58. Essay

  59. English Language Reports

  60. Expressions heard in negotiating sessions

  61. English as a Second Language (ESL)

  62. English Language Schools

  63. English Editing Service

  64. English for law

  65. Exclamatory Sentences

  66. English language learning in primary school

  67. Grammar

  68. Global Consortium of English Language

  69. High School English

  70. History of the English language.

  71. Homonyms, homophones and homographs

  72. Homophones

  73. Imperative Sentence

  74. Lexicology

  75. Lexicography

  76. Letters

  77. Letters

  78. Linguistics

  79. Letter Writing & Sample Letters

  80. Learning English
      English courses Online
      English courses Abroad

  81. Manuscript Submission Checklist

  82. Media programs for English language

      Who should sponsor media programs for English language?
      Various states should sponsor media programs for English language. Here are further guidelines.

  83. Meeting

  84. Media Reports.

  85. Nouns

  86. Noun Phrases

  87. Occupations relevant to this department in the state.

  88. Origins of English Language

  89. Parts of this book.

  90. Parts of Speech
      Adjective
      Adverb
      Conjunction
      Interjection
      Noun
      Preposition
      Pronoun
      Verb

  91. Past Simple Tense

  92. Passive Voice

  93. Phrases

  94. Plural

  95. Present Participle

  96. Plural Nouns

  97. Passive Voice (Tenses)

  98. Possessive Nouns

  99. Punctuation

  100. Prepositions for Time, Place, and Introducing Objects

  101. Phrase

  102. Phrase and Clause

  103. Questions you need to answer.

  104. Report

  105. Social Studies

  106. Social Skills

  107. Statement of Purpose

  108. Social Studies

  109. Statement of Purpose

  110. Spoken English

    Would you like to improve your spoken English?

  111. Sentence Structure

  112. Sentence Structure: Simple, Compound, Complex, And Compound-complex Sentences

  113. Software

  114. Syllables

  115. Singular & Plural Nouns

  116. Synonyms

  117. Teaching Americans how to write better English

  118. The official language in every state is English.

  119. Teaching methods

  120. Teaching English
      Tips for teachers of English
      Courses for teachers of English

  121. Teacher

  122. Teacher Training College

  123. Teacher Education Standards

  124. Techniques to improve your communications in English.

  125. Telephone answering message guidelines

  126. Telephone Conversations

  127. Teaching Americans how to write better English

  128. Thesis

  129. Tenses

  130. Types of Phrases

  131. Types of English language sentences.

  132. What is EFL, ESL, TEFL/TESOL, TESL, TESOL, ELT etc?

  133. Word Classes and Word Forms

  134. Work-specific Training


English language books
What English language books should an 18-year-old individual have?
  1. English language word Book.

  2. English language glossary Book.

  3. English language grammar Book.

  4. English language dictionary.

  5. English language thesaurus.

  6. English language documents.

  7. English language human resources.

  8. English language writing guidelines.

  9. English language speaking guidelines.

  10. English language reading guidelines.

  11. English language translation from other languages.

  12. English language human resources.

English Language Resources


English Grammar Rules
Annotations or definition.
How do you define English grammar in 11 words?
English grammar consists of classes of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences.

Why should a governor of a state know everything about the English language?
The governor of a state has the duty to guide other occupations, including specific teachers, lawyers, engineers, and physicians, in the English language.

What is the role of Doctor Asif Qureshi, who has authored these guidelines?
Doctor Asif Qureshi is a guide for existing state governors and aspiring state governors.

What should a state governor or a person with a senior/executive job know about the English language inside or outside state?
There are more than 131 topics relevant to the English language.

What are the categories of human-to-human communication?
Types of human communication Methods of human communication.
1. English language speaking: face-to-face, telephone, radio, or television and other media.
2. English language writing: letters, e-mails, books, magazines, the Internet, or via other media.
3. Face-to-face in-person conversation in the English language (interpersonal communication).
4. Non-English language human communication (Arabic, kashmiri, Spanish, Mandarin, Japanese, French, etc.)
5. Visualizations: graphs, charts, maps, logos, and other visualizations can communicate messages.
6. Nonverbal communication: eye contact, body movements, body posture, facial expressions, gestures, etc.)

http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/communication.html

What is grammar?
One definition is rules of a language.

What is English grammar?
English language rules.

Do you have difficulty understanding or learning English grammar rules?

Why do you have difficulty learning English grammar rules?
Your teachers, professors at school, college, or university themselves do not know that English grammar rules for questions and declarative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences are different.

Your teachers and professors of English language had themselves memorized existing English language documents without understanding rules of English language grammar.

What should you know about English grammar rules?
English grammar Rules for questions and declarative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences are different.

How should you go ahead learning English grammar rules?
Questions English Grammar Rules for Questions.
Declarative Sentences English Grammar Rules for Simple Declarative Sentences.
English Grammar Rules for Compound Declarative Sentences.
English Grammar Rules for Complex Declarative Sentences.
English Grammar Rules for Compound Complex Declarative Sentences.
Imperative Sentences English Grammar Rules for Imperative Sentences.
Exclamatory Sentences English Grammar Rules for Exclamatory Sentences.

How many letters or symbols of the alphabet are there in the English language?
26.

How many types of English language sentences are there?
4.

What are various examples?
1. Question.
2. Declarative sentence.
3. Imperative sentence.
4. Exclamatory sentence.

How many types of questions are there?
4

What are various examples?
1. Question word question.
2. Yes/no question.
3. Choice question.
4. Tag question.

How many types of declarative sentences are there?
4.

What are various examples?
1. Simple declarative sentence.
2. Compound declarative sentence.
3. Complex declarative sentence.
4. Complex compound declarative sentence.

How many types of simple declarative sentence are there?
10.

What are various examples?
What pattern or type of simple declarative sentence do you plan to write?
1. S + V
2. S + V + O
3. S + V + C
4. S + V + A
5. S + V + O + O
6. S + V + O + C
7. S + V + O + A
8. S + V + preposition + noun
9. S + V + preposition + verb(ing) gerund.
10. Object + To Be + Past Participle
The normal structure of an active voice sentence is subject+verb+object but in passive the normal structure of sentence is reversed according to certain rules and becomes like object+verb+subject.

What should be the pattern and tense of a simple declarative sentence?
How many tenses can one pattern of simple declarative sentence have?

Each pattern of a simple declarative sentence has 12 tenses.

How many classes of words or parts of speech are there?
8.

What are various examples?
1. Adjective
2. Adverb
3. Conjunction
4. Interjection
5. Noun
6. Pronoun
7. Preposition
8. Verb

What makes one page?
300 words.

How many English language abilities are there?
Four

What are the various examples?
Listening or understanding
Speaking
Reading
Writing

How many tenses are there in the English language?
12

What are they?
1. Present simple
2. Present continuous
3. Present perfect simple
4. Present perfect continuous
5. Past simple
6. Past continuous
7. Past perfect simple
8. Past perfect continuous
9. Future simple
10. Future continuous
11. Future perfect simple
12. Future perfect continuous

How many types of English-language documents are there?
There are more than 35 types of English-language documents.

What are various examples?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/documenttypes.html

When do you conclude it isn't an English language?
If the alphabet is fewer or more than twenty six letters.
If the alphabet doesn't go from A to Z.
If the parts of speech are fewer or more than eight.
If it doesn't contain standard recognized English language words.
If the difference between a question and an answer isn't clear.
If the words aren't arranged in proper sequence so as to differentiate between types and kinds of sentences.

English language books

What English language books should an 18-year-old individual have?
English language word Book.
English language glossary Book.
English language grammar Book.
English language dictionary.
English language thesaurus.
English language documents.
English language human resources.
English language writing guidelines.
English language speaking guidelines.
English language reading guidelines.
English language translation from other languages.


Why should one have these English language books?
At some point of life, one will need these books.

What should you know about the English language?

English language has mathematical answers.
English Language and Mathematics
The English language has mathematical answers.
You are expected to give a mathematical answer.
How many letters or symbols of the alphabet are there in the English language?
How many types of English language sentences are there?
How many types of questions are there?
How many types of declarative sentences are there?
How many types of simple declarative sentence are there?
How many classes of words or parts of speech are there?
How many English language abilities are there?
How many tenses are there in the English language?
How many types of English-language documents are there?
What are various examples?
Would you like to join me in enhancing the English language?
How does the English language have mathematical answers?

These questions and answers will make you understand.

How many letters or symbols of the alphabet are there in the English language?
26.

How many types of English language sentences are there?
4.

What are various examples?
1. Question.
2. Declarative sentence.
3. Imperative sentence.
4. Exclamatory sentence.

How many types of questions are there?
4

What are various examples?
1. Question word question.
2. Yes/no question.
3. Choice question.
4. Tag question.

How many types of declarative sentences are there?
4.

What are various examples?
1. Simple declarative sentence.
2. Compound declarative sentence.
3. Complex declarative sentence.
4. Complex compound declarative sentence.

How many types of simple declarative sentence are there?
10.

What are various examples?
What pattern or type of simple declarative sentence do you plan to write?
1. S + V
2. S + V + O
3. S + V + C
4. S + V + A
5. S + V + O + O
6. S + V + O + C
7. S + V + O + A
8. S + V + preposition + noun
9. S + V + preposition + verb(ing) gerund.
10. Object + To Be + Past Participle
The normal structure of an active voice sentence is subject+verb+object but in passive the normal structure of sentence is reversed according to certain rules and becomes like object+verb+subject.

What should be the pattern and tense of a simple declarative sentence?
How many tenses can one pattern of simple declarative sentence have?

Each pattern of a simple declarative sentence has 12 tenses.

How do you write a simple declarative sentence?
Active and Passive Sentences
I, you, he, she, we, they, Asif (your name), my, their, all, a, an, the usually begins the simple declarative sentence.

You can utilize other words also.

Here are simple declarative sentences with words beginning with I, you, he, she, we, they, Asif (your name), my, their, all, a, an, the.

I am writing to you to get answers to my questions.
You did not precisely reply to my questions.
He had no answers to my questions.
She does not have any English language abilities.
We must go ahead question by question.
They are not enhancing the economy.
Asif (your name) has many abilities and skills.
My computer needs to be replaced.
Their English language abilities are not good.
Not all English language editors are of good quality.
A, an, and the should be discarded from the English language.

How many classes of words or parts of speech are there?
8.

What are various examples?
1. Adjective
2. Adverb
3. Conjunction
4. Interjection
5. Noun
6. Pronoun
7. Preposition
8. Verb

What makes one page?
300 words.

How many English language abilities are there?

Four

What are the various examples?

Listening or understanding
Speaking
Reading
Writing

How many tenses are there in the English language?

12

What are they?

1. Present simple
2. Present continuous
3. Present perfect simple
4. Present perfect continuous
5. Past simple
6. Past continuous
7. Past perfect simple
8. Past perfect continuous
9. Future simple
10. Future continuous
11. Future perfect simple
12. Future perfect continuous

How many types of English-language documents are there?

There are more than 35 types of English-language documents.

What are various examples?

http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/documenttypes.html

When do you conclude it isn't an English language?
If the alphabet is fewer or more than twenty six letters.
If the alphabet doesn't go from A to Z.
If the parts of speech are fewer or more than eight.
If it doesn't contain standard recognized English language words.
If the difference between a question and an answer isn't clear.
If the words aren't arranged in proper sequence so as to differentiate between types and kinds of sentences.

Would you like to join me in enhancing the English language?

Analysis of English language documents.

Here are further guidelines.


English Editing Service
Here are further guidelines.

English Editing Service
Here are further guidelines.

How many classes of words or parts of speech are there?
8.

What are various examples?
  1. Adjectives

  2. Adverbs

  3. Conjunctions

  4. Interjections

  5. Nouns

  6. Prepositions

  7. Pronouns

  8. Verbs
What are four English language skills?

Writing is the fourth of the four language skills and usually the one that we learn last:
Listening (Understanding)
Speaking
Reading
Writing

Would you like to improve your English language?

What best describes your English language learning goals?

http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/englishlanguagelearning.html

English Language Learners

http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/englishlanguage.html
Declarative sentence.
    1. Simple declarative sentence. Active and Passive Sentences
    2. Compound declarative sentence.
    3. Complex declarative sentence.
    4. Complex compound declarative sentence.

The official language in every state is English.
English Language Department code or regulations in the state.
What should everyone know about English Language Department code or regulations in the state?
English language is essential for everyone.
English language is the official language.
English language is the official language and this means writing, speaking, reading have to be done in the English language. English language understanding is essential.
Arabic, Kashmiri, Kannada, Urdu, Hindi, or any other language can be a second language.
Practice makes perfect.
You need to practice English language every day.
Practice English language by calling 773-561-6102 Chicago, Illinois, North America.

What textbooks should public schools utilize for English language in every state?
Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/booksworld.html
These are the English-language textbooks recommended for all public schools in every state.
If you have any other English-language textbooks or questions and answers in mind, you need to display them on the Internet with profile of the author.

What does this mean: “The official language in every state is English”?
“The official language is English” means speaking, writing, reading, and discussions have to be in English.

History of the English language.
What should you know about the history of the English language?
On September 24, 2016, the English language was more than 1,500 years old.


English language books
What English language books should an 18-year-old individual have?
  1. English language word Book.

  2. English language glossary Book.

  3. English language grammar Book.

  4. English language dictionary.

  5. English language thesaurus.

  6. English language documents.

  7. English language human resources.

  8. English language writing guidelines.

  9. English language speaking guidelines.

  10. English language reading guidelines.

  11. English language translation from other languages.

  12. English language human resources.

English language grammar Book.
English language grammar Book.
This book has been authored by Asif Qureshi.
English Language
English Grammar Rules

How long has it taken to author these books?
It has taken the author of these books, Asif Qureshi, more than 10 years to author these books.
Up to June 23, 2015, there was no such book in schools, colleges, universities, libraries, or various departments in various states.
You are required to facilitate circulation of these books and other books authored by me with remuneration.

English Grammar Rules
Questions you need to answer.
What is grammar?
What is English grammar?
Do you have difficulty understanding or learning English grammar rules?
Why do you have difficulty learning English grammar rules?
What should you know about English grammar rules?
How should you go ahead learning English grammar rules?
How many letters or symbols of the alphabet are there in the English language?
How many types of English language sentences are there?
What are various examples?
How many types of questions are there?
What are various examples?
How many types of declarative sentences are there?
What are various examples?
How many types of simple declarative sentence are there?
What are various examples?
What pattern or type of simple declarative sentence do you plan to write?
What should be the pattern and tense of a simple declarative sentence?
How many tenses can one pattern of simple declarative sentence have?
How many classes of words or parts of speech are there?
What are various examples?
What makes one page?
How many English language abilities are there?
What are the various examples?
How many tenses are there in the English language?
What are they?
How many types of English-language documents are there?
What are various examples?
When do you conclude it isn't an English language?
What are examples of simple declarative sentences in active and passive voice with tenses?
What are examples of questions in active and passive voice with tenses?
What should you know about communication?

Document Types
What type of English language document are you writing?
Here are further guidelines.

English Language Degree
English for Specific Purposes
Associate's Degree in English
    Freelance writer
    Proofreader
    Research assistant
Bachelor's Degree in English
    Teacher
    Advertising copywriter
    Journalist
Master's Degree in English
    Professor
    Public relations executive
    Editor
Ph.D. in English
    Professor
    Publisher
    Author

English Language
English language research
What is English language research?
Research is finding out what you don't already know.
English language research is finding out what you don't already know about the English language.
Finding out what you do not already know about the English language can be about speaking, writing, reading or understanding English.

Who usually must go ahead with English language research in the state and outside the state?
Departments of English of public universities in the state and outside the state.
English language research should be ideally presented in a question-and-answer format.
Demotion, disciplinary action against heads of departments of English public universities in the state and outside the state who do not go ahead with English-language research.

What have been findings of English-language research?
Regional variations exist in English language.
Regional variations exist in spoken, written, and reading of English language.
If a person understands one variety of English language the person can understand other varieties of English language.
English language is the official language.


Tenses
What is tense?
How should you practice English language tenses?
English language tenses for declarative sentences and English language tenses for questions should be practiced separately. How many tenses are there in the English language?
What are names of various English language tenses?
What should you be able to identify and know about a verb?
What should you know about nouns in the English language?
What are the ten functions of a noun in the English language?
How do we make various English language tenses?
What are examples of simple declarative sentences in active and passive voice with tenses?
What are examples of questions in active and passive voice with tenses?
What is tense?
Tense refers mainly to the time - past, present, and future.

How should you practice English language tenses?
English language tenses for declarative sentences and English language tenses for questions should be practiced separately.

How many tenses are there in the English language?
12

What is English language sentence classification by verb tense of sentence?
What are names of various English language tenses?

Present Simple tense
Present Continuous tense
Present Perfect tense
Present Perfect Continuous tense
Past Simple tense
Past Continuous tense
Past Perfect tense
Past Perfect Continuous tense
Future Simple tense
Future Continuous tense
Future Perfect tense
Future Perfect Continuous tense

What should you know about nouns in the English language?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/noun.html

How do we make various English language tenses? Mnemonic
A mnemonic, or mnemonic device, is any learning technique that aids information retention.

Present

B = Base verb (+ es/es for third person):
A = am/is/are + present participle:
H = Have/has + past participle:
H = Have/has + been + present participle:

Past

V = Verb+ed or irregular verb:
W = Was/were + present participle:
H = Had + past participle:
H = had been + present participle:

Future

Will = Will+verb or Am/is/are + going to + verb
Will = Will be + present participle or Am/is/are + going to be + present participle:
Will = Will have + past participle or Am/is/are + going to have + past participle
Will = Will have been + present participle or Am/is/are + going to have been + present participle:

 

Present

Past

Future

Simple

eat, eats (present simple)

ate (past simple)

will eat (future simple)

Progressive

am (is, are) eating (present progressive)

was (were) eating (past progressive)

will be eating (future progressive)

Perfect

has (have) eaten (present perfect)

had eaten (past perfect)

will have eaten (future perfect)

Perfect Progressive

has (have) been eating (present perfect progressive)

had been eating (past perfect progressive)

will have been eating
(future perfect progressive)

 

Present

Present Simple

Base verb (+ es/es for third person):

I watch the news every day.

Present Continuous

am/is/are + present participle:

I am watching the news.

Present Perfect

Has/have + past participle:

I have watched the news already.

Present Perfect Continuous

Has/have + been + present participle:

I have been watching the news since I was a teenager.

Past

Past Simple

Verb+ed or irregular verb:

I watched the news.

Past Continuous

Was/were + present participle:

I was watching the news.

Past Perfect

Had + past participle:

I had watched the news before I went to bed.

Past Perfect Continuous

I had been watching watching the news for 20 minutes before you came home.

Future

Future Simple

Will+verb
Am/is/are + going to + verb

I will watch the news / I am going to watch the news.

Future Continuous

Will be + present participle
Am/is/are + going to be + present participle:

I will be watching the news at 9pm. / I am going to be watching the news at 9pm.

Future Perfect

Will have + past participle
Am/is/are + going to have + past participle

I will have watched the news before 10pm. / I am going to have watched the news.

Future Perfect Continuous

Will have been + present participle
Am/is/are + going to have been + present participle:

I will have been watching the news for over ten minutes before you join me. / I am going to have been watching the news for over ten minutes before you join me.

Simple declarative sentences in active and passive voice with tenses.
Questions in active and passive voice with tenses.


Here are further guidelines.
Active and Passive Examples

The table below shows example sentences in active and passive voice for the basic tenses as well as various other verb forms, including infinitives and participles.

What are examples of simple declarative sentences in active and passive voice with tenses?
What are examples of questions in active and passive voice with tenses?
Present Simple
How do we make the Present Simple Tense?
Type Active Voice Structure Passive Voice Structure
Positive Sentence Sub + verb present form + object Obj + is/are + Past-Participle + (by Sub )
Positive Question Do/Does + sub + Verb Present form ? Is/are + Obj + Past-Participle ?
Negative Sentence Sub + don’t/doesn’t +verb present form + object obj + isn’t/aren’t + past-participle
Negative Question Don’t/Doesn’t + Sub + Verb present form + Obj ? Isn’t/aren’t + Obj + Past-participle ?
Example set 1 : ( Singular Object )
Type Active Voice Structure Passive Voice Structure
Positive Sentence He writes a letter A letter is written by him ( or ) A letter gets written by him.
Positive Question Does he write a letter? Is a letter written by him ? (or) Does a letter get written by him?
Negative Sentence He doesn’t write a letter. A letter isn’t written by him. (or ) A letter doesn’t get written by him.
Negative Question Doesn’t he write a letter? Is a letter not written by him?
( or)
Isn’t a letter written by him?
( or )
Doesn’t a letter get written by him?
Example set 2 : ( Plural object )
Type Active Voice Structure Passive Voice Structure
Positive Sentence They make kites. Kites are made by them ( or ) kites get made by them.
Positive Question Do they make kites? Are kites made by them ? (or ) Do kites get made by them?
Negative Sentence They don’t make kites. kites aren’t made by them.
( or ) Kites don’t get made by them.
Negative Question Don’t they make kites? Are kites not made by them?
( or )
Aren’t kites made by them?
( or )
Don’t kites get made by them?
# is ‘ – for singular object ( here Object becomes subject).
# ‘Are’-for Plural object
# past-participle – 3rd form of verb ( Ex: walk-walked-walked).
# You can use ‘get’ instead of ‘am/is/are/were/was’.
Present form Past form Past-participle For singular sub
write wrote written writes
make made made makes
cook cooked cooked cooks

Present Simple ‘Wh’ Questions
Formula:
Wh + do/does + Subject + base verb
Who do you look like?
What does she want?
Where does he come from?
When do you wake up?
Why do they have 3 ___s?
How do I ___ to California?

How do they get to work?
How does Robin drive his car?
How long does it take from London to Paris?
How many brothers does she have?
How many children do you have?
How much does this cost?
How often do I come here?
How often do you study English?
How often does she go to the cinema?
What do you do?
What does Asif do?
What does Joe repair?
What does Julia like?
What does this machine do?
What sports does Lucy like?
What time does the film start?
When do you get up?
When do you go to the cinema?
When does Asif run?
Where do they play?
Where do you eat lunch?
Where do you go to school?
Where do you play tennis?
Where does John come from?
Where does Maria come from?
Where does she live?
Who does she meet on Saturdays?
Who rides his bike?
Why do you eat so much chocolate?
Why do you go to Mallorca?
Active

Active Question:
Where do farmers grow grapes?
Active Answer:
Farmers grow grapes in California.
Passive

Passive Question:
Where are grapes grown (by farmers)?
Passive Answer:
Grapes are grown (by farmers) in California.
Active Question:
How do people create ketchup?
Active Answer:
People create ketchup from tomatoes.
Passive Question:
How is ketchup created (by people)?
Passive Answer:
Ketchup is created (by people) from tomatoes.
Active Question:
How do chefs make mayonnaise?
Active Answer:
Chefs make mayonnaise from oil and eggs.
Passive Question:
How is mayonnaise made (by chefs)?
Passive Answer:
Mayonnaise is made (by chefs) from oil and eggs.
Active Question:
Where do people find opals?
Active Answer:
People find opals in Tequila, Mexico.
Passive Question:
Where are opals found (by people)?
Passive Answer:
Opals are found (by people) in Tequila, Mexico.
Active Question:
Where do farmers plant potatoes?
Active Answer:
Farmers plant potatoes in Poland.
Passive Question:
Where are potatoes planted (by farmers)?
Passive Answer:
Potatoes are planted (by farmers) in Poland.
Active Question:
Where do people eat pho?
Active Answer:
People eat pho in Vietnam.
Passive Question:
Where is pho eaten (by people)?
Passive Answer:
Pho is eaten (by people) in Vietnam.
Active Question:
Why do farmers raise cows?
Active Answer:
Farmers raise cows for food and clothing.
Passive Question:
Why are cows raised (by farmers)?
Passive Answer:
Cows are raised (by farmers) for food and clothing.
Active Question:
Why do people take aspirin?
Active Answer:
People take aspirin for headaches.
Passive Question:
Why is aspirin taken (by people)?
Passive Answer:
Aspirin is taken (by people) for headaches.
Active Question:
When do Americans give heart-shaped candy?
Active Answer:
Americans give heart-shaped candy on Valentine’s Day.
Passive Question:
When is heart-shaped candy given (by Americans)?
Passive Answer:
Heart-shaped candy is given (by Americans) on Valentine’s Day.
How does one pronounce his name? How is his name pronounced?
He helps us. We are helped by him.
Doctors treat patients. Patients are treated by doctors.
Teachers teach students. Students are taught by teachers.
Parents bring up children. Children are brought up by parents.
We love our _______. Our _______ is loved by us.
Masons build houses. Houses are built by masons.
Carpenters make furniture. Furniture is made by carpenters.
Mechanics repair cars. Cars are repaired by mechanics.
- Now, practice with the past tense!
Remember:
The auxiliary verb for the active voice changes from do/does to did.
The auxiliary verb for the passive voice changes from is/are to was/were. Take a look at this.
Past Simple
  active passive
Present Continuous(present progressive tense)
How do we make the Present Continuous Tense?
Active Question:
Where are farmers growing wheat?
Active Answer:
Farmers are growing wheat in Arizona.

Ati's helping Tara.
Passive Question:
Where is wheat being grown (by farmers)?
Passive Answer:
Wheat is being grown (by farmers) in Arizona.
Tara's being helped by Ati.
Present Perfect
How do we make the Present Perfect Tense?
Active Question:
How long have farmers grown wheat in Arizona?
Active Answer:
Farmers have grown wheat in Arizona for years.
Kid has served dinner.
Passive Question:
How long has wheat been grown in Arizona?
Passive Answer
Wheat has been grown in Arizona for years.
Dinner has been served.
Present Perfect Continuous (also called the present perfect progressive)
How do we make the Present Perfect Continuous Tense?
The police have been watching that house for weeks. That house has been being watched for weeks.
Past Simple They didn't fix my phone yesterday.
Active Question:
When did they discover the world’s largest diamond?
Active Answer:
They discovered the world’s largest diamond in 1905.
Active Question:
Where did someone find the world’s largest diamond?
Active Answer:
Someone found the world’s largest diamond in South Africa.
Active Question:
Why did a company grow cotton in Goodyear?
Active Answer:
A company grew cotton in Goodyear to make tires.
Active Question:
When did a tire company grow cotton in Goodyear? Active Answer:
A tire company grew cotton in Goodyear in the 1940s.
Active Question:
When did someone create CDs?
Active Answer:
Someone created CDs in 1982.
Active Question:
How did Percy Spencer discover microwave cooking?
Active Answer:
Percy Spencer accidentally discovered microwave cooking.
Active Question:
When did Percy Spencer discover microwave cooking?
Active Answer:
Percy Spencer discovered microwave cooking in 1945.
Active Question:
What did Thomas Edison invent?
Active Answer:
Thomas Edison invented the light bulb and phonograph.
My phone wasn't fixed yesterday.
Passive Question:
When was the world’s largest diamond discovered?
Passive Answer
The world’s largest diamond was discovered in 1905.
Passive Question:
Where was the world’s largest diamond found (by someone)?
Passive Answer
The world’s largest diamond was found (by someone) in South Africa.
Passive Question:
Why was cotton grown (by a company) in Goodyear?
Passive Answer
Cotton was grown (by a company) in Goodyear to make tires.
Passive Question:
When was cotton grown (by a tire company) in Goodyear?
Passive Answer
Cotton was grown (by a tire company) in Goodyear in the 1940s.
Passive Question:
When were CDs created (by someone)?
Passive Answer
CDs were created (by someone) in 1982
Passive Question:
How was microwave cooking discovered (by Percy Spencer)?
Passive Answer
Microwave cooking was accidentally discovered (by Percy Spencer).
Passive Question:
When was microwave cooking discovered (by Percy Spencer)?
Passive Answer
Microwave cooking was discovered (by Percy Spencer) in 1945.
Passive Question:
What was invented by Thomas Edison?
Passive Answer
The light bulb and phonograph were invented by Thomas Edison.
Past Continuous They were interrogating him when I called. He was being interrogated when I called.
Past Perfect I wondered why they hadn't invited me. I wondered why I hadn't been invited.
Past Perfect Continuous She wasn't sure how long they'd been following her. She wasn't sure how long she'd been being followed.*
Future Simple They will hang him at dawn. He will be hanged at dawn.
Future Continuous They won't be questioning him when you get there. He won't be being questioned when you get there.
Future Perfect They will have repaired your car by 7pm. Your car will have been repaired by 7pm.
Future Perfect Continuous They'll have been treating her for exactly three months tomorrow. She'll have been being treated for exactly three months tomorrow.*
infinitive I dont want anyone to disturb me. I don't want to be disturbed.
perfect infitive They seem to have taken it. It seems to have been taken.
participle I saw the cat eating it. I saw it being eaten by the cat.
perfect participle Having finished my work, I went home. My work having been finished, I went home.
gerund I insisted on them paying me. I insisted on being paid.
going to Is he going to sing Thriller at the party? Is Thriller going to be sung at the party?
used to Asif used to take care of everything. Everything used to be taken care of by Asif.
can They can question him for six hours. He can be questioned for six hours.
could It could have badly hurt you. You could have been badly hurt.
may The papers say they may release him. The papers say he may be released.
might Somebody might buy it. It might be bought.
must Passengers must wear seat belts. Seat belts must be worn.
should You should have told me. I should have been told.
ought to They ought to forgive him. He ought to be forgiven.

The normal structure of an active voice sentence is subject+verb+object but in passive the normal structure of sentence is reversed according to certain rules and becomes like object+verb+subject.

3. Present Simple Tense - To Be - Questions - Am Are Is
Am I correct?
4. Present Simple Tense - To Have
have or has
5. Present Simple Tense - main verb
verb (+ s/es for third person)
6. Present Simple Tense - Questions (Do/Does)
7. Present Simple Tense - "Wh" Questions - Where When Who What How Which
8. Present Tense - Short Answers
9. Present Tense - Don't or Doesn't
10. Present Simple 'Be' Wh Questions
Present Perfect Tense - For and Since
For present perfect, add have plus the past participle:
I have _____________ many times before.
has/have + past participle
Present Continuous Tense
am/is/are + present participle
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
I have been doing
has/have been + present participle
Past Tense
Simple Past Tense
I did do, I did
Simple Past Tense - Questions

past form only
or
auxiliary did + base form
verb + d/ed/t (except for irregular verbs)
Positive sentences
Negatives sentences
Questions
1) Questions without question words in the Simple Past
2) Questions with question words in the Simple Past
Past Continuous Tense
I was doing
was/were + present participle
Past Perfect Tense
For past perfect, add had plus the past participle:
I had ___________ many times before.
I had done
had + past participle
Past Perfect Continuous Tense
I had been doing

had been + present participle
Future Tense
Simple Future Tense
I will do
will + verb
am/is/are going to + verb
Future Continuous Tense
I will be doing
will be + present participle
am/is/are going to be + present participle
Future Perfect Tense
For future perfect, add will have plus the past participle:
By Friday, I will have ___________ many times.
I will have done
will have + past participle
am/is/are going to have + past participle
Future Perfect Continuous Tense
I will have been doing
will have been + present participle
am/is/are going to have been + present participle
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English Capitalization
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Why should you speak in the English Language?
Why should you write in the English language?
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SENTENCE PARTS: SUBJECTS, VERBS, COMPLEMENTS, AND MODIFIERS
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Listed in alphabetical order
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Sex Education in Schools
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the
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How many children in the world do not have access to a primary English language education as of July 19, 2011?

How many people in the world over age 18 cannot write an English language letter as of July 19, 2011?

How many states do not have proper English language curriculum through their state education department?
Would you like to improve your English language?
What best describes your English language learning goals?
How many English teachers are there in the world?
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What type of English learner are you?
What is the difference between an English teacher and an English grammarian?

Why should you speak in the English Language?
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Why should you listen to English language news?
Why should you read English language materials?

The English language is the most popular language.
Comparatively English language is better evolved and evolving.
Most universities are English medium universities.
Most of the research and literature is in the English language.

You need to update your skills and knowledge so long as you have the ability to learn.
How do you write English Sentences?
How should you evaluate the quality of the curriculum?
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What best describes your English language learning goals?
What is English language grammar?
English language grammar is the study of classes of words, their inflections, their functions, relations in the sentence, and rules for how to speak and write English words and sentences correctly.
Can you write a word with each letter in the English alphabet?
Can you make a sentence with each word?
What is a student expected to know about the English language at the ages of 5, 10, 15, and 18 years? Why is education essential?
Here are further guidelines.
teachertrainingguidelines.html
What is a student expected to know about the English language at the age of 10 years?
What is a student expected to know about the English language at the age of 18 years?
What is a student expected to know about the English language at the ages of 5, 10, 15, and 18 years?
What is expected of a neonate, infant, toddler, preschooler, school ager, teen, and adolescent?
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Regional variations exist in the English language.
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Simple Sentence
A simple sentence expresses a complete thought and contains a subject and a verb. An example would be: “Mary went to the library to study.” A simple sentence may have a compound subject, meaning more than one, but it is still considered a simple sentence. An example is: “Jose and Brittany are getting married.” A simple sentence can also have a compound verb, like: “Meaghan cleans her room and brushes her teeth every day.

A simple sentence has one independent clause.

Compound sentence

A compound sentence has two simple sentences, or independent clauses. The clauses are connected one of two ways: with a coordinator or coordinating conjunction, or with a semicolon. Two examples are “Han waited for the bus, and it arrived on time” and “You have waited very patiently; finally the day has arrived.”

Complex sentence A complex sentence has one independent clause (sentence) and at least one dependent clause. A dependent clause has a subject and verb, but is not a complete thought, so it cannot stand alone. These two clauses are joined by a marker word, like: after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether, and while.

A compound sentence has two independent clauses or sentences. The independent clauses can be joined by a coordinating conjunction (such as "and," "for" and "but") or a semicolon.

Compound-Complex Sentence

Although I prefer to read current bestsellers, I do like to read old Agatha Christie mysteries, and I also like some 20th-century science fiction.

Compound-complex sentences take a bunch of clauses (multiple independent clauses, and one or more dependent clauses) and toss them together like a salad. Although these sentences take practice to write in a grammatically correct fashion, they can hold a tremendous amount of meaning, and are common in academic writing.

Active and Passive Sentences
Active and Passive Examples

The table below shows example sentences in active and passive voice for the basic tenses as well as various other verb forms, including infinitives and participles.

  active passive
Present Simple How does one pronounce his name? How is his name pronounced?
Present Continuous Ati's helping Tara. Tara's being helped by Ati.
Present Perfect Kid has served dinner. Dinner has been served.
Present Perfect Continuous The police have been watching that house for weeks. That house has been being watched for weeks.
Past Simple They didn't fix my phone yesterday. My phone wasn't fixed yesterday.
Past Continuous They were interrogating him when I called. He was being interrogated when I called.
Past Perfect I wondered why they hadn't invited me. I wondered why I hadn't been invited.
Past Perfect Continuous She wasn't sure how long they'd been following her. She wasn't sure how long she'd been being followed.*
Future Simple They will hang him at dawn. He will be hanged at dawn.
Future Continuous They won't be questioning him when you get there. He won't be being questioned when you get there.
Future Perfect They will have repaired your car by 7pm. Your car will have been repaired by 7pm.
Future Perfect Continuous They'll have been treating her for exactly three months tomorrow. She'll have been being treated for exactly three months tomorrow.*
infinitive I dont want anyone to disturb me. I don't want to be disturbed.
perfect infitive They seem to have taken it. It seems to have been taken.
participle I saw the cat eating it. I saw it being eaten by the cat.
perfect participle Having finished my work, I went home. My work having been finished, I went home.
gerund I insisted on them paying me. I insisted on being paid.
going to Is he going to sing Thriller at the party? Is Thriller going to be sung at the party?
used to Asif used to take care of everything. Everything used to be taken care of by Asif.
can They can question him for six hours. He can be questioned for six hours.
could It could have badly hurt you. You could have been badly hurt.
may The papers say they may release him. The papers say he may be released.
might Somebody might buy it. It might be bought.
must Passengers must wear seat belts. Seat belts must be worn.
should You should have told me. I should have been told.
ought to They ought to forgive him. He ought to be forgiven.

The normal structure of an active voice sentence is subject+verb+object but in passive the normal structure of sentence is reversed according to certain rules and becomes like object+verb+subject.

A sentence is written in active voice when the subject of the sentence performs the action in the sentence.
e.g. The girl was washing the dog.
A sentence is written in passive voice when the subject of the sentence has an action done to it by someone or something else.
e.g. The dog was being washed by the girl.

Decide whether the sentences are written in Active or Passive.
1 The grapes are grown in California. ? Passive
2 The search will be stopped because of the storm. ? Passive
3 The first fast food restaurants were opened in the USA in 1916. ? Passive
4 The train is going to arrive late. ? Active
5 The party has already started. ? Active
6 The hamster can be kept in a cage. ? Passive
7 The friends have been looking forward to meeting her. ? Active
8 The car is standing at the garage. ? Active
9 The ship has been given up. ? Passive
10 The police didn't find the _______ last week. ? Active

Examples of Active and Passive Voice

Here are examples of sentences written in both the active voice and the passive voice, with the active voice sentence appearing first:

Harry ate six shrimp at dinner. (active)
At dinner, six shrimp were eaten by Harry. (passive)

Beautiful giraffes roam the savannah. (active)
The savannah is roamed by beautiful giraffes. (passive)

Sue changed the flat tire. (active)
The flat tire was changed by Sue. (passive)

We are going to watch a movie tonight. (active)
A movie is going to be watched by us tonight. (passive)

I ran the obstacle course in record time. (active)
The obstacle course was run by me in record time. (passive)

The crew paved the entire stretch of highway. (active)
The entire stretch of highway was paved by the crew. (passive)

Mom read the novel in one day. (active)
The novel was read by Mom in one day. (passive)

The critic wrote a scathing review. (active)
A scathing review was written by the critic. (passive)
I will clean the house every Saturday. (active)
The house will be cleaned by me every Saturday. (passive)
The staff is required to watch a safety video every year. (active)
A safety video will be watched by the staff every year. (passive)

She faxed her application for a new job. (active)
The application for a new job was faxed by her. (passive)

Tom painted the entire house. (active)
The entire house was painted by Tom. (passive)

The teacher always answers the students’ questions. (active)
The students’ questions are always answered by the teacher. (passive)

The choir really enjoys that piece. (active)
That piece is really enjoyed by the choir. (passive)

Who taught you to ski? (active)
By whom were you taught to ski? (passive)

The forest fire destroyed the whole suburb. (active)
The whole suburb was destroyed by the forest fire. (passive)

The two kings are signing the treaty. (active)
The treaty is being signed by the two kings. (passive)

The cleaning crew vacuums and dusts the office every night. (active)
Every night the office is vacuumed and dusted by the cleaning crew. (passive)

Larry generously donated money to the homeless shelter. (active)
Money was generously donated to the homeless shelter by Larry. (passive)

No one responded to my sales ad. (active)
My sales ad was not responded to by anyone. (passive)

The wedding planner is making all the reservations. (active)
All the reservations will be made by the wedding planner. (passive)

Susan will bake two dozen cupcakes for the bake sale. (active)
For the bake sale, two dozen cookies will be baked by Susan. (passive)

The science class viewed the comet. (active)
The comet was viewed by the science class. (passive)

Who ate the last cookie? (active)
The last cookie was eaten by whom? (passive)

Alex posted the video on Facebook. (active)
The video was posted on Facebook by Alex. (passive)

The director will give you instructions. (active)
Instructions will be given to you by the director. (passive)

Thousands of tourists view the Grand Canyon every year. (active)
The Grand Canyon is viewed by thousands of tourists every year. (passive)

The homeowners remodeled the house to help it sell. (active)
The house was remodeled by the homeowners to help it sell. (passive)

The team will celebrate their victory tomorrow. (active)
The victory will be celebrated by the team tomorrow. (passive)

The saltwater eventually corroded the metal beams. (active)
The metal beams were eventually corroded by the saltwater. (passive)

The kangaroo carried her baby in her pouch. (active)
The baby was carried by the kangaroo in her pouch. (passive)

Some people raise sugar cane in Hawaii. (active)
Sugar cane is raised by some people in Hawaii. (passive)

These different sentences written in both active voice and passive voice illustrate the differences.

Active voice is the sentence that accompanied the transitive verb with the subject in front of verbs such as actors who perform an act. Passive voice is a form of the verb phrase that accompanied the three (Past Participle) describe the thing done (by the perpetrator)
B. Example : Active voice sentences are as follows :
1. We eat rice every day
2. You drink milk every day
3. They lock the gate every night
4. The Teacher is explaining the lesson
5. The Students are writing a story
6. He bought the house last year
7. I took the hammer yesterday
8. We have finished the work
9. John has sent the letter
10. We shall invite simon
11. Albert will arrange the books
12. Liza is going to contact Mr.Hudson

Example Passive voice sentences are as follows:
1. Rice is eaten every day
2. Milk is drunk every day
3. The gate is locked every night by them
4. The lesson is being explained by the teacher
5. A story is being written by the students
6. The house was bought last year
7. The hammer was taken by me yesterday
8. The work has been finished by us
9. The letter has been sent by John
10. Simon will be invited
11. The books will be arranged by albert
12. Mr. Hudson is going to be contacted by Liza

Active sentences into passive sentences :

Subjects in active sentence has been at the front of the verb, and object there behind the verb. Note the changes in passive sentences below. Objects can be located in front of the verb. Past Participle (Verb to 3) is always used in active sentences.

Example :
1.(Active) : We need water
(Passive) : Water is needed

2.(Active) : They admire Madona
(Passive) : Madona is admired

3.(Active) : We educate our children
(Passive) : Our children are educated

4.(Active) : They built this house last year
(Passive) : This house was built last year

5.(Active) : They will forget this case
(Passive) : This case will be forgotten

6.(Active) : Someone has split the oil
(Passive) : The oil has been split

7.(Active) : I have pushed the cupboard into the corner
(Passive) : The cupboard has been pushed into the corner

8.(Active) : We requested the police to find the girl
(Passive) : The police were requested to find the girl

9.(Active) : He wants you to give up
(Passive) : You are wanted to give up

A. Active and Passive sentences in Simple Present
- Active sentences in present tense using the verb 1
- Passive sentences in present tense to use am / is / are + verb 3
Example : a.(Active) : I turn the light off at bed time
(Passive) : The light is turned off at bed time

b.(Active) : We import a lot of cars from japan
(Passive) : A lot of cars are imported from japan

c.(Active) : Recless drivers cause many accidents
(Passive) : Many accidents are caused by recless drivers

d. (Active) : Road accidents injure many people every day
(Passive) : Many people are injured in road accidents every day

e.(Active) : We export oil to other _______
(Passive) : Oil is exported to other _______

B. Active and Passive sentences Past Tense
- Active in the Past tense sentences using the verb to-2
- Past tense passive voice in use was / were + verb to-3
Example :
a.(Active) : They signed the agreement
(Passive) : The agreement was signed by them

b.(Active) : Lightning struck the tree last week
(Passive) : The tree was struck by lightning last week

c.(Active) : The bad news shocked me yesterday
(Passive) : I was shocked by the bad news yesterday

d.(Active) : Steven took my picture
(Passive) : My picture were taken by steven

e.(Active) : I told him to come back the next day
(Passive) : He was told to come back the next day

C.Active and Passive Sentences in Present Continuous
- Active sentences in the Present Continuous Verbs to ING-1 +
- Present Continuous Passive Sentences in am / is / are + being + verb to-3

Example :
a.(Active) : They are looking at you
(Passive) : You are being locked at by them

b.(Active) : The men are cutting down the trees
(Passive) : The trees are being cut down

c.(Active) : The police officer is questioning the bad boys
(Passive) : The bad boys are being questioned by the police officer

d.(Active) : The committee is considering your proposal
(Passive) : Your proposal is being considered by the committee

e.(Active) : They are decorating my room
(Passive) : My room is being decorated

D. Active and Passive Sentences in Past Continuous
- Active sentences in past continuous use Was / Were + verb to Ing-1 +
- Passive sentences in past continuous use Was / Were Being + verb + to-3

Example:
A.(Active) : He was teaching me at ten o’clock yesterday
(Passive) : I was being taught at ten o’clock yesterday

B.(Active) : They were beating up the thief until the police arrived
(Passive) : The thief was being beaten up until the police arrived

C.(Active) : The doctor was examining you when we talked with a nurse
(Passive) : You were being examined when we talked with a nurse

D.(Active) : They were following us when we walked to the park
(Passive) : We were being followed when we walked to the park

E.(Active) : He was advising the children when you went out
(Passive) : The children were being advised when you went out

E.Active and Passive Sentences in Present Perfect
- Active in the present perfect sentences using the Have / Has + verb to-3
- Passive Sentences in the present perfect to use Have / Has + been + verb to-3

Example:
A.(Active) : A mosquito has bitten me
(Passive) : I have been bitten by a mosquito

B.(Active) : We have warned him about that
(Passive) : He has been warned about that

C.(Active) : They have signed the agreement
(Passive) : The agreement has been signed

D.(Active) : We have delivered the catalog
(Passive) : The catalog has been delivered

E.(Active) : Has the government changed the regulation yet?
(Passive) : Has the regulation been changed yet?

F. Active and Passive Sentences in Past Perfect
- Active sentences in use had + past perfect verb to-3
- The passive voice in past perfect to use had been + verb to-3

Example: A.(Active) : Johnson had bought my horse when you met us
(Passive) : My horse had been bought by Johnson when you met us

B.(Active) : Paul told me that somebody had hit him
(Passive) : Paul told me that he had been hit by someone

C.(Active) : Somebody had hurt the woman when she reported to the police
(Passive) : The woman had been hurt when she reported to the police

D.(Active) : The kitchen looked better yesterday. Somebody had cleaned it
(Passive) : The kitchen looked better yesterday. It had been cleaned

E.(Active) : A tree was lying across the road. The storm had blown it down
(Passive) : A tree was lying across the road. It had been blown down in the storm

G.Active and passive sentences in Simple Future
- Active sentences using the Future tense using Shall / Will + verb to-1
- Passive Sentences using the Future tense using Shall / Will be + verb + to-3

Example :
A.(Active) : We shall serve dinner to the guests in ten minutes
(Passive) : Dinner will be served to the guests in ten minutes

B.(Active) : We will send you your examination results as soon as they are ready
(Passive) : You will be sent your examination results as soon as they are ready

C.(Active) : They will advise me about the price of the books
(Passive) : I shall be advised about the price of the books

D.(Active) : We shall make a decision at the next meeting
(Passive) : A decision will be made at the next meeting

E.(Active) : Our _____ will employ twenty new men next month
(Passive) : Twenty new man will be employed by our ______ next month

H. Active and Passive Sentences in Future Perfect
- Active in the Future Perfect sentences using shall / will + have + verb to-3
- The passive voice in the Future Perfect uses shall / will + have + been + verb to-3

Example:
A.(Active) : At ten o’clock we shall have checked the machines
(Passive) : At ten o’clock the machines will have been checked

B.(Active) : We shall have finished this programmer in a few days
(Passive) : This programmer will have been finished in a few days

C.(Active) : By the end of the day you will have done the exercise
(Passive) : The exercise will have been done by the end of the day

D.(Active) : Tomorrow Paul will have fed the rabbits by six o’clock
(Passive) : Tomorrow the rabbits will have been fed by six o’clock

E.(Active) : I shall have woken Susan by midnight
(Passive) : Susan will have been woken up by midnight

I. Active and Passive Sentences in a Must
- Active sentences using the "Must": Must verb + to-1
- The passive use of "Must": Must be + verb + to-3

Example:
A.(Active) : I must carry out this plan
(Passive) : This plan must be carried out

B.(Active) : You must not leave the baby alone
(Passive) : The baby must not be left alone

C.(Active) : You must obey the law
(Passive) : The law must be obeyed

D.(Active) : We must protect wild animals
(Passive) : Wild animals must be protected

E.(Active) : We must punish criminals
(Passive) : Criminals must be punished

J.Active and Passive Sentences in CAN
- Active sentences using CAN: CAN verb + to-1
- The passive use of CAN: CAN + to be + verb-3

Example: A.(Active) : You can practice English every day
(Passive) : English can be practiced every day

B.(Active) : We can’t cheat them
(Passive) : They can’t be cheated

C.(Active) : Children can see this film
(Passive) : This film can be seen by Children

D.(Active) : You can borrow my motorbike
(Passive) : My motorbike can be borrowed
E.(Active) : They can arrange a meeting
(Passive) : A meeting can be arranged

Passive Voice

English Grammar Rules


The Passive Voice is used in English when the person or thing that is receiving the action is more important than the person or thing that is performing the action.

The structure of a sentence in the passive is as follows:

Object + To Be + Past Participle

Look at the structure of the following sentences in the active and the passive voice to understand the difference in structure.

  • I sent Christmas cards to all my friends. (Active)
  • Christmas cards were sent to all my friends. (Passive)
  • The earthquake destroyed the town last night. (Active)
  • The town was destroyed last night. (Passive)

In these examples, you can see it is the action / result that is the most important factor in the passive sentences.


When to use the Passive Voice

1. It is used when the person/thing performing the action is unimportant or unknown.
e.g. Our car was stolen last night.

2. It is used when it is obvious who/what is performing the action.
e.g. Cameron was sacked last week.

3. It is used to describe factual information, especially when describing a process.
e.g. The lasagna is baked in an oven for 35 minutes at 250 degrees Celsius.

4. It is used in news reports and to give instructions.
e.g. Five people were arrested at a nightclub last night.

While it is possible to use this structure in a large variety of tenses in English, it is rare to use the passive in Future Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous or Future Perfect Continuous tenses.

Below are examples of the passive in a range of verb tenses.

To Be Past Participle Tense
The butter is kept here. Present Simple
The window was broken. Past Simple
The work will be done soon. Future Simple
The bridge is being repaired. Present Continuous
The cheese was being eaten by mice. Past Continuous
Our work has been finished. Present Perfect
The car hadn't been used much. Past Perfect
The house will have been built by then. Future Perfect
The shelf can't be reached. Modal Verb - Can
The task must be done now. Modal Verb - Must
The lesson may be finished. Modal Verb - May
The car ought to be repaired. Modal Verb



PASSIVE VOICE FOR ALL TENSES RULES
  • The places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in passive voice.
  • 3rd form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb) in passive voice.
  • Auxiliary verbs for each tense are given below in the table.

Present Simple Tense (passive Voice)
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: am/is/are

Active voice:
He sings a song.
He does not sing a song.Does he sing a song?

Passive voice:
A song is sung by him.
A song is not sung by him.
Is a song sung by him?


Present Continuous Tense (passive Voice)
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: am being/is being/are being

Active voice:
I am writing a letter
I am not writing a letter.
Am I writing a letter?

Passive voice:
A letter is being written by me.
A letter is not being written by me.
Is a letter being written by me?


Present Perfect Tense (passive Voice)
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: has been/have been

Active voice:
She has finished his work
She has not finished her work.
Has she finished her work?

Passive voice:
Her work has been finished by her.
Her work has not been finished by her.
Has her work been finished by her?


Past Simple Tense (passive Voice)
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: was/were

Active voice:
I killed a snake
I did not kill a snake.
Did I kill a snake?

Passive voice:
A snake was killed by me.
A snake was not killed by me.
Was a snake killed by me?


Past Continuous Tense (Passive Voice)
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: was being/were being

Active voice:
He was driving a car.
He was not driving a car.
Was he driving a car?

Passive voice:
A car was being driven by him.
A car was not being driven by him.
Was a car being driven by him?


Past Perfect Tense (Passive Voice)
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: had been

Active voice:
They had completed the assignment.
They had not completed the assignment.
Had they completed the assignment?

Passive voice:
The assignment had been completed by them.
The assignment had not been complete by them.
Had the assignment been completed by them?


Future Simple Tense (Passive Voice)
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: will be

Active voice:
She will buy a car.
She will not buy a car.
Will she buy a car?

Passive voice:
A car will be bought by her.
A car will not be bought by her.
Will a car be bought by her?


Future Perfect Tense (passive Voice)
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: will have been

Active voice:
You will have started the job.
You will have not started the job.
Will you have started the job?

Passive voice:
The job will have been started by you.
The job will not have been started by you.
Will the job have been started by you?

Note: The following tenses cannot be changed into passive voice.

  1. Present perfect continuous tense
  2. Past perfect continuous tense
  3. Future continuous tense
  4. Future perfect continuous tense
  5. Sentence having Intransitive verbs

Fundamental Rules


Exercise on Passive Voice - Simple Present
Rewrite the sentences in passive voice.
Active Passive
1.I draw a picture. A picture is drawn by me.
2.He opens the door. The door is opened by him.
3.She pays a lot of money. A lot of money is paid by her.
4.He doesn't open the book.The book is not opened by him.
5.They wear blue shoes. Blue shoes are worn by them.
6.They don't help you. You are not helped by them.
7.We set the table. The table is set by us.
8.You do not write the letter.The letter is not written by you.
9.Does your mum pick you up? Are you picked up by your mum?
10.Does the police officer _________? Is the ________ by the police officer?

Active and Passive Voice: Tense-wise Rules
  1. Active and Passive Voice – Present Continuous Tense

  2. Active and Passive Voice – Present Perfect Tense

  3. Active and Passive Voice – Simple Past Tense

  4. Active and Passive Voice – Past Continuous and Past Perfect Tense

  5. Active and Passive Voice – Future Tense

Active and Passive Voice: Tense-wise Rules

Simple Present tense

An Active sentence in the simple present tense has the following structure:
Subject + first form of the verb + object

A passive sentence in the simple present tense has the following structure:
Object of the active sentence + is/am/are + past participle form of the verb + by + subject of the active sentence

Changing an assertive sentence into the passive

Active: I write a letter.
Passive: A letter is written by me.
Active: I help you.
Passive: You are helped by me.
Active: I love my parents.
Passive: My parents are loved by me.
Active: We love our country.
Passive: Our country is loved by us.

Changing a negative sentence into the passive

Active: I do not write a letter.
Passive: A letter is not written by me.
Active: I do not abuse my servants.
Passive: My servants are not abused by me.
Active: I do not write novels.
Passive: Novels are not written by me.
Active: He does not tease her.
Passive: She is not teased by him.

Changing an interrogative sentence into the passive

Structure: Is/are/am + object of the active verb + past participle form of the verb + by + subject of the passive verb

Active: Do you write a letter?
Passive: Is a letter written by you?
Active: Do you write stories?
Passive: Are stories written by you?
Active: Does she make candles?
Passive: Are candles made by her?
Active: Who does not obey you?
Passive: By whom are you not obeyed?
Active: Which newspaper do you read?
Passive: Which newspaper is read by you?
Active: Does she do her duty?
Passive: Is her duty done by her?

Notes:

The object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb. Therefore, sentences which do not have an object cannot be changed into the passive. The following sentences, for instance, cannot be changed into the passive because they do not have objects.

The old man sat in a corner.
The child sleeps.
The wind blows.
The dog barks.
The fire burns.
He laughed aloud.


Active and Passive Voice – Present Continuous Tense

Active sentences in the present continuous tense have the following structure:
Subject + is/are/am + -ing form of the verb + object
Passive sentences in the present continuous tense have the following structure:
Object of the active sentence + is/are/am + being + past participle form of the verb + by + subject of the active sentence.

Examples are given below.

Active: I am reading a story.
Passive: A story is being read by me.
Active: The engine is driving the train.
Passive: The train is being driven by the engine.
Active: She is singing a song.
Passive: A song is being sung by her.
Active: The carpenter is making furniture.
Passive: Furniture is being made by the carpenter.

When the verb is followed by a preposition

Read the sentence given below:

My mother is talking to a stranger.
Here the noun a stranger is the object of the preposition to, and not the verb talking. But this sentence can be changed into the passive:

Passive: A stranger is being talked to by my mother.
Active: The children are laughing at the old beggar.
Passive: The old beggar is being laughed at by the children.
Active: I am waiting for him.
Passive: He is being waited for by me.

Changing a negative sentence into the passive

When a negative sentence is changed into the passive, not will come between is/am/are and being.

Active: She is not writing a story.
Passive: A story is not being written by her.

Changing an interrogative sentence into the passive

The passive forms of these sentences will begin with be (is/am/are). When the active sentence begins with a question word such as when, whose, why, which and how, the passive sentence will also begin with a question word. When the active sentence begins with who or whose, the passive sentence will begin with by whom or by whose. When the active sentence begins with whom, the passive sentence will begin with who.

Active: Are the masons building a house?
Passive: Is a house being built by the masons?
Active: Who is waiting for you?
Passive: By whom are you being waited for?
Active: Whom are you waiting for?
Passive: Who is being waited for by you?
Active: Why is he not learning his lessons?
Passive: Why are his lessons not being learnt by him?
Active: Whose father is helping you?
Passive: By whose father are you being helped?



Active and Passive Voice – Present Perfect Tense

Active sentences in the present perfect tense have the following structure:
Subject + has/have + past participle form of the verb + object
Passive sentences in the present perfect tense have the following structure:
Object of the active sentence + has/have + been + past participle form of the verb + by + subject of the active sentence

Changing an assertive sentence into the passive

Active: I have written a story.
Passive: A story has been written by me.
Active: They have built a house.
Passive: A house has been built by them.
Active: He has broken my window.
Passive: My window has been broken by him.
Active: I have placed an order for a digital camera.
Passive: An order for a digital camera has been placed by me.
Active: She has done her work.
Passive: Her work has been done by her.

Changing a negative sentence into the passive

Active: I have not received a telegram.
Passive: A telegram has not been received by me.
Active: She has not written a story.
Passive: A story has not been written by her.
Active: She has not cheated anybody.
Passive: Nobody has been cheated by her.

Changing an interrogative sentence into the passive

Passive forms of these sentences will begin with has or have. When the active sentence begins with a question word (e.g. when, where, which, why etc.), the passive sentence will also begin with a question word. When the active sentence begins with who or whose the passive sentence will begin with by whom or by whose. When the active sentence begins with whom, the passive sentence will begin with who.

Active: Have you kept the secret?
Passive: Has the secret been kept by you?
Active: Who has done this?
Passive: By whom has this been done?
Active: Why have you told a lie?
Passive: Why has a lie been told by you?
Active: Who has torn my book?
Passive: By whom has my book been torn?
Active: Have you written the letter?
Passive: Has the letter been written by you?
Active: Has the policeman caught the thief?
Passive: Has the thief been caught by the policeman?
Active: Has the postal department released a new stamp?
Passive: Has a new stamp been released by the postal department?



Active and Passive Voice – Simple Past Tense

Active and Passive Voice – Simple Past Tense

Active sentences in the simple past tense have the following structure:
Subject + past tense form of the verb + object
Passive sentences in the simple past tense have the following structure:
Object of the active sentence + was/were + past participle form of the verb + by + subject of the active sentence

Changing an assertive sentence into the passive

Active: He wrote a letter.
Passive: A letter was written by him.
Active: They knew it.
Passive: It was known to them.
Active: She sang a song.
Passive: A song was sung by her.
Active: He loved his friends very much.
Passive: His friends were loved very much by him.

Changing a negative sentence into the passive

Active: She did not know anything about it.
Passive: Nothing about it was known to her.
Active: Nobody could discourage him from pursuing his path.
Passive: He could not be discouraged from pursuing his path by anybody.
Active: You did not listen to me.
Passive: I was not listened to by you.
Active: She did not write a story.
Passive: A story was not written by her.

Changing an interrogative sentence into the passive

Passive forms of these sentences begin with did. If the active sentence begins with a question word, the passive sentence will also begin with a question word. If the active sentence begins with who or whose, the passive sentence will begin with by whom or by whose. If the active sentence begins with whom, the passive sentence will begin with who.

Active: Did he break the window?
Passive: Was the window broken by him?
Active: Where could you find such fine art?
Passive: Where could such fine art be found?
Active: Why did you abuse your servant?
Passive: Why was your servant abused by you?
Active: Did anyone steal your purse?
Passive: Was your purse stolen by anyone?
Active: Did anyone hurt your feelings?
Passive: Were your feelings hurt by anyone?
Active: Did Alice invite you?
Passive: Were you invited by Alice?
Active: Who killed the snake?
Passive: By whom was the snake killed?
Active: Why did he punish you?
Passive: Why were you punished by him?
Active: Whom did you laugh at?
Passive: Who was laughed at by you?


Active and Passive Voice – Past Continuous and Past Perfect Tense

Past Continuous Tense

Active sentences in the past continuous tense have the following structure:
Subject + was/were + -ing form of the verb + object
Passive sentences in the past continuous tense have the following structure:
Object of the active sentence + was/were + being + past participle form of the verb + by + subject of the active sentence

Examples are given below:

Active: She was writing a novel.
Passive: A novel was being written by her.
Active: They were saying their prayers.
Passive: Their prayers were being said by them.
Active: He was giving a lecture.
Passive: A lecture was being given by him.

Changing a negative sentence into the passive

Active: She was not preparing dinner.
Passive: Dinner was not being prepared by her.
Active: He was not making a speech.
Passive: A speech was not being made by him.

Changing an interrogative sentence into the passive

Passive forms of these sentences begin with was or were. If the active sentence begins with a question word, the passive sentence will also begin with a question word.

Active: Is she writing a letter?
Passive: Is a letter being written by her?
Active: Why were you cheating me?
Passive: Why was I being cheated by you?
Active: Which book were you reading?
Passive: Which book was being read by you?
Active: Why was she beating the child?
Passive: Why was the child being beaten by her?
Active: For what were you making such a noise?
Passive: For what was such a noise being made by you?

Past perfect tense

Active voice: Subject + had + past participle form of the verb + object
Passive voice: Object of the active sentence + had + been + past participle form of the verb + by + subject of the active sentence

Active: I had never experienced such difficulty.
Passive: Such difficulty had never been experienced by me.
Active: I had not listened to him.
Passive: He had not been listened to by me.
Active: I had finished my work.
Passive: My work had been finished by me.
Active: I had written a letter.
Passive: A letter had been written by me.
Active: He had given a lecture.
Passive: A lecture had been given by him.

Changing an interrogative sentence into the passive

Active: Had she invited them?
Passive: Had they been invited by her?
Active: Had she prepared dinner?
Passive: Had dinner been prepared by her?
Active: Had he given a lecture?
Passive: Had a lecture been given by him?


Active and Passive Voice – Future Tense

Simple Future Tense

Active: Subject + will/shall + first form of the verb + object
Passive: Object of the active sentence + will/shall + be + past participle form of the verb + by + subject of the active sentence

Active: I will write a letter.

Passive: A letter will be written by me.
Active: She will help me.
Passive: I will be helped by her.
Active: John will learn the lesson.
Passive: The lesson will be learnt by John.

Changing a negative sentence into the passive

Active: She will not help us.
Passive: We will not be helped by her.
Active: We will not visit the hill station this year.
Passive: The hill station will not be visited by us this year.
Active: We shall not betray our country.
Passive: Our country shall not be betrayed by us.

Changing an Interrogative sentence into the passive

Active: Will you help him?
Passive: Will he be helped by you?
Active: Will you not help me?
Passive: Shall I not be helped by you?
Active: Will they accept our invitation?
Passive: Will our invitation be accepted by them?

Future perfect tense

Active: Subject + will/shall + have + past participle form of the verb + object
Passive: Object of the active sentence + will/shall + have + been + past participle form of the verb + by + subject of the active sentence

Active: We shall not have accepted the invitation.
Passive: The invitation shall not have been accepted by us.
Active: She will have finished her work.
Passive: Her work will have been finished by her.
Active: They will have elected him their leader.
Passive: He will have been elected their leader (by them).

Changing an interrogative sentence into the passive

Active: Will she have cooked the food?
Passive: Will the food have been cooked by her?
Active: Will they have received our letter?
Passive: Will our letter have been received by them?
Active: Will they have caught the train?
Passive: Will the train have been caught by them?
Active: Who will have opposed you?
Passive: By whom will you have been opposed?

Notes

Active sentences in the future continuous and future perfect continuous tenses cannot be changed to the passive.


Passive Voice

Here are some examples with most of the possible tenses:


We can form the passive in any tense. In fact, conjugation of verbs in the passive tense is rather easy, as the main verb is always in past participle form and the auxiliary verb is always be. To form the required tense, we conjugate the auxiliary verb. So, for example:

Construction of the Passive Voice

The structure of the passive voice is very simple:

subject + auxiliary verb (be) + main verb (past participle)

The main verb is always in its past participle form.

•present simple: It is made
•present continuous: It is being made
•present perfect: It has been made
Here are some examples with most of the possible tenses:

infinitive to be washed
simple present It is washed.
past It was washed.
future It will be washed.
conditional It would be washed.
continuous present It is being washed.
past It was being washed.
future It will be being washed.
conditional It would be being washed.
perfect simple present It has been washed.
past It had been washed.
future It will have been washed.
conditional It would have been washed.
perfect continuous present It has been being washed.
past It had been being washed.
future It will have been being washed.
conditional It would have been being washed.
where/farmers/grapes/growanswer - in California
simple present tense

Active Question:

Where do farmers grow grapes?

Active Answer:

Farmers grow grapes in California.

Active Answer:

Where are grapes grown (by farmers)?

Passive Answer:

Grapes are grown (by farmers) in California.

where/farmers/wheat/grow answer - in Arizona

present progressive tense

Active Question:

Where are farmers growing wheat?

Active Answer:

Farmers are growing wheat in Arizona.

Active Answer:

Where is wheat being grown (by farmers) ?

Passive Answer:

Wheat is being grown (by farmers) in Arizona.

how long/farmers/wheat/grow/in Arizona answer - for yearspresent perfect tense

Active Question:

How long have farmers grown wheat in Arizona?

Active Answer:

Farmers have grown wheat in Arizona foryears.

Active Answer:

How long has wheat been grown in Arizona?

•Passive Answer

Wheat has been grown in Arizona for years.

(no question word)/farmers/more wheat/grow/in thefutureanswer - yes

future with will

Active Question:

Will farmers grow more wheat in the future?

Active Answer:

Yes, farmers will grow more wheat in the future.

Active Answer:

Will more wheat be grown (by farmers) in the future?

Passive Answer:

More wheat will be grown (by farmers) in the future.

Direct and indirect speech
Statement of a person or persons
How does one write someone's statement as a news report?
He/she should use a specific combination of words while writing someone's statement as news report.
1. (Name of the person) has said that (Statement).
2. (Name of the person) said, “ (Statement)."
3. (Namw of the person) added that (Statement).
4. (Name of the person), in a statement issued in (Name of the place), called upon the people to remain vigilant and united at this crucial juncture.
5. (Name of the person) reiterated that “(Statement).”
6. "(Statement)," he/she said.
7. "(Statement),” he/she asserted.
8. "(Statement),” he/she added.
9. "(Statement)," he/she stated.
10. "(Statement),” he/she claimed.
11. "(Statement),” the statement said.
12. "(Statement),” the spokesperson said.
13. "(Statement),” insiders said.
14. (Statement), an official handout said.
15. "(Statement),” a statement issued here said.
16. “(Statement),” he/she says.
17. “(Statement),” (Name of the person) says.
18. "(Statement),”(Name of the person) said.
19. (Statement), (Name of the person) told a meeting.
20. "(Statement),” (Name of the person) added.
21. "(Statement),” (Name of the person) maintained.
22. "(Statement),” (Name of the person) adds.
23. "(Statement),” says (Name of the person) of (Place).
24. “(Statement)," it added.
25. "(Statement)," a ______ spokesperson told ______.
26. He added that (Statement).
27. He added, ”(Statement)."
28. He said the truth is that the (Statement)
29. He asked the people to ensure that the (Statement).
30. As one colleague said, “(Statement)."
31. In a statement issued here, (Designation), (Place),(Name of the person) said: “Statement)".
32. In a statement, a spokesman for the forum said, “(Statement)."
33. In addition, (Statement).
34. “(Question?),” he asked.

Do you think there are any other patterns?
What do you call this type of English language pattern?
Direct and indirect speech

Direct Speech:
Quoting the exact words of the speeker is called “The Direct Speech”.
Asif said, “I am writing a letter now”.

Indirect Speech:
Reporting of what a speaker said without quoting his exact words is called ‘Indirect Speech’.
Asif said that he was writing a letter then.

Introduction.
There are two ways to report what someone says or thinks:
Direct speech
Indirect speech

Fundamental rules for indirect speech.
Reported speech is not enclosed in quotation marks.
Use of word “that”: The word “that” is used as a conjunction between the reporting verb and reported speech.
Change in pronoun: The pronoun (subject) of the reported speech is changed according to the pronoun of reporting verb or object (person) of reporting verb (first part of sentence). Sometimes the pronoun may not change.
In following example the pronoun of reported speech is “I” which will be changed in indirect speech into the pronoun (Subject) of reporting verb that is “he”.

Example.
Direct speech: He said, “I am happy”
Indirect Speech: He said that he was happy.
Direct speech: I said to him, “you are intelligent”
Indirect Speech: I said him that he was intelligent. (“You” changed to “he” the person of object of reporting verb)
Change in time: Time is changed according to certain rules like now to then, today to that day, tomorrow to next day and yesterday to previous day.
Examples.
Direct speech: He said, “I am happy today”
Indirect Speech: He said that he was happy that day.
Change in the tense of reported speech: If the first part of sentence (reporting verb part) belongs to past tense the tense of reported speech will change. If the first part of sentence (reporting verb part) belongs to present or future tense, the tense of reported speech will not change.
Examples.
Direct speech: He said, “I am happy”
Indirect Speech: He said that he was happy. (Tense of reported speech changed)
Direct speech: He says, “I am happy”
Indirect Speech: He said that he is happy. (Tense of reported speech didn’t change)

Table for change in tense of reported speech for all TENSES.

 

     TENSE CHANGE - IN - INDIRECT SPEECH
     Present simple tense into Past simple
     Present Continuous tense into Past continuous
     Present Perfect tense into Pas perfect
     Present Perfect Continuous into Past perfect continuous
     Past simple into Past Perfect
     Past Continuous into Past Perfect Continuous
     Past Perfect into Past Perfect
     Future simple, will into would
     Future Continuous, will be into would be
     Future Perfect, will have into would have

 

Examples.

DIRECT SPEECH

INDIRECT SPEECH

   PRESENT TENSE

                 PRESENT SIMPLE changes into PAST SIMPLE

He said, “I write a letter”

She said, “he goes to school daily”

They said, “we love our country”

He said, “he does not like computer”

He said that he wrote a letter.

He said that she went to school daily.

They said that they loved their country

He said that he did not like computer.

   PRESENT CONTINUOUS changes into PAST CONTINUOUS

He said, “he is listening to the music”

She said, “I am washing my clothes”

They said, “we are enjoying the weather”

I said, “it is raining”
She said, “I am not laughing”

He said that he was listening to the music.

She said that she was washing her clothes.

They said that they were not enjoying the weather.

She said that she was not laughing.

              PRESENT PERFECT changes into PAST PERFECT

She said, “he has finished his work”

He said, “I have started a job”

I said, “she have eaten the meal”

They said, “we have not gone to New York.

She said that he had finished his work.

He said that he had started a job.

I said that she had eaten the meal.

They said that they had not gone to New York.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS changes into PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

He said, “I have been studying since 3 O’clock”

She said, “It has been raining for three days.”

I said, “She has been working in this office since 2007”

He said that he had been studying since 3 O’clock.

She said that it been raining for three days.

I said that she had been working in this office since 2007.

PAST TENSE

                PAST SIMPLE changes into PAST PERFECT

He said to me, “you answered correctly”

John said, “they went to cinema”

He said, “I made a table”
She said, “I didn’t buy a car”

He said to me that I had answered correctly.

John said that they had gone to cinema.

He said that he had made a table.

She said that she had not bought a car.

PAST CONTINUOUS changes into PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

They said, “we were enjoying the weather”

He said to me, “ I was waiting for you”

I said, “It was raining”
She said, “I was not laughing”

They said that they had been enjoying.

He said to me that he had been waiting for me.
I said that it had been raining.

She said that she not been laughing.

PAST PERFECT changes into PAST PERFECT (tense does not change)

She said, “She had visited a doctor”

He said, “I had started a business”

I said, “she had eaten the meal”

They said, “we had not gone to New York.

She said that she had visited a doctor.

He said that he had started a business.

I said that she had eaten the meal.

They said they had not gone to New York.

 FUTURE TENSE

FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE
WILL changes into WOULD

He said, “I will study the book”

She said, “I will buy a computer”

They said to me, “we will send you gifts”

I said, “I will not take the exam”

He said that he would study the book.

She said that she would buy a computer.

They said to me that they would send you gifts.

I said that I would not take the exam.

FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE
WILL BE changes into WOULD BE

I said to him, “ I will be waiting for him”

She said,” I will be shifting to new home”

He said, “I will be working hard”

He said, “he will not be flying kite”

I said to him that I would be waiting for him.

She said that she would be shifting to a new home.

He said that he would be working hard.

She said that he would not be flying kites.

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
WILL HAVE changes into WOULD HAVE

He said, “I will have finished the work”

She said, “they will have passed the examination”

He said, “I will have gone”

He said that he would have finished the work.

She said that they would have passed the examination.

He said that he would have gone.

Note: The tense of reported speech may not change if reported speech is a universal truth though its reporting verb belongs to past tense.

Examples.

    Direct speech: He said, “Mathematics is a science”
    Indirect Speech: He said that mathematics is a science.
    Direct speech: He said, “Sun rises in east”
    Indirect Speech: He said that sun rises in east. (Tense didn’t change because reported speech is a universal truth thought its reporting verb belongs to past tense)

Media Reports.
What are the most common media reports?
Here are further guidelines.
  1. Award Report

  2. Community Alert

  3. Condolence Report

  4. Emergency News

  5. Health care and the media

  6. Incident Report

  7. Meeting Report

  8. Protest Report

  9. Recommendations Report

  10. Statement of a person or persons

  11. Weather News

Condolence Report
What should be included in a condolence press release?
Was the death natural old age death or premature death?
What was the day, date, time, location, profile, background, and circumstances of the individual’s death?
How old was the individual?
What do I remember about this individual?
How did this individual enhance public services?

Thank God healthcare services prolonged her life up to now.
Sooner or later, everyone must go.

I send my heartfelt condolences to your family.
Thinking of you in your time of loss.

Emergency News
Aviation Emergency News.

What are the day, date, time, location, and details of the incident?
On Monday, January 26, 2015, at 1PM, a Greek fighter jet crashed in Spain, killing 10 people. The F-16 fighter jet is reported to have crashed shortly after taking off.

What caused this air crash?
The cause of the air crash is under investigation.

Verification of News Report

How do you verify a news report?
I am calling to verify news report.
On January 26, 2015, a Greek fighter jet crashed in Spain, killing 10 people: Is that correct? What are the sources of these facts?

The air crash could not be verified because the phone number at the Barcelona Airport was unavailable. A call to 93 297 11 39 was answered: You have reached a nonworking number.

How do you call from Chicago, Illinois, to Spain?
011 International code
34 regional code
Airport Number 93 297 11 39
It rings but no one answers the telephone call.

Email questions are awaiting a response.

Human Healthcare issues.
What are the human healthcare issues at this point?
Stress is harming the residents.
Substandard health care providers are harming residents.

Healthcare Service quality assessment.

How do you assess the quality of health care in an area?
Answer these relevant questions.

What area is been elaborated?
Walkable distance from 5042 N. Winthrop Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60640.

How is health care service in this area?
Physicians are not competent.
Counselors for stress are not available.
Emergency medical professionals are not able to provide proper service.
Healthcare facilities are available but competent staff, including competent physicians, is not available.
Medication available is of good quality.
This holds true from 1999-2015.

Incident Report
Snowfall (Public health emergency)
March 3, 2015, snowfall in Kashmir, Asia.
On Tuesday, March 3, 2015, at 2 pm, recommendations were issued by Asif Qureshi, founder of Qureshi University and the Global Democratic Party from Chicago, Illinois, North America.

Heavy snowfall was reported on March 3, 2015, in Kashmir, Asia.

How do you manage such a public health emergency?
Media is the best method to reach out to the public.
The public must report any harms immediately through media.
Roads and buildings department in the state must fix issues immediately.
Air transportation must be replaced with aircraft certified to fly in extreme conditions.
Contact details of various departments, officers must be publicly available.

What harms and damages have occurred because of this incident?
Buildings and houses were damaged.
Road links were blocked.
Air transport was badly affected, with flights cancelled due to bad weather.
Power supply was badly affected.
There was fear of flooding, avalanches, and landslides.

At some locations, three feet snowfall was reported.

What is a winter storm?
Mix of rain, wind, snowfall, and ice.

Was this an individual emergency or public health emergency?
Public health emergency.

How could this be prevented?
You cannot prevent snowfall from happening.
You can reduce harms/damage by proper weather forecasting.
You can reduce harms/damage by public service ready to manage such public heath emergencies ahead of time.
At least 40 departments in the state and outside the state must be ready to manage such situations.

Questions departments in the state and outside need to answer ahead of time.
When is snowfall expected?
In what area is snowfall expected?
How much snowfall is expected?
What departments in the state and outside the state must be ready to manage such a situation?
How many workers are expected to manage such situation in the state or outside the state?
What areas are safe?
What areas are not safe?
Who has the duty to manage such emergencies in the state and outside the state?


Directives must go ahead through media in this situation, particularly the Internet.

All essential government departments, employees, and the public in Kashmir and outside Kashmir must be reminded to follow guidelines at this resource: www.qureshiuniversity.com.

If you have any issues, questions, let me know through media or email, call, fax, or forward a postal mail.

Meeting Report
How should you write a meeting report?

When, where, and what type of meeting was there?
A meeting was organized on March 7, 2015 in the meeting room at Bezazian Library, 1226 W. Ainslie Street, Chicago, Illinois 60640 relevant to social media.

How long did the meeting last?
According to participants, the meeting lasted from 11AM to 1PM.

How many people participated in the meeting?
About 14 people participated in the meeting.

Who were prominent in the meeting?
Prominent among participants were Asif Qureshi, founder of Qureshi University and the Global Democratic party, as well as Mr. Mark from the library staff.

What issues were discussed in the meeting?
The main issues were various products and services in essential ingredients of the economy. Social media was prominent among the deliberations.

What was special or prominent about the meeting?
A video screen 90 Inches by 90 Inches on the wall displayed direct contents from a computer Internet feed.

The organizer was asked by Asif Qureshi, founder of Qureshi University and the Global Democratic party, to display the search engine globe.bz and the education resource www.qurehsiuniversity.com on the big screen.

Take a look at this: www.globe.bz
What is it?
It is a search engine.

Take a look at this.
www.qureshiuniversity.com
This is an educational resource, declared Asif Qureshi, founder of Qureshi University and the Global Democratic party. The contents of www.globe.bz and www.qureshiuniversity.com were displayed on the large screen on the wall.
What recommendations were circulated?
It was recommended by Asif Qureshi founder of Qureshi University and the Global Democratic party, that presentations of search engine www.globe.bz and education resources such as www.qureshiuniversity.com from computer and Internet should be displayed on a 90 inch x 90 inch screen in a room or hall in schools, colleges, and universities worldwide.

------------------------------

How should the publicly displayed meeting report look?

On March 7, 2015, a meeting was held in the meeting room of Bezazian Library, 1226 W. Ainslie Street, Chicago, Illinois 60640 relevant to social media.

According to participants the meeting lasted from 11AM to 1PM.
About 14 people participated in the meeting.
Prominent among participants were Asif Qureshi, founder of Qureshi University and the Global Democratic party, and Mr. Mark of the library staff.

Various issues were discussed in the meeting, with the main ones being various products and services in essential ingredients of the economy.
Social media was prominent among the deliberations.

A 90 inch x 90 inch video screen on the wall displayed direct contents from computer Internet via projector.

The organizer was asked by Asif Qureshi, founder of Qureshi University and the Global Democratic party to display the search engine globe.bz and the education resource www.qurehsiuniversity.com, and it was done.

Take a look at this: www.globe.bz
What is it?
It is a search engine.

Take a look at this.
www.qureshiuniversity.com
This is an educational resource, declared Asif Qureshi, founder of Qureshi University and the Global Democratic party. The contents of www.globe.bz and www.qureshiuniversity.com were displayed on the screen.

At the meeting, Asif Qureshi founder Qureshi University and Global Democratic Party, recommended that this type of presentations of search engine www.globe.bz and education resources such as www.qureshiuniversity.com be implemented in schools, colleges, and universities worldwide.

Protest Report
How should you write a protest report?

When and where did the protest take place?
On Monday, January 26, 2015, the Kashmir, Asia protest shutdown was witnessed.

Why was the protest done?
The world knows the reasons and issues relevant to Kashmir, Asia.

How was the protest done?
The day was marked by a complete strike in Kashmir, Asia.
All establishments and roads looked deserted look and people remained indoors.

Who participated in the protest?
Almost all civilized people participated in the protest in Kashmir, Asia.

What should others know about Kashmir, Asia?
I am looking for nominations for a caretaker administration.
Your nominations are encouraged, declared Asif Qureshi, founder of Qureshi University and the Global democratic party.

Here is a precise sample report that gets presented in the media.

On January 26, 2015, in Kashmir, Asia, protests and shutdown were witnessed.
The world knows the reasons and issues relevant to Kashmir, Asia.
Almost all civilized people participated in the protest in Kashmir, Asia, directly or indirectly.
The day was marked by a complete strike in Kashmir, Asia.
All establishments and roads appeared deserted and people remained indoors.
I am looking for nominations for a caretaker administration.
Your nominations are encouraged, declared Asif Qureshi founder Qureshi University and Global democratic party.

Recommendations Report
Recommendations on February 17, 2015
On Tuesday, February 17, 2015, at 2 pm, recommendations were issued by Asif Qureshi, founder of Qureshi University and the Global Democratic Party from Chicago, Illinois, North America.

Matters related to the appointment of Corrections Classification Officers in the Tihar and Rohini jails in Delhi.

Corrections Classification Officers should be truthful, well behaved, have abilities in the English language, possess a comprehensive knowledge of criminal law relevant to the public in the state and outside the state.

Why is there a need for the appointment of Corrections Classification Officers in the Tihar and Rohini jails in Delhi?

On February 10, 2015, a report was released relevant to detainees in the Tihar Jail and Rohini Jail and relevant to detainees from Kashmir.

Whose names have been elaborated on?

Names from Tihar Jail

Jail One

Muzaffar Ahmad Dar of Chichloora, Magam, Kashmir
Mushtaq Ahmad Lone of Kanelwan, Anantnag, Kashmir
Muhammad of Narwal, Kashmir
Muhammad Sidiq Ganai of Hathi Shah Sopore, Kashmir
Muhammad Rafiq Shah of Alasteng Srinagar, Kashmir
Ameer Abbas Dev of Asarabad Kishtwar, Kashmir
Muhammad Ghulam Jeelani Liloo, of Botapora Sopore, Kashmir

Jail Two

Mahmood Topiwala of Mamar Kangan, Kashmir
Shafaqat Ali Tuggu of Noorbagh Sopore, Kashmir
Tariq Ahmad Dar of Solina, Srinagar, Kashmir

Jail Three

Mohammad Shafi Shah of Bandipora, Kashmir
Waseem Akram Malik of Kishtwar, Kashmir
Mohammad Farooq Dagga of Kupwara, Kashmir

Jail Four

Latief Ahmad of Srinagar, Kashmir
Ghulam Ahmad Khaja of Poonch, Kashmir
Mohammad Rafiq of Poonch, Kashmir
Ahtisham Farooq Malik of Sopore, Kashmir

Jail Eight

Muhammad Aslam of Thana Mandi Rajouri, Kashmir
Tawseef Ahmad Pir of Sopore, Kashmir
Mohammad Hussain Fazili of Srinagar, Kashmir

Names from Rohini Jail, about nine km from Tihar

Talib Hussain of Bandipora, Kashmir
Ghulam Mohammad Bhat of Bandipora, Kashmir

Questions Corrections Classification Officers in the Tihar and Rohini jails should be able to answer:
What do you know about the inmate classification system?
What inmate classification system has been assigned to each individual in the report?
Why were they transferred from Kashmir?
What are the profiles of administrators at the Tihar and Rohini Jails?
What is the track record of good character and good behavior of each individual named for the last 35 years?
What facilities and services are available at the Tihar and Rohini jails?
What resources, medical, and legal help are detainees getting?
How many correctional officers are at the jails?
What are their profiles?
What plans have correctional officers constructed for the detainees?
What is the staff profile of the Tihar and Rohini jails?
What are the profiles of the judges, lawyers, and other officers who are involved in processing the cases of each individual?
What is the custody level of each individual?
Are records available for these individuals online?
Are these individuals a threat to public safety?
If so, in what ways are they a threat to public safety?

We stop it here. Once you get answers to these questions, we proceed again.

Statement of a person or persons
How does one write someone's statement as a news report?
He/she should use a specific combination of words while writing someone's statement as news report.
1. (Name of the person) has said that (Statement).
2. (Name of the person) said, “ (Statement)."
3. (Namw of the person) added that (Statement).
4. (Name of the person), in a statement issued in (Name of the place), called upon the people to remain vigilant and united at this crucial juncture.
5. (Name of the person) reiterated that “(Statement).”
6. "(Statement)," he/she said.
7. "(Statement),” he/she asserted.
8. "(Statement),” he/she added.
9. "(Statement)," he/she stated.
10. "(Statement),” he/she claimed.
11. "(Statement),” the statement said.
12. "(Statement),” the spokesperson said.
13. "(Statement),” insiders said.
14. (Statement), an official handout said.
15. "(Statement),” a statement issued here said.
16. “(Statement),” he/she says.
17. “(Statement),” (Name of the person) says.
18. "(Statement),”(Name of the person) said.
19. (Statement), (Name of the person) told a meeting.
20. "(Statement),” (Name of the person) added.
21. "(Statement),” (Name of the person) maintained.
22. "(Statement),” (Name of the person) adds.
23. "(Statement),” says (Name of the person) of (Place).
24. “(Statement)," it added.
25. "(Statement)," a ______ spokesperson told ______.
26. He added that (Statement).
27. He added, ”(Statement)."
28. He said the truth is that the (Statement)
29. He asked the people to ensure that the (Statement).
30. As one colleague said, “(Statement)."
31. In a statement issued here, (Designation), (Place),(Name of the person) said: “Statement)".
32. In a statement, a spokesman for the forum said, “(Statement)."
33. In addition, (Statement).
34. “(Question?),” he asked.

Do you think there are any other patterns?
What do you call this type of English language pattern?

January 30, 2015
Statement Report
On Friday, January 30, 2015 at 2 pm from Chicago, Illinois, Asif Qureshi, founder of Qureshi university and the Global democratic party, issued recommendations for the police in Kashmir, Asia. Addressing the police department in Kashmir and other similar departments in Kashmir and outside Kashmir through the Internet, he said the public is complaining that police in Kashmir are not providing services expected.

Asif Qureshi, founder of Qureshi University and the Global democratic, party has given priority to essential departments in Kashmir. Answers to these questions are essential. What is the profile of the station house officer at every police station in Kashmir? What educational programs have been established for Kashmir police? Answers to these questions must be displayed publicly. Here are further guidelines. http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/policetrainingworld.html.

Because of previous harms, it will take many years to fix the issues. Resources that do not belong to essential departments in Kashmir or have not gotten approval from essential departments in Kashmir should be closed. Do not look toward Western regions on this planet for your improvement because Western region communities on this planet are in shambles due to fraudulently placed harmful criminals. During the period 1999–2015, these findings have been recorded.

From paper napkin to an aircraft, all guidelines are at this resource www.qureshiouniversity.com. This is mainly for Kashmir. From professionals, products, subjects, and abilities to services, all guidelines are displayed at this resource. Go to this resource, www.qureshiuniversity.com, and you will get all guidelines. He said that competent officers in Kashmir are required in every department to enhance public services.

If you have any questions or issues, email, call, fax, or forward a postal mail. Investigators in Kashmir police are required with English language understanding, writing, reading, speaking abilities. Justified detentions and imprisonment with further punishments must go ahead.

Kashmir police must ensure that all essential departments are enhanced in Kashmir, ranging from aviation to Kashmir food and supplies — at least 39 essential departments in Kashmir. Local area prosecutors and defense attorneys must be evaluated for competence by asking them to give a presentation in the media.

Meanwhile, everyone must be encouraged to participate in enhancing various department in Kashmir. No questions can remain unanswered relevant to felonies or misdemeanors in Kashmir or outside Kashmir, even if any so-called executive is involved from Kashmir or other regions or America. A new attorney general of Kashmir must be nominated as soon as possible with two, three, four, or five subordinates who can guide others. Others who participated should be included.

People are being harmed. I have been harmed by their criminal activities. Police are the eyes and ears of justice. If the police lie, the system will collapse. Profiling of individuals in rallies and meetings by police is essential to ensure public safety.
Participants in rallies and meetings must be profiled ahead of time to ensure public safety. Products and services in essential ingredients of economy must be enhanced in Kashmir through various essential departments in Kashmir.

Question-and-answer format guidelines must be circulated by police for public guidelines through the media. Rallies and meetings in Kashmir that are justified must be protected by police. Social services must be enhanced. Telephone answering machines must be placed in every police station in Kashmir. This holds true from 1999 to 2015. Termination of services of police officers involved in criminal activities must go ahead, followed by further punishments depending on the type of criminal offense. Unjustified arrests and detentions can be prevented by further training of Kashmir police. Various essential departments in Kashmir need to be enhanced. We need to go ahead question by question. We need to go ahead issue by issue.

If you have any issues, questions, let me know through media or email, call, fax, or forward a postal mail.

Weather Report
How should you write a weather report? What is the day, date, location, surroundings, details of the weather report?
Day: Monday
Date: January 26, 2015
Time: local time 7PM
Location: In the vicinity of 5042 N. Winthrop Ave., Chicago, Illinois.
Temperature: Minus 3 degrees celsius Outside building, 5042 N. Winthrop Ave, Chicago, Illinois 60640. Inside building:15 degrees celsius.
Humidity: 83%
Pressure: 29.92 in
UV Index: 0
Cloud Cover: 98%
Ceiling: 1900 ft
Dew Point: 22° F
Visibility: 5 mi

You can present a weather report like that shown in the example.

On Monday, January 26, 2015, local time 7PM, in the vicinity of 5042 N. Winthrop Ave, Chicago, Illinois, the weather details were as follows:
Temperature inside the building 15 degrees celsius, outside the building -3° celsius (light snow, wind from west 7 miles per hour, barometer 29.92 in., Dew Point 22° F, Visibility 5 mi, with humidity of 85%.

January 26, 2015: Sunrise 7:09 AM, Sunset 4:58 PM, Length of day 9:48:58.

Imperative Sentence :
  1. Advice

  2. Direction

  3. Instruction

  4. Invitation

  5. Orders

  6. Public notice

  7. Requests

  8. Suggestion

  9. Warnings
Most of us have noticed that when we were pupils or even students, our teachers used a certain number of phrases or sentences in order to give orders, warnings, or some advice: 'Stop talking', 'Open your books' ' Be quiet' ' Revise your lessons' and so on! The form which has been used by our teachers is called 'The imperative form'.
Sentences with the imperative The meaning
Come tonight to celebrate Asif's 48th birthday. Invitation
Put your hands up! Order
Please, keep off the grass|Keep off the grass, please. Public notice
Mix flour and sugar. Instruction
Don't ( do not) worry, take it easy. Suggestion
Take the first left onto Pine street and continue for three blocks. Direction
Don't touch that electric wire again! Warning

Give me that pen, please| Please give me that pen.
Request
Requests
You can also use the imperative to make a request, but you should use a polite word before the verb:
"Please take a seat."
"Please wait here."
"Please hold the line."
"Please don't smoke here."

Travelling long-distance

Do try to sleep well the night before
Do drink plenty of water
Do try to walk about the plane during the flight
Don't drink alcohol
Don't eat heavy meals
Don't wear restrictive clothing

Advice

When you give advice using the imperative, the words are stressed normally:
"Eat an apple – it's much better for you than a biscuit!"
"Don't tell him you're resigning now! Wait until Monday when he's in a better mood."

Warnings

You can use the imperative to warn someone of danger. All the words in the warning are stressed, but the last word has a higher tone than the first word:
"Watch out!"
"Look out!"
"Don't cross!"

Orders

Adults do not usually give each other orders, unless they are in a position of authority. The intonation of an order is important: each word is stressed, and the tone falls at the end of the sentence:
"Sit down now!" ('Sit', 'down' and 'now' are all stressed, and the tone falls on 'now'.)
However, adults can give orders to children and to animals:
Here are some orders you could give your pet dog:
"Come here!"
"Sit!"
"Heel!"
"Fetch!"

The sentence which expresses order, command, request, advice or suggestion is called Imperative Sentence.
It is very easy to form the imperative sentence: Simply take the verbs' infinitive form (without the "to" infinitive indicator). Usually the verb will be placed at the beginning of the sentence.

Examples :
  1. Attend the meeting.

  2. Accept the decision.

  3. Achieve your target.

  4. Add details to this report.

  5. Adopt ‘do it right’ approach.

  6. Adopt wait and watch policy.

  7. Aim it.

  8. Analyze the sample.

  9. Apply another coat of paint.

  10. Apply for passport.

  11. Apply ointment.

  12. Appoint a manager.

  13. Approve the plan.

  14. Arrange everything before it is late.

  15. Arrive early on the scene.

  16. Ask for a receipt.

  17. Ask for more information.

  18. Ask him his name.

  19. Ask him what had happened.

  20. Ask politely.

  21. Assert your independence.

  22. Associate with the best.

  23. Attach photocopies of your documents.

  24. Attend the meeting.

  25. Attract new customers.

  26. Avoid cold and very hot items.

  27. Avoid the traffic.

  28. Avoid tobacco.

  29. Avoid unsafe food items.

  30. Away, I follow you.

  31. Ban human cloning.

  32. Bask in the winter sun.

  33. Be a realist.

  34. Be action-oriented.

  35. Be ambitious.

  36. Be careful with the bags.

  37. Be cautious.

  38. Be cheerful in adversity.

  39. Be clear about your mission.

  40. Be confident.

  41. Be creative.

  42. Be established wherever you are.

  43. Be loyal to your master.

  44. Be open-minded.

  45. Be positive.

  46. Be proficient in Martial Arts.

  47. Be quiet.

  48. Be ready.

  49. Be seated.

  50. Be serious about your work.

  51. Be truthful to yourself.

  52. Begin the lesson.

  53. Behave in an acceptable manner.

  54. Behave yourself.

  55. Beware of imitation.

  56. Beware of pickpockets.

  57. Blow away the remaining dust.

  58. Blow out the candle.

  59. Bolt the door from inside/outside.

  60. Book a hotel room.

  61. Borrow a book from the library.

  62. Break down cultural barriers.

  63. Breathe easily.

  64. Breathe in deeply.

  65. Bridge the widening gap.

  66. Bring fruits for ten dollars.

  67. Bring him to the front.

  68. Bring resolution to a vote.

  69. Bring that lamp to me.

  70. Bring the milk to the boil.

  71. Broaden your horizons.

  72. Brush your teeth.

  73. Buckle her into her seat.

  74. Build it again.

  75. Build up funds.

  76. Burn it now.

  77. Burn off the fuel.

  78. Bury your differences.

  79. Button up your coat.

  80. Be quiet! (command)

  81. Be there at 5:00.

  82. Bring me a suitcase from UAE.

  83. Call me after 10 am.

  84. Climb the stair.

  85. Close the door.

  86. Come over here, look at this specimen, and tell me what you think.

  87. Come here!

  88. Discharge your duty.

  89. Do not kill.

  90. Fetch a glass of water.

  91. Fill out this form.

  92. Get out of my way!

  93. Get along with others. (advice)

  94. Give me the keys.

  95. Go to your room!

  96. Go on foot.

  97. Hang a painting.

  98. Improve your appearance.

  99. Jennifer, clean up your room.

  100. Jump that gate.

  101. Keep reading.

  102. Keep up your English.

  103. Kindly help me. (Request)

  104. Leave the package at the door.

  105. Let me go to bed

  106. Let us have a walk. (Suggestion)

  107. Let's eat the picnic under the tree. (suggestion)

  108. Look in the drawer of the dresser.

  109. Light a candle.

  110. March forward. (Command)

  111. Mend your ways.

  112. Note this down.

  113. Open up the cage.

  114. Please pass the salt.

  115. Please find my yellow leotard.

  116. Please sit down. (request)

  117. Please come here.

  118. Please hand me a pencil. (request)

  119. Pour me a glass of water.

  120. Push a trolley.

  121. Put that down now!

  122. Put your homework in the box.

  123. Quash a decision.

  124. Read pages 45-90 for homework. (command)sign

  125. Run fast.

  126. Return to work.

  127. Save our souls.

  128. Spell it out.

  129. Stop talking. (Order)

  130. Shut the door!

  131. Sit down!

  132. Sit on the sofa.

  133. Stop fighting!

  134. Stop fighting, please.

  135. Take me to the library.

  136. Tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.

  137. Tie your shoe laces.

  138. Unpack the luggage.

  139. Vacate the place.

  140. Walk elegantly.

  141. Wait! (command/warning)

  142. Watch out for the dog! (warning)

  143. Walk through this door and turn left at the next hallway.

  144. Work hard. (Advice)

  145. You should wear gloves outside. (advice)
    1. The form: To form the imperative, we usually use the base form of the verb without 'To'. Example: Go, Open, Close etc. Also, It's very important to notice that the command is given to you (Either singular or plural). The base form of the verb is preceded by 'Let' in the first and third person commands, and followed by: me, it,him, her, us, them.

      The imperative tense in English is used to give an order, a warning, an appeal, an advice, a suggestion, an instruction and in some cases a request to another person, to a group of people or to animals. It is very easy to form the imperative sentence: Simply take the verbs' infinitive form (without the "to" infinitive indicator). Usually the verb will be placed at the beginning of the sentence.
      For example:
      Close the door.
      Give me the keys.

      The above form is used if a person gives an order to another person or to a group of people. But if the imperative includes oneself in the group of people who receive the order the words "Let us" or "Let's" are added before the infinitive in the sentence.

      For example:
      Let's eat something, we are all hungry.
      Let us be happy, we are all fine.

      In order to create a negative form of an imperative, place "do not", "don't" or "let's not" in front of the infinitive form of the verb (again without "to"). v
      For example:
      Don't go, I need you here.
      Let's not be sad, we are all fine.

      The imperative form can also be used to make a request, if you add "please" to the imperative sentence. You can also add "Would you" instead or in addition to "please" (which can be a question or a polite order).
      For example:
      Please come, I need you there.
      Please don't go, I need you here.

      More examples:
      Stand up when I speak to you (order)
      Press the button in order to activate the machine (instruction)
      Do not touch it, it is hot! (warning)
      Take a left at the corner (advice, suggestion)
Affirmative form Base form of the verb + Object Open the door.
- Let+ me/it/him/her/us/them+Base form of the verb Let me go to Peter's party, please!
Negative form Do + Not + Base form of the verb + Object Do not (don't) smoke in public places like hospitals.
- Let+ me/it/him/her/us/them+Not+Base form of the verb Let's (us) not make noise!
Note We can also use: Don't (do not)+ Let+me/it/him/her/us/them+Base form of the verb Don't let him go out tonight!

Changing an Imperative Sentence into the Passive

Sentences which express request, order, advice, suggestion, prohibition etc., are called imperative sentences.

The imperative sentence in the passive voice has the following structure:
Let + object + be + past participle
When the active voice begins with do not, the passive voice has the following structure:
Let not + object + be + past participle

In some sentences it is possible to put not after the object or be.

Examples are given below:

Active: Bring it home.
Passive: Let it be brought home.
Active: Do it at once.
Passive: Let it be done at once.
Active: Do not beat the dog.
Passive: Let the dog not be beaten.
Active: Let me do it.
Passive: Let it be done by me. OR Let me be allowed to do it.

You can begin the sentence with you if you want to put emphasis on the person addressed to.

Examples are given below:

Active: Please help me.
Passive: Let me be helped.
Passive: You are requested to help me.
Active: Don’t touch it.
Passive: Let it not be touched.
Active: You are warned not to touch it.

The passive form has to begin with you, when the object of the verb in the active voice is not given.

Active: Work hard. (No object)
Passive: You are advised to work hard.
Active: Get out. (No object)
Passive: You are ordered to get out.

More examples are given below:

Active: Please lend me some money.
Passive: You are requested to lend me some money.
Active: Kindly do this work.
Passive: You are requested to do this work.
Active: Get me a glass of water.
Passive: You are ordered to get me a glass of water.
Active: Let us go for a walk.
Passive: It is suggested that we should go out for a walk.

Note that suggest is followed by a -that clause and not an infinitive.

Sentences with modals

Active: You ought to respect your parents.
Passive: Your parents ought to be respected by you.
Active: You should learn your lessons.
Passive: Your lessons should be learned by you.

In sentences where God is invoked the passive voice will be as follows:

Active: May God bless you!
Passive: May you be blessed by God!


Auxiliary verbs
What Are the Auxiliary Verbs in English?
The “Big Three” auxiliary verbs are “be,” “have” and “do” in all their forms. That includes:
be
been
am
is
are
was
were
have
having
has
had
do
does
did

Auxiliary verbs are sometimes called helping verbs because they are needed to form many of the tenses. The most used auxiliary verbs are the verbs to be, to do and to have. For example: the auxiliary to do is needed to ask questions in the present and past simple tenses. To be is needed for the present and past continuous, and all the passive forms. The auxiliary to have is used in the present and past perfect tenses. Some tenses, like the present perfect continuous, need more than one auxiliary!

Below are the auxiliary verbs. You can conjugate be, do, and have; the modal auxiliaries, however, never change form.

Be

am
is
are
was
were
being
been

Do

does
do
did

Have

has
have
had
having

Be, do, and have are both stand-alone verbs and auxiliary verbs. When these verbs are auxiliary, you will find them teamed with other verbs to complete the verb phrase.

Modal Auxiliaries [Never Change Form]
can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will, would

Uses of Shall and Will and Should
Uses of Do, Does and Did
Uses of Have, Has and Had
Uses of Can and Could
Can versus May
Uses of May and Might
Uses of Will and Would
Uses of Used to
Primary helping (Auxiliary) verbs (3 verbs)
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/auxiliaryverbs.html

Modal Verbs
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/modalauxiliaryverbs.html

Sentence Structure: Simple, Compound, Complex, And Compound-complex Sentences

1. Simple Sentences

A simple sentence has the most basic elements that make it a sentence: a subject, a verb, and a completed thought.

Examples of simple sentences include the following:

  1. Joe waited for the train.
    "Joe" = subject, "waited" = verb
     
  2. The train was late.
    "The train" = subject, "was" = verb
     
  3. Mary and Samantha took the bus.
    "Mary and Samantha" = compound subject, "took" = verb
     
  4. I looked for Mary and Samantha at the bus station.
    "I" = subject, "looked" = verb
     
  5. Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station early but waited until noon for the bus.
    "Mary and Samantha" = compound subject, "arrived" and "waited" = compound verb  


Tip: If you use many simple sentences in an essay, you should consider revising some of the sentences into compound or complex sentences (explained below).

The use of compound subjects, compound verbs, prepositional phrases (such as "at the bus station"), and other elements help lengthen simple sentences, but simple sentences often are short. The use of too many simple sentences can make writing "choppy" and can prevent the writing from flowing smoothly.  

A simple sentence can also be referred to as an independent clause. It is referred to as "independent" because, while it might be part of a compound or complex sentence, it can also stand by itself as a complete sentence.

2. Compound Sentences

A compound sentence refers to a sentence made up of two independent clauses (or complete sentences) connected to one another with a coordinating conjunction. Coordinating conjunctions are easy to remember if you think of the words "FAN BOYS":

  • For
  • And
  • Nor
  • But
  • Or
  • Yet
  • So

Examples of compound sentences include the following:

  1. Joe waited for the train, but the train was late.
     
  2. I looked for Mary and Samantha at the bus station, but they arrived at the station before noon and left on the bus before I arrived.
     
  3. Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon, and they left on the bus before I arrived.
     
  4. Mary and Samantha left on the bus before I arrived, so I did not see them at the bus station.


Tip: If you rely heavily on compound sentences in an essay, you should consider revising some of them into complex sentences (explained below).

Coordinating conjunctions are useful for connecting sentences, but compound sentences often are overused. While coordinating conjunctions can indicate some type of relationship between the two independent clauses in the sentence, they sometimes do not indicate much of a relationship. The word "and," for example, only adds one independent clause to another, without indicating how the two parts of a sentence are logically related. Too many compound sentences that use "and" can weaken writing.

Clearer and more specific relationships can be established through the use of complex sentences. 

3. Complex Sentences

A complex sentence is made up of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses connected to it. A dependent clause is similar to an independent clause, or complete sentence, but it lacks one of the elements that would make it a complete sentence. 

Examples of dependent clauses include the following:

  • because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon
  • while he waited at the train station
  • after they left on the bus

Dependent clauses such as those above cannot stand alone as a sentence, but they can be added to an independent clause to form a complex sentence.

Dependent clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions. Below are some of the most common subordinating conjunctions:

  • after
  • although
  • as
  • because
  • before
  • even though
  • if
  • since
  • though
  • unless
  • until
  • when
  • whenever
  • whereas
  • wherever
  • while

A complex sentence joins an independent clause with one or more dependent clauses.

The dependent clauses can go first in the sentence, followed by the independent clause, as in the following:

Tip: When the dependent clause comes first, a comma should be used to separate the two clauses.
  1. Because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon, I did not see them at the station.
  2. While he waited at the train station, Joe realized that the train was late.
  3. After they left on the bus, Mary and Samantha realized that Joe was waiting at the train station.

Conversely, the independent clauses can go first in the sentence, followed by the dependent clause, as in the following:

Tip: When the independent clause comes first, a comma should not be used to separate the two clauses.
  1. I did not see them at the station because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon.
  2. Joe realized that the train was late while he waited at the train station.
  3. Mary and Samantha realized that Joe was waiting at the train station after they left on the bus.

Complex sentences are often more effective than compound sentences because a complex sentence indicates clearer and more specific relationships between the main parts of the sentence. The word "before," for instance, tells readers that one thing occurs before another. A word such as "although" conveys a more complex relationship than a word such as "and" conveys.

The term periodic sentence is used to refer to a complex sentence beginning with a dependent clause and ending with an independent clause, as in "While he waited at the train station, Joe realized that the train was late."

Periodic sentences can be especially effective because the completed thought occurs at the end of it, so the first part of the sentence can build up to the meaning that comes at the end.

Beginning Sentences with "And" or "Because"

Should you begin a sentence with "and" or "but" (or one of the other coordinating conjunctions)?

The short answer is "no." You should avoid beginning a sentence with "and," "or," "but," or the other coordinating conjunctions. These words generally are used to join together parts of a sentence, not to begin a new sentence.

However, such sentences can be used effectively. Because sentences beginning with these words stand out, they are sometimes used for emphasis. If you use sentences beginning with one of the coordinating conjunctions, you should use these sentences sparingly and carefully.

Should you begin a sentence with "because"?

There is nothing wrong with beginning a sentence with "because."

Perhaps some students are told not to begin a sentence with "because" to avoid sentence fragments (something like "Because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon" is a sentence fragment), but it is perfectly acceptable to begin a sentence with "because" as long as the sentence is complete (as in "Because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon, I did not see them at the station.")

Compound-Complex Sentences

A compound-complex sentence is made from two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.

Some examples:

1. Although I like to go camping, I haven't had the time to go lately, and I haven't found anyone to go with.

  • independent clause: "I haven't had the time to go lately"
  • independent clause: "I haven't found anyone to go with"
  • dependent clause: "Although I like to go camping... "

* * * * * * * * * *

 2. We decided that the movie was too violent, but our children, who like to watch scary movies, thought that we were wrong.

  • independent clause: "We decided that the movie was too violent"
  • independent clause: "(but) our children thought that we were wrong"
  • dependent clause: who like to watch scary movies

 

Compound-complex sentences are very common in English, but one mistake that students often make is to try to write them without having mastered the simple sentences, compound sentences, and complex sentences first.

If this is a confusing lesson, return to it later after completing the next three lessons (Lessons Six, Seven, and Eight).


English
English Grammar Classes of Words
Parts of Speech
What are various examples of adjectives?
What are various examples of adverbs?
What are various examples of nouns?
What are various examples of prepositions?
What are various examples of pronouns?
What are various examples of verbs?
What are examples of determiners in English language?
What are the different types of conjunctions?
What is an English language alphabet?
How many letters of the alphabet are in the English language?
What is an example of English language alphabet?
What is an English language word?
What are examples of English language words?
How many English language words are there?
How many English language words' definitions should you know?
Is there any difference between root words with prefixes, suffixes, word inflections, and derived words?
What is the difference between root words with prefixes, suffixes, word inflections, and derived words?
What are the modifying phrases in English sentences?
What is a student expected to know about the English language at the age of 10 years?
What is a student expected to know about the English language at the age of 18 years?
How many classes of words are in the English language?
What are the various classes of words in the English language?
Is there any difference between classes of words and parts of speech in the English language?
What are various examples of conjunctions?
What are various examples of interjections?
How many types of pronouns, verbs, nouns, prepositions, adverbs, adjectives, conjunctions, and interjections are there? What is the difference between spelling and vocabulary?
What do you call a study of synonyms and antonyms of words?
What are the different sentence openers as per the classes of words or parts of speech?
Why is it essential to mention noun openers, pronoun openers, verb openers, and similar openers instead of noun, pronoun, verb, and similar classes of words and their derivatives?
What is the difference between root words with prefixes, suffixes, word inflections, and derived words? How do you define English grammar inflections?
What are some examples of English grammar inflections?
Are English grammar inflections applicable to nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, pronouns, and/or interjections?
What do English grammar word functions reveal in a sentence?
What is the function of a word in a sentence?
Is it a subject, verb, direct object, indirect object, modifier, or function word?
How did English grammar rules come into existence?
What are English grammar rules?
What is included in English language style?
Is the study of English language spelling included in English language grammar or English language style?
What should you know about English language words?
Is there a difference among synonyms, antonyms, and definitions of words?
What is a thesaurus?
How are synonyms different than definitions in a dictionary?
What is English spelling?
How do you add prefixes and suffixes or make plurals and possessives of various words?
Where do you usually find the explanation of a word?
Is it possible for a person to know all the words in a standard English dictionary and their definitions?
How many words should you know the meaning of?
What does a definition look like?
What does a synonym look like?
Are you asking for a definition or a synonym of the word “dictionary”?
What is the synonym of the word “beautiful”?
What is a headword?
How many letters are in a word?
What is the best method for teaching others the English language?
Words with example sentences
How do you use an English word in a sentence?
What word needs to be elaborated upon in a sentence?
What is the spelling of the word?
Do you need to write an interrogative, declarative, imperative, or exclamatory sentence?
What should the tense of the sentence be?
What types of English words should you know?
Word classes (or parts of speech)
Word Classes
What are various examples of adjectives?
Adjectives can be classified into many categories. In English, adjectives are generally used in the order: quantity-->opinion-->size-->age-->shape-->color-->origin-->material-->purpose. Some of these categories are (roughly in the order in which adjectives are used in English):
  • quantity - few, no, one, two, three, four, several, many, all, some, every, each, ...
  • opinion - good, better, best, bad, worse, worst, mediocre, awful, fantastic, pretty, ugly, clean, dirty, wasteful, difficult, comfortable, valuable, worthless, important, evil, angelic, rare, scarce, poor, rich, ...
  • personality/emotion - happy, sad, excited, scaDeepPink, frightened, outgoing, funny, sad, zany, grumpy, cheerful, jolly, carefree, quick-witted, ...
  • sound - loud, soft, silent, vociferous, screaming, shouting, thunderous, blaring, quiet, noisy, talkative, rowdy, deafening, faint, muffled, mute, speechless, whispeDeepPink, hushed, ...
  • taste - sweet, sour, acidic, bitter, salty, tasty, delicious, savory, delectable, yummy, bland, tasteless, palatable, yummy, luscious, appetising, tasteless, spicy, watery, ...
  • touch - hard, soft, silky, velvety, bumpy, smooth, grainy, coarse, pitted, irregular, scaly, polished, glossy, lumpy, wiry, scratchy, rough, glassy, ...
  • size, weight - heavy, light, big, small, tiny, tall, short, fat, thin, slender, willowy, lean, svelte, scrawny, skeletal, underweight, lanky, wide, enormous, huge, vast, great, gigantic, monstrous, mountainous, jumbo, wee, dense, weighty, slim, trim, hulking, hefty, giant, plump, tubby, obese, portly, ...
  • smell - sweaty, acrid, putrid, burnt, smelly, reeking, noxious, pungent, aromatic, fragrant, scented, musty, sweet-smelling, perfumed, ...
  • speed - quick, fast, slow, speeding, rushing, bustling, rapid, snappy, whirlwind, swift, hasty, prompt, brief, ...
  • temperature - hot, cold, freezing, icy, frigid, sweltering, wintry, frosty, frozen, nippy, chilly, sizzling, scalding, burning, feverish, fiery, steaming, ...
  • age - young, old, baby, babyish, teenage, ancient, antique, old-fashioned, youthful, elderly, mature, adolescent, infantile, bygone, recent, modern, ...
  • distance - short, long, far, distant, nearby, close, faraway, outlying, remote, far-flung, neighboring, handy, ...
  • shape - round, circular, square, triangular, oval, sleek, blobby, flat, rotund, globular, spherical, wavy, straight, cylindrical, oblong, elliptical, zigzag, squiggly, crooked, winding, serpentine, warped, distorted, ...
  • miscellaneous qualities- full, empty, wet, dry, open, closed , ornate, ...
  • brightness - light, dark, bright, shadowy, drab, radiant, shining, pale, dull, glowing, shimmering, luminous, gleaming, ...
  • color - pink, DeepPink, orange, yellowish, dark-green, blue, purple, black, white, gray, brown, tanned, pastel, ...
  • time - early, late, morning, night, evening, everlasting, initial, first, last, overdue, belated, long-term, delayed, punctual, ...
  • origin/location - lunar, northern, oceanic, polar, equatorial, Floridian, American, Spanish, Mexican, French, Irish, English, Australian, ...
  • material - glass, wooden, cloth, concrete, fabric, cotton, plastic, leather, ceramic, china, metal, steel, ...
  • purpose - folding, swinging, work, racing, cooking, sleeping, dance, rolling, walking, ...

http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/adjective.html

What are various examples of adverbs?
Types of adverbs

1) Adverbs of manner
quickly
kindly

2) Adverbs of degree
very
rather

3) Adverbs of frequency
often
sometimes

4) Adverbs of time
now
today

5) Adverbs of place
here
nowhere

There are three forms:
- positive
- comparative
- superlative

http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/adverb.html

What are various examples of nouns?
Examples of Nouns

  1. Abstract Nouns – name things you can’t perceive with your five senses

  2. Collective Nouns – a group of people or things

  3. Compound Nouns – made up of two or more words

  4. Countable Concrete Nouns – can be perceived with your five senses and can be counted

  5. Uncountable Concrete Nouns – cannot be counted

  6. Verbal Nouns (Gerunds) – refer to actions

  7. Proper Nouns – name a particular person, place or thing

Abstract Nouns – name things you can’t perceive with your five senses
  1. advice

  2. anger

  3. belief

  4. bigotry

  5. communication

  6. compassion

  7. darkness

  8. death

  9. fear

  10. freedom

  11. friendship

  12. gratitude

  13. happiness

  14. hatred

  15. help

  16. heroism

  17. history

  18. honesty

  19. hope

  20. infancy

  21. jealousy

  22. knowledge

  23. life

  24. love

  25. loyalty

  26. manhood

  27. misery

  28. peace

  29. pride

  30. poverty

  31. power

  32. promise

  33. reality

  34. redemption

  35. regret

  36. religion

  37. troupe

  38. trust

  39. wealth

  40. wisdom

  41. Collective Nouns – a group of people or things
  42. army

  43. audience

  44. band

  45. bevy

  46. bouquet

  47. brood

  48. bunch

  49. caravan

  50. cartload

  51. choir

  52. clan

  53. colony

  54. congregation

  55. corps

  56. drove

  57. family

  58. flock

  59. gaggle

  60. gang

  61. group

  62. herd

  63. jury

  64. mob

  65. pack

  66. panel

  67. range

  68. regiment

  69. school

  70. squadron

  71. swarm

  72. team

  73. village

  74. Compound Nouns – made up of two or more words
  75. aftermath

  76. anyone

  77. blackboard

  78. board of directors

  79. bodyguard

  80. court-martial

  81. daughter-in-law

  82. earthworm

  83. eyeglasses

  84. father-in-law

  85. forget-me-not

  86. grandfather

  87. grasshopper

  88. homemade

  89. inside

  90. jellyfish

  91. jigsaw

  92. keyboard

  93. kneecap

  94. lifetime

  95. moonlight

  96. mother-in-law

  97. New York

  98. overthrow

  99. paperclip

  100. photograph

  101. pickpocket

  102. pigtails

  103. plaything

  104. quicksand

  105. railroad

  106. rattlesnake

  107. somewhere

  108. snowflake

  109. sunlight

  110. tablecloth

  111. upstream

  112. uplift

  113. wheelchair

  114. windpipe


  115. Countable Concrete Nouns – can be perceived with your five senses and can be counted
  116. aardvark

  117. banana

  118. bed

  119. bird

  120. book

  121. cat

  122. clock

  123. cookie

  124. c___ntry

  125. dog

  126. eyes

  127. flowers

  128. house

  129. light

  130. match

  131. movie

  132. ocean

  133. panther

  134. pen

  135. phone

  136. photograph

  137. planet

  138. rain

  139. speaker

  140. sun

  141. suitcase

  142. sunset

  143. train

  144. ukulele

  145. violin

  146. walnuts

  147. xylophone

  148. Uncountable Concrete Nouns – cannot be counted
  149. air

  150. beer

  151. blood

  152. butter

  153. cheese

  154. clutter

  155. currency

  156. economics

  157. electricity

  158. flour

  159. food

  160. garbage

  161. gas

  162. ground

  163. homework

  164. honey

  165. information

  166. insurance

  167. juice

  168. lightning

  169. milk

  170. mud

  171. music

  172. news

  173. rain

  174. rice

  175. sand

  176. snow

  177. timber

  178. water

  179. weather

  180. wood

  181. Verbal Nouns (Gerunds) – refer to actions
  182. acting

  183. asking

  184. boating

  185. bowling

  186. camping

  187. climbing

  188. crawling

  189. dancing

  190. deceiving

  191. destroying

  192. eating

  193. fishing

  194. flying

  195. golfing

  196. growing

  197. hiking

  198. hopping

  199. hunting

  200. hurting

  201. inserting

  202. jogging

  203. jumping

  204. kayaking

  205. living

  206. making

  207. moaning

  208. naming

  209. opening

  210. painting

  211. parasailing

  212. placing

  213. plotting

  214. questioning

  215. razing

  216. rollerblading

  217. rolling

  218. running

  219. shopping

  220. skiing

  221. smoking

  222. snorkeling

  223. surfing

  224. swimming

  225. talking

  226. traveling

  227. watching

  228. watering

  229. yodeling

  230. Proper Nouns – name a particular person, place or thing
  231. Africa

  232. Atlantic

  233. Ocean

  234. Australia

  235. Beethoven

  236. Big

  237. Ben

  238. Clark

  239. Gable

  240. Conoco

  241. Disneyland

  242. Elizabeth Taylor

  243. Fluffy

  244. Halley’s Comet

  245. Honda

  246. Illinois

  247. January

  248. Jupiter

  249. Kashmir

  250. King Tut

  251. Lake Eerie

  252. La-Z-Boy

  253. Minnesota

  254. Michael

  255. Mount Everest

  256. Asif Qureshi

  257. Notre Dame

  258. Peking

  259. Quebec

  260. Rio Grande

  261. Rocky Mountains

  262. September

  263. Qureshi University

  264. Starbucks Susan

  265. The New York Times

  266. The Tower of London

  267. Uncle Abraham

  268. United Continents

  269. United States

  270. Vincent van Gogh

  271. Xerox

  272. Zeus

What are various examples of prepositions?
Classes of Prepositions

Simple Prepositions
Double Prepositions
Compound Prepositions
Phrasal Prepositions
Participial Prepositions
Disguised Prepositions

What are various examples of prepositions?
Preposition Examples
About I will tell you a story about a lion.
Above The plane flies above the clouds.
Across They walked across the field.
After After lunch, I shall complete the remaining task.
Against I helped her going against the wishes of my loved ones.
Along All along the way, she did not speak a word.
Among The profit was shared among the shareholders.
Around Due to the snow, we turned around to return back home.
At The land is at war with its neighbor.
Before She had decided to quit before Christmas, but changed her plan.
Behind The church is located behind the supermarket.
Below The temperatures have dipped below freezing point.
Beneath The water level is beneath the average level.
Beside When we were in school, I used to sit beside her in class.
Besides Besides maths, I am very fond of history.
Between The profit was shared between the three of them.
Beyond The play was beyond my expectations.
But Everyone but her agreed with the arrangement.
By A house by the sea, to retire, is my dream
Concerning He is always curious about anything concerning her.
Despite Despite the snowfall, she decided to carry on with her journey.
Down Jimmy lives down the street.
During She works during the day and studies at night.
Except Except her no one has any objections to the plan.
For I jog for 10 miles everyday.
From She comes from Argentina.
In When in Rome, do as the Romans do.
Inside Inside the tough exterior, lies a gentle soul.
Into As soon as she stepped into the room, there was pin drop silence.
Like She looks like her father.
Minus Ten minus eight equals two.
Near They have bought a new home near the school.
Of A friend of mine recommended the beautician to me.
Off To regain her lost health, it is important, she stays off her fad diet programs.
On There is an apple on the table.
Onto He always climbs onto the table.
Opposite Her desk is located diagonally opposite my desk.
Out of Out of sheer curiosity, I asked her the question.
Outside Outside the house lies a beautiful garden.
Over The journey cost me way over my budget.
Past She walked past me, but refused to acknowledge my presence.
Per What was the per person cost incurred?
Plus Eight plus six equals fourteen.
Since She was waiting for him since ten in the morning.
Through I slept all through the day.
Throughout Throughout winter, she has been sick.
To I am going to Atlanta, before I head back home.
Toward (s) It started raining towards the evening.
Under The road is under repair.
Underneath She found her earring underneath the carpet.
Until I did not get the documents until 5 pm.
Upon Once upon a time, there lived a king.
Up I walked up the stairs, to see the problem.
Up to The decision is up to the both of them.
Versus The last game was England versus France.
Via I will go via Sydney.
With She walked in with her new boyfriend.
Within She caters to customers within a radius of 5 miles.
Without I never leave my house without an umbrella, due to the uncertain weather.

Double Prepositions
Double prepositions are words, such as into, onto, within, etc., which are used as prepositions. They are two prepositions, but are joined to make a whole new one. These examples will make it easier for you.
Amid: The kids were lost amid the jungle.
Atop: The owl sat atop a banyan tree.
Inside: Inside the tough exterior, lies a gentle soul.
Into: As soon as she stepped into the room, there was pin-drop silence.
Onto: He always climbs onto the table.
Outside: Outside the house lies a beautiful garden.
Throughout: Throughout winter, she has been sick.
Upon: Once upon a time, there lived a king.
Up to: It is up to us to find a way out.
Within: She caters to customers within a radius of 5 miles.
Without: I never leave my house without an umbrella due to the uncertain weather.
Compound Prepositions
Compound prepositions are nothing but the use of two prepositions together to do the work of one. However, unlike double prepositions, compound prepositions are not joined and turned into one word. They remain two different words. Their use is mainly in idiomatic forms. Read through the examples below to understand them better.
According to: According to the rule book, peeping is allowed in this game.
Ahead of: He was always two steps ahead of his competitors.

Apart from: Apart from the dresses, Sara shopped for some shoes, too.
As for: As for the record, she did not sign in late.
As of: He cannot stay here as of now.
As per: As per her mother, she is a silent child.
Aside from: The mother pulled her child aside from the dirty dustbin.
Because of: He could not leave home because of the heavy rain.
Close to: She was never close to her parents.
Due to: I seldom step out due to the uncertain weather.
Except for: I love her attire, except for the chunky neckpiece.
Far from: Her behavior is far from normal.
Inside of: The inside of the auditorium is beautiful.
Instead of: Instead of standing by my side, he ran away.
Left of: All that is left of the meal is some salad.
Near to: There are beautiful weekend getaways near to New York.
Next to: Phoebe was sitting next to Joey.
Out from:She had been singled out from the event.
Out of: They persuade us to think out of the box.
Outside of: Nobody outside of this room should know about this plan.
Owing to: Owing to the bad weather, the trip was canceled.
Prior to: I never felt this way about anybody prior to you.
Rather than: I prefer leaving rather than waiting for an hour.
Regardless of: Regardless of her sentiments, he went on accusing her.
Right of: The cat was lying on the rug right of Charlie.
Subsequent to: Subsequent to their arrival in France, they bought a new home.
Thanks to: She had a job now, all thanks to her brother.
That of: The surprise plan was that of her own.
Where as: Cats like to sleep, where as dogs like to play.
Phrasal Prepositions
Phrasal prepositions are a group of verbs, adverbs, and other words that function as a preposition. There can be many phrasal verbs. However, the ones that function as prepositions in grammar are called phrasal prepositions. These are some examples of phrasal prepositions.

As far as: He walked as far as he could.
As long as: As long as you do not change the meaning, you can rephrase the sentence.
As opposed to: Christina came out stronger as opposed to the others.
As soon as: As soon as they reached the house, the children jumped out of the car.
As well as: Abraham took his children as well as the neighboring kids to the circus.
In addition to: In addition to all the hurt, he sent her a terrifying hate mail, too.
In front of: We clicked a hundred pictures in front of the Statue of Liberty.
In reference to: This is in reference to the article in yesterday's paper about child abuse.
In regard to: In regard to everything that has happened, I want my questions answered.
In spite of: They stood there in spite of the bitter cold.
On account of: On account of the processions, the mayor declared a holiday.
On top of: He believed in staying on top of things.
With regard to: Opinions have changed with regard to the idea of live-in relationships.
With the exception of: With the exception of Rachel, everybody had come to school.
Participial Prepositions
Participial prepositions are basically participles used as prepositions. A participle is a verb ending with 'ed' or 'ing'. Thus, participles are words, such as concerning, observing, regarding, etc. The ones that are used as prepositions are called participial prepositions.

Assuming: He had made preparations assuming she liked Thai food.
Barring: Everybody was invited barring underage children.
Concerning: He is always curious about anything concerning her.
Considering: Considering the circumstance, he did not punish the kids.
During: She works during the day and studies at night.
Excluding: Excluding her from the plan would just hurt her even more.
Failing: Failing to get her, he settled for his unrequited love.
Following: Everywhere he went, the dog kept following him.
Including: The entire class was in a party mood including the teacher.
Regarding: The police were asking questions regarding Joseph's behavior.
Respected: John F. Kennedy was respected by all.
Provided: After a lot of questioning, he provided her with all the information.
Disguised Prepositions
Disguised prepositions are those that are not used in the sentences but are implied. Classic examples of disguised prepositions are the letters 'a' and 'o'. Here, 'a' stands for the shortened form of the preposition 'on' and 'o' stands for the shortened form of the preposition 'of'.

O' (of)
Be home by nine o' clock.
a (on)
Everyone went a-hunting.
Usage of Prepositions
✔ A preposition is followed by a noun.
✔ A sentence can begin with a preposition, or a prepositional phrase.
✔ A sentence can also end with a preposition, but one should always take care while constructing it.
✔ A prepositional phrase always begins with a preposition and ends with a noun, or pronoun.
✘ The subject of the sentence can never be a part of a prepositional phrase.
✘ It is never followed by a verb.
✘ A verb can never be a part of a prepositional phrase.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/prepositions-examples.html http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/prepositions.html
What are various examples of pronouns?

Pronouns are words like I, me (personal pronouns) or my, mine (possessive pronouns).

Personal Pronouns Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns
subject form object form possessive adjective possessive pronoun
Imemyminemyself
youyouyouryoursyourself
hehimhishishimself
sheherherhersherself
itititsitsitself
weusouroursourselves
youyouyouryoursyourselves
theythemtheirtheirsthemselves

What should 18-year-olds know about verbs in the English language?

What are the categories of verbs in the English language?
Action Verbs
Linking Verbs
Helping Verbs or Auxiliary Verbs

Helping Verbs

What are other names of helping verbs in the English language?
Auxiliary verbs.

What are the categories of helping verbs (also called auxiliary verbs) in the English language?
Primary helping verbs, such as be (to be, be, is, am, are, was, were, been, being 9), do (do, did, does 3), and have (has, have, had 3).
Modal helping verbs include can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, and would.
There are at least 15 modal helping verbs.

What is a modal verb? What are modal verbs? What is the difference?
“What is a modal verb” focuses on the definition of the modal verb concept.
“What are modal verbs” focuses on all modal verbs.
Answers to each question are different.

Let me ask you a question.
Can you name some modal verbs?

What are examples of modal verbs in the English language?
Can
Could
May
Might
Shall
Should
Will
Would
Must
Ought to
Must not/may not
Need/Need not
Used to
Have to/has to/had to
Some consider only the first ten in this list to be modal verbs.
What are other terms for modal verbs in the English language?
Modal verbs are also called modal auxiliary verbs and modal auxiliaries.

What are various verb forms?
How many verb forms are there?

- infinitive base past simple past participle present participle (Gerund) present simple, 3rd person singular
regular (to) work work worked worked working works
irregular (to) be* be was were been being am are is
- (to) do do did done doing do/does
- (to) have have had had having have / has
What are various examples of verbs?
Common English Irregular Verb List
Base FormPast SimplePast Participle3rd Person SingularPresent Participle / Gerund
AbideAbode/AbidedAbode/Abided/AbiddenAbidesAbiding
AlightAlit/AlightedAlit/AlightedAlightsAlighting
AriseAroseArisenArisesArising
AwakeAwokeAwokenAwakesAwaking
BeWas/WereBeenIsBeing
BearBoreBorn/BorneBearsBearing
BeatBeatBeatenBeatsBeating
BecomeBecameBecomeBecomesBecoming
BeginBeganBegunBeginsBeginning
BeholdBeheldBeheldBeholdsBeholding
BendBentBentBendsBending
BetBetBetBetsBetting
BidBadeBiddenBidsBidding
BidBidBidBidsBidding
BindBoundBoundBindsBinding
BiteBitBittenBitesBiting
BleedBledBledBleedsBleeding
BlowBlewBlownBlowsBlowing
BreakBrokeBrokenBreaksBreaking
BreedBredBredBreedsBreeding
BringBroughtBroughtBringsBringing
BroadcastBroadcast/BroadcastedBroadcast/BroadcastedBroadcastsBroadcasting
BuildBuiltBuiltBuildsBuilding
BurnBurnt/BurnedBurnt/BurnedBurnsBurning
BurstBurstBurstBurstsBursting
BustBustBustBustsBusting
BuyBoughtBoughtBuysBuying
CastCastCastCastsCasting
CatchCaughtCaughtCatchesCatching
ChooseChoseChosenChoosesChoosing
ClapClapped/ClaptClapped/ClaptClapsClapping
ClingClungClungClingsClinging
ClotheClad/ClothedClad/ClothedClothesClothing
ComeCameComeComesComing
CostCostCostCostsCosting
CreepCreptCreptCreepsCreeping
CutCutCutCutsCutting
DareDared/DurstDaredDaresDaring
DealDealtDealtDealsDealing
DigDugDugDigsDigging
DiveDived/DoveDivedDivesDiving
DoDidDoneDoesDoing
DrawDrewDrawnDrawsDrawing
DreamDreamt/DreamedDreamt/DreamedDreamsDreaming
DrinkDrankDrunkDrinksDrinking
DriveDroveDrivenDrivesDriving
DwellDweltDweltDwellsDwelling
EatAteEatenEatsEating
FallFellFallenFallsFalling
FeedFedFedFeedsFeeding
FeelFeltFeltFeelsFeeling
FightFoughtFoughtFightsFighting
FindFoundFoundFindsFinding
FitFit/FittedFit/FittedFitsFitting
FleeFledFledFleesFleeing
FlingFlungFlungFlingsFlinging
FlyFlewFlownFliesFlying
ForbidForbade/ForbadForbiddenForbidsForbidding
ForecastForecast/ForecastedForecast/ForecastedForecastsForecasting
ForeseeForesawForeseenForeseesForeseeing
ForetellForetoldForetoldForetellsForetelling
ForgetForgotForgottenForgetsForegetting
ForgiveForgaveForgivenForgivesForgiving
ForsakeForsookForsakenForsakesForsaking
FreezeFrozeFrozenFreezesFreezing
FrostbiteFrostbitFrostbittenFrostbitesFrostbiting
GetGotGot/GottenGetsGetting
GiveGaveGivenGivesGiving
GoWentGone/BeenGoesGoing
GrindGroundGroundGrindsGrinding
GrowGrewGrownGrowsGrowing
HandwriteHandwroteHandwrittenHandwritesHandwriting
HangHung/HangedHung/HangedHangsHanging
HaveHadHadHasHaving
HearHeardHeardHearsHearing
HideHidHiddenHidesHiding
HitHitHitHitsHitting
HoldHeldHeldHoldsHolding
HurtHurtHurtHurtsHurting
InlayInlaidInlaidInlaysInlaying
InputInput/InputtedInput/InputtedInputsInputting
InterlayInterlaidInterlaidInterlaysInterlaying
KeepKeptKeptKeepsKeeping
KneelKnelt/KneeledKnelt/KneeledKneelsKneeling
KnitKnit/KnittedKnit/KnittedKnitsKnitting
KnowKnewKnownKnowsKnowing
LayLaidLaidLayslaying
LeadLedLedLeadsLeading
LeanLeant/LeanedLeant/LeanedLeansLeaning
LeapLeapt/LeapedLeapt/LeapedLeapsLeaping
LearnLearnt/LearnedLearnt/LearnedLearnsLearning
LeaveLeftLeftLeavesLeaving
LendLentLentLendsLending
LetLetLetLetsLetting
LieLayLainLiesLying
LightLitLitLightsLighting
LoseLostLostLosesLosing
MakeMadeMadeMakesMaking
MeanMeantMeantMeansMeaning
MeetMetMetMeetsMeeting
MeltMeltedMolten/MeltedMeltsMelting
MisleadMisledMisledMisleadsMisleading
MistakeMistookMistakenMistakesMistaking
MisunderstandMisunderstoodMisunderstoodMisunderstandsMisunderstanding
MiswedMiswed/MisweddedMiswed/MisweddedMiswedsMiswedding
MowMowedMownMowsMowing
OverdrawOverdrewOverdrawnOverdrawsOverdrawing
OverhearOverheardOverheardOverhearsOverhearing
OvertakeOvertookOvertakenOvertakesOvertaking
PayPaidPaidPaysPaying
PresetPresetPresetPresetsPresetting
ProveProvedProven/ProvedProvesProving
PutPutPutPutsPutting
QuitQuitQuitQuitsQuitting
Re-proveRe-provedRe-proven/Re-provedRe-provesRe-proving
ReadReadReadReadsReading
RidRid/RiddedRid/RiddedRidsRidding
RideRodeRiddenRidesRiding
RingRangRungRingsRinging
RiseRoseRisenRisesRising
RiveRivedRiven/RivedRivesRiving
RunRanRunRunsRunning
SawSawedSawn/SawedSawsSawing
SaySaidSaidSaysSaying
SeeSawSeenSeesSeeing
SeekSoughtSoughtSeeksSeeking
SellSoldSoldSellsSelling
SendSentSentSendsSending
SetSetSetSetsSetting
SewSewedSewn/SewedSewsSewing
ShakeShookShakenShakesShaking
ShaveShavedShaven/ShavedShavesShaving
ShearShore/ShearedShorn/ShearedShearsShearing
ShedShedShedShedsShedding
ShineShoneShoneShinesShining
ShoeShodShodShoesShoeing
ShootShotShotShootsShooting
ShowShowedShownShowsShowing
ShrinkShrankShrunkShrinksShrinking
ShutShutShutShutsShutting
SingSangSungSingsSinging
SinkSankSunkSinksSinking
SitSatSatSitsSitting
SlaySlewSlainSlaysSlaying
SleepSleptSleptSleepsSleeping
SlideSlidSlid/SliddenSlidesSliding
SlingSlungSlungSlingsSlinging
SlinkSlunkSlunkSlinksSlinking
SlitSlitSlitSlitsSlitting
SmellSmelt/SmelledSmelt/SmelledSmellsSmelling
SneakSneaked/SnuckSneaked/SnuckSneaksSneaking
SoothsaySoothsaidSoothsaidSoothsaysSoothsaying
SowSowedSownSowsSowing
SpeakSpokeSpokenSpeaksSpeaking
SpeedSped/SpeededSped/SpeededSpeedsSpeeding
SpellSpelt/SpelledSpelt/SpelledSpellsSpelling
SpendSpentSpentSpendsSpending
SpillSpilt/SpilledSpilt/SpilledSpillsSpilling
SpinSpan/SpunSpunSpinsSpinning
SpitSpat/SpitSpat/SpitSpitsSpitting
SplitSplitSplitSplitsSplitting
SpoilSpoilt/SpoiledSpoilt/SpoiledSpoilsSpoiling
SpreadSpreadSpreadSpreadsSpreading
SpringSprangSprungSpringsSpringing
StandStoodStoodStandsStanding
StealStoleStolenStealsStealing
StickStuckStuckSticksSticking
StingStungStungStingsStinging
StinkStankStunkStinksStinking
StrideStrode/StridedStriddenStridesStriding
StrikeStruckStruck/StrickenStrikesStriking
StringStrungStrungStringsStringing
StripStript/StrippedStript/StrippedStripsStripping
StriveStroveStrivenStrivesStriving
SubletSubletSubletSubletsSubletting
SunburnSunburned/SunburntSunburned/SunburntSunburnsSunburning
SwearSworeSwornSwearsSwearing
SweatSweat/SweatedSweat/SweatedSweatsSweating
SweepSwept/SweepedSwept/SweepedSweepsSweeping
SwellSwelledSwollenSwellsSwelling
SwimSwamSwumSwimsSwimming
SwingSwungSwungSwingsSwinging
TakeTookTakenTakesTaking
TeachTaughtTaughtTeachesTeaching
TearToreTornTearsTearing
TellToldToldTellsTelling
ThinkThoughtThoughtThinksThinking
ThriveThrove/ThrivedThriven/ThrivedThrivesThriving
ThrowThrewThrownThrowsThrowing
ThrustThrustThrustThrustsThrusting
TreadTrodTroddenTreadsTreading
UndergoUnderwentUndergoneUndergoesUndergoing
UnderstandUnderstoodUnderstoodUnderstandsUnderstanding
UndertakeUndertookUndertakenUndertakesUndertaking
UpsellUpsoldUpsoldUpsellsUpselling
UpsetUpsetUpsetUpsetsUpsetting
VexVext/VexedVext/VexedVexesVexing
WakeWokeWokenWakesWaking
WearWoreWornWearsWearing
WeaveWoveWovenWeavesWeaving
WedWed/WeddedWed/WeddedWedsWedding
WeepWeptWeptWeepsWeeping
WendWended/WentWended/WentWendsWending
WetWet/WettedWet/WettedWetsWetting
WinWonWonWinsWinning
WindWoundWoundWindsWinding
WithdrawWithdrewWithdrawnWithdrawsWithdrawing
WithholdWithheldWithheldWithholdsWithholding
WithstandWithstoodWithstoodWithstandsWithstanding
WringWrungWrungWringsWringing
WriteWroteWrittenWritesWriting
ZincZinced/ZinckedZinced/ZinckedZincs/ZincksZincking

Regular Verbs
accept
ache
acknowledge
act
add
admire
admit
admonish
advise
adopt
affirm
afford
agree
ail
alert
allege
allude
allow
amuse
analyze
announce
annoy
answer
apologize
appeal
appear
applaud
appreciate
approve
argue
arrange
arrest
arrive
articulate
ask
assert
assure
attach
attack
attempt
attend
attract
auction
avoid
avow

B
babble
back
bake
balance
balk
ban
bang
bandage
bar
bare
bargain
bark
barrage
barter
baste
bat
bathe
battle
bawl
beam
befriend
beg
behave
believe
bellow
belong
berate
besiege
bestow
bleach
bless
blind
blink
blot
blurt
blush
boast
bob
boil
bolt
bomb
book
bore
borrow
bounce
bow
box
brag
brake
branch
brand
breathe
broil
bruise
brush
bubble
bump
burnish
bury
buzz

C
cajole
calculate
call
camp
care
carry
carve
cause
caution
challenge
change
chant
charge
chase
cheat
check
cheer
chew
chide
chip
choke
chomp
chop
claim
clap
clean
clear
climb
clip
close
coach
coil
collect
color
comb
comfort
command
comment
communicate
compare
compete
complain
complete
concede
concentrate
concern
conclude
concur
confess
confide
confirm
connect
consent
consider
consist
contain
contend
continue
cook
copy
correct
cough
count
counter
cover
covet
crack
crash
crave
crawl
crochet
cross
criticize
croak
cross-examine
crowd
crush
cry
cure
curl
curse
curve
cycle

D
dam
damage
dance
dare
deal
debate
decay
deceive
decide
decipher
declare
decorate
delay
delight
deliver
demand
deny
depend
describe
desert
deserve
desire
deter
develop
dial
dictate
die
digress
direct
disclose
dislike
dive
divide
divulge
divorce
dock
dole
dote
double
doubt
drag
drain
dress
drip
drill
drone
drop
drown
dry
dupe
dump
dust
dye

E
earn
echo
edit
educate
elope
embarrass
emigrate
emit
emphasize
employ
empty
enchant
encode
encourage
end
enjoin
enjoy
enter
entertain
enunciate
envy
equivocate
escape
evacuate
evaporate
exaggerate
examine
excite
excuse
exercise
exclaim
exhort
exist
expand
expect
expel
explain
explode
explore
extend
extoll

F
face
fade
fail
falter
fasten
favor
fax
fear
fence
fetch
file
fill
film
fire
fish
fit
fix
flap
flash
float
flood
floss
flow
flower
fold
follow
fool
force
forgive
form
found
frame
fret
frighten
fry
fume

G
garden
gasp
gather
gaze
gel
gild
glide
glue
gnaw
grab
grate
grease
greet
grill
grin
grip
groan
growl
grumble
grunt
guarantee
guard
guess
guide
gurgle
gush

H
hail
hammer
hand
handle
happen
harass
harm
harness
hate
haunt
head
heal
heap
heat
help
highlight
hijack
hinder
hint
hiss
hook
hoot
hop
hope
hover
howl
hug
hum
hunt
hurry

I
ice
identify
ignore
imagine
immigrate
implore
impress
improve
include
increase
infect
inflate
influence
inform
infuse
inject
injure
inquire
insist
inspect
inspire
instruct
intend
interest
interfere
interject
interrupt
introduce
invent
invest
invite
irritate
iron
itch

J
jab
jabber
jail
jam
jeer
jest
jog
join
joke
jolt
judge
juggle
jump

K
kick
kill
kiss
knock
knot

L
label
lament
land
last
laugh
lean
lecture
level
license
lick
lift
lighten
like
list
listen
live
load
loan
lock
long
look
loosen
love
lower

M
mail
maintain
man
manage
mar
march
mark
marry
marvel
mate
matter
measure
melt
memorize
mend
mention
merge
milk
mine
miss
mix
moan
moor
mourn
molt
move
mow
mug
multiply
mumble
murder
mutter

N
nag
nail
name
nap
need
nest
nod
note
notice
number

O
obey
object
observe
obtain
occur
offend
offer
ogle
oil
omit
open
operate
order
overflow
owe
own

P
pack
pad
paddle
paint
pant
park
part
pass
paste
pat
pause
peck
pedal
peel
peep
peer
peg
pelt
perform
permit
pester
pet
phone
pick
pinch
pine
place
plan
plant
play
plead
please
pledge
plow
plug
point
poke
polish
ponder
pop
possess
post
postulate
pour
practice
pray
preach
precede
predict
prefer
prepare
present
preserve
press
pretend
prevent
prick
print
proceed
proclaim
produce
profess
program
promise
propose
protect
protest
provide
pry
pull
pump
punch
puncture
punish
push

Q
question
quilt
quiz
quote

R
race
radiate
rain
raise
rant
rain
rate
rave
reach
realize
rebuff
recall
receive
recite
recognize
recommend
record
reduce
reflect
refuse
regret
reign
reiterate
reject
rejoice
relate
relax
release
rely
remain
remember
remind
remove
repair
repeat
replace
reply
report
reprimand
reproduce
request
rescue
retire
retort
return
reveal
reverse
rhyme
rinse
risk
roar
rob
rock
roll
rot
row
rub
ruin
rule
rush

S
sack
sail
satisfy
save
savor
saw
scare
scatter
scoff
scold
scoot
scorch
scrape
scratch
scream
screech
screw
scribble
seal
search
sense
separate
serve
settle
sever
shade
shampoo
share
shave
shelter
shift
shiver
shock
shop
shout
shriek
shrug
sigh
sign
signal
sin
singe
sip
skate
skateboard
sketch
ski
skip
slap
slice
slip
slow
smash
smell
smile
smoke
snap
snarl
snatch
sneak
sneer
sneeze
snicker
sniff
snore
snoop
snooze
snort
snow
soak
sob
soothe
sound
span
spare
spark
sparkle
speculate
spell
spill
spoil
spot
spray
sprout
sputter
squash
squeeze
stab
stain
stammer
stamp
star
stare
start
stash
state
stay
steer
step
stipulate
stir
stitch
stop
store
strap
storm
stow
strengthen
stress
stretch
strip
stroke
stuff
stray
strum
strut
stun
stunt
stutter
submerge
succeed
suffer
suggest
suit
supply
support
suppose
surmise
surprise
surround
suspect
suspend
sway
swear
swing
switch
swoop
sympathize

T
talk
tame
tap
taste
taunt
tease
telephone
tempt
terrify
test
testify
thank
thaw
theorize
threaten
thunder
tick
tickle
tie
time
tip
tire
toast
toss
touch
tour
tow
trace
track
trade
train
translate
transport
trap
travel
treat
tremble
trick
trickle
trim
trip
trot
trouble
trust
trounce
try
tug
tumble
turn
twist
type

U
undress
unfasten
unite
unlock
unpack
upstage
urge
untie
use
usurp
utter

V
vacuum
value
vanish
vanquish
venture
visit
voice
volunteer
vote
vouch

W
wail
wait
walk
wallow
wander
want
warm
warn
wash
waste
watch
water
wave
waver
wed
weigh
welcome
whimper
whine
whip
whirl
whisper
whistle
wink
wipe
wish
wobble
wonder
work
worry
wrap
wreck
wrestle
wriggle
writhe

X
x-ray

Y
yawn
yell
yelp
yield
yodel

Z
zip
zoom
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/verb.html

Irregular Simple Past and Past Participle Verb Forms

Simple Present

Simple Past

Past Participle

 

arise

awake

be

bear

beat

become

begin

bend

bet

bite

bleed

blow

break

bring

build

burn

burst

buy

catch

choose

cling

come

cost

creep

cut

deal

dig

dive

do

draw

dream

drink

drive

eat

fall

feed

feel

fight

find

fit

flee

fling

fly

forbid

forget

forgive

forgo

freeze

get

give

go

grind

grow

hang

have

hear

hide

hit

hold

hurt

keep

kneel

knit

know

lay

lead

leap

leave

lend

let

lie (down)

light

lose

make

mean

meet

pay

prove

put

quit

read

ride

ring

rise

run

saw

say

see

seek

sell

send

set

sew

shake

shave

shear

shine

shoot

show

shrink

shut

sing

sink

sit

slay

sleep

slide

sneak

speak

speed

spend

spill

spin

spit

split

spread

spring

stand

steal

stick

sting

stink

strew

strike

strive

swear

sweep

swim

swing

take

teach

tear

tell

think

thrive

throw

undergo

understand

upset

wake

wear

weave

weep

win

wind

withdraw

wring

write

 

arose

awoke

was, were

bore

beat

became

began

bent

bet

bit

bled

blew

broke

brought

built

burned or burnt

burst

bought

caught

chose

clung

came

cost

crept

cut

dealt

dug

dived or dove

did

drew

dreamed or dreamt

drank

drove

ate

fell

fed

felt

fought

found

fit, fitted

fled

flung

flew

forbade or forbad

forgot

forgave

forwent

froze

got

gave

went

ground

grew

hung or hanged

had

heard

hid

hit

held

hurt

kept

knelt or kneeled

knitted or knit

knew

laid

led

leapt or leaped

left

lent

let

lay

lit or lighted

lost

made

meant

met

paid

proved

put

quit

read

rode

rang

rose

ran

sawed

said

saw

sought

sold

sent

set

sewed

shook

shaved

sheared

shone or shined

shot

showed

shrank or shrunk

shut

sang

sank

sat

slew

slept

slid

sneaked or snuck

spoke

sped

spent

spilled or spilt

spun

spat or spit

split

spread

sprang

stood

stole

stuck

stung

stank or stunk

strewed

struck

strove or strived

swore

swept

swam

swung

took

taught

tore

told

thought

thrived or throve

threw

underwent

understood

upset

woke or waked

wore

wove

wept

won

wound

withdrew

wrung

wrote

 

arisen

awoken

been

borne

beaten or beat

become

begun

bent

bet

bitten

bled

blown

broken

brought

built

burned or burnt

burst

bought

caught

chosen

clung

come

cost

crept

cut

dealt

dug

dived

done

drawn

dreamed or dreamt

drunk

driven

eaten

fallen

fed

felt

fought

found

fit, fitted

fled

flung

flown,

forbidden or forbade

forgotten

forgiven

forgone

frozen

gotten or got

given

gone

ground

grown

hung or hanged

had

heard

hidden

hit

held

hurt

kept

knelt or kneeled

knitted or knit

known

laid

led

leapt or leaped

left

lent

let

lain

lit or lighted

lost

made

meant

met

paid

proved or proven

put

quit

read

ridden

rung

risen

run

sawed or sawn

said

seen

sought

sold

sent

set

sewn or sewed

shaken

shaved or shaven

sheared or shorn

shone or shined

shot

shown or showed

shrunk or shrunken

shut

sung

sunk

sat

slain

slept

slid

sneaked or snuck

spoken

sped

spent

spilled or spilt

spun

spat or spit

split

spread

sprung

stood

stolen

stuck

stung

stunk

strewn

struck or stricken

striven or strived

sworn

swept

swum

swung

taken

taught

torn

told

thought

thrived or thriven

thrown

undergone

understood

upset

woken or waked

worn

woven

wept

won

wound

withdrawn

wrung

written

Here is a list of commonly used regular verbs with their base form, simple past form and the past participle.

BASE FORM

SIMPLE PAST

PAST PARTICIPLE

Accept

Accepted

Accepted

Achieve

Achieved

Achieved

Add

Added

Added

Admire

Admired

Admirer

Admit

Admitted

Admitted

Adopt

Adopted

Adopted

Advise

Advised

Advised

Agree

Agreed

Agreed

Allow

Allowed

Allowed

Announce

Announced

Announced

Appreciate

Appreciated

Appreciated

Approve

Approved

Approved

Argue

Argued

Argued

Arrive

Arrived

Arrived

Ask

Asked

Asked

Assist

Assisted

Assisted

Attack

Attacked

Attacked

Bake

Baked

Baked

Beg

Begged

Begged

Behave

Behaved

Behaved

Boil

Boiled

Boiled

Borrow

Borrowed

Borrowed

Brush

Brushed

Brushed

Bury

Buried

Buried

Call

Called

Called

Challenge

Challenged

Challenged

Change

Changed

Changed

Chase

Chased

Chased

Cheat

Cheated

Cheated

Cheer

Cheered

Cheered

Chew

Chewed

Chewed

Clap

Clapped

Clapped

Clean

Cleaned

Cleaned

Collect

Collected

Collected

Compare

Compared

Compared

Complain

Complained

Complained

Confess

Confessed

Confessed

Construct

Constructed

Constructed

Control

Controlled

Controlled

Copy

Copied

Copied

Count

Counted

Counted

Create

Created

Created

Cry

Cried

Cried

Cycle

Cycled

Cycled

Damage

Damaged

Damaged

Dance

Danced

Danced

Deliver

Delivered

Delivered

Destroy

Destroyed

Destroyed

Divide

Divided

Divided

Drag

Dragged

Dragged

Earn

Earned

Earned

Employ

Employed

Employed

Encourage

Encouraged

Encouraged

Enjoy

Enjoyed

Enjoyed

Establish

Established

Established

Estimate

Estimated

Estimated

Exercise

Exercised

Exercised

Expand

Expanded

Expanded

Explain

Explained

Explained

Fry

Fried

Fried

Gather

Gathered

Gathered

Greet

Greeted

Greeted

Guess

Guessed

Guessed

Harass

Harassed

Harassed

Hate

Hated

Hated

Help

Helped

Helped

Hope

Hoped

Hoped

Identify

Identified

Identified

Interrupt

Interrupted

Interrupted

Introduce

Introduced

Introduced

Irritate

Irritated

Irritated

Joke

Joked

Joked

Jump

Jumped

Jumped

Kick

Kicked

Kicked

Kill

Killed

Killed

Kiss

Kissed

Kissed

Laugh

Laughed

Laughed

Lie

Lied

Lied

Like

Liked

Liked

Listen

Listened

Listened

Love

Loved

Loved

Marry

Married

Married

Measure

Measured

Measured

Move

Moved

Moved

Murder

Murdered

Murdered

Need

Needed

Needed

Obey

Obeyed

Obeyed

Offend

Offended

Offended

Offer

Offered

Offered

Open

Opened

Opened

Paint

Painted

Painted

Park

Parked

Parked

Phone

Phoned

Phoned

Pick

Picked

Picked

Play

Played

Played

Pray

Prayed

Prayed

Print

Printed

Printed

Pull

Pulled

Puled

Punch

Punched

Punched

Punish

Punished

Punished

Purchase

Purchased

Purchased

Push

Pushed

Pushed

Question

Questioned

Questioned

Race

Raced

Raced

Relax

Relaxed

Relaxed

Remember

Remembered

Remembered

Reply

Replied

Replied

Retire

Retired

Retired

Return

Returned

Returned

Rub

Rubbed

Rubbed

Scold

Scolded

Scolded

Select

Selected

Selected

Smoke

Smoked

Smoked

Snore

Snored

Snored

Stare

Stared

Stared

Start

Started

Started

Study

Studied

Studied

Talk

Talked

Talked

Thank

Thanked

Thanked

Travel

Travelled

Travelled

Trouble

Troubled

Troubled

Type

Typed

Typed

Use

Used

Used

Visit

Visited

Visited

Wait

Waited

Waited

Walk

Walked

Walked

Want

Wanted

Wanted

Warn

Warned

Warned

Wink

Winked

Winked

Worry

Worried

Worried

Yell

Yelled

Yelled

Verbs in English Language.
What should 18-year-olds know about verbs in the English language?
What should 10-year-olds know about verbs in the English language?


English Grade IV

What is a verb?
A verb is one of the main parts of a sentence or question in English.

An action verb tells you the action that is happening in a sentence.
Example: I walk to school. “Walk” is the action.

A linking verb helps describe the subject of a sentence.
Example: The girl is pretty. “Is” links the word “pretty” to the subject girl.

A helping verb is related to time. These verbs are used along with other verbs to help place the action in time. A main verb may have as many as three helping verbs in front of it in a sentence. In the example below, walk is the main verb, the helping verbs change the concept of time.
    Example: I walk to school. (tells what you do now)
    I am walking to school. (tells what you do and continue to do)
    I will walk to school. (tells what you will do in the future)
    I have walked to school on Thursday. (tells what you did in the past.)


Verbs are regular or irregular. Regular verbs follow a pattern and easily change from present to past tense by adding –ed. To change the present tense “work” to past tense “worked” you just add the –ed. Irregular verbs must be memorized because they do not follow this rule. Common irregular verbs present and past tense include is/was, do/did, get/got, know/knew, and make/made.

Unlike most of the other parts of speech, verbs change their form. Sometimes endings are added (learn - learned) and sometimes the word itself becomes different (teach-taught). The different forms of verbs show different meanings related to such things as tense (past, present, future), person (first person, second person, third person), number (singular, plural) and voice (active, passive). Verbs are also often accompanied by verb-like words called modals (may, could, should, etc.) and auxiliaries(do, have, will, etc.) to give them different meanings.

What are Multi-Part Verbs?
Do not assume that verbs are limited to a single word. Sometimes, they come in two to four words. The basic formula for verbs with multiple parts is:

The auxiliary verbs, also called “helping verbs,” allow you to write in various verb tenses and voices when combined with a base or main verb.

What is a regular and irregular verb?
These forms are the infinitive, simple present, simple past, past participle, and present participle. The difference between a regular and an irregular verb is the formation of the simple past and past participle. Regular verbs are dependably consistent—the simple past ends in ed as does the past participle.

What is the definition of regular verbs?
Regular verbs are those whose past tense and past participles are formed by adding a -d or an -ed to the end of the verb. "To roll" is a good example of a regular verb: roll, rolled, rolled.


How many types of verbs are there?
In addition to the main categories of physical verbs, mental verbs, and state of being verbs, there are several other types of verbs. In fact, there are more than ten different types of verbs that are grouped by function.

List of all Verb Types

Action Verbs

Action verbs express specific actions, and are used any time you want to show action or discuss someone doing something.

Transitive Verbs

Transitive verbs are action verbs that always express doable activities. These verbs always have direct objects, meaning someone or something receives the action of the verb.

Intransitive Verbs

Intransitive verbs are action verbs that always express doable activities. No direct object follows an intransitive verb.

Auxiliary Verbs

Auxiliary verbs are also known as helping verbs, and are used together with a main verb to show the verb’s tense or to form a question or negative.

Stative Verbs

Stative verbs can be recognized because they express a state rather than an action. They typically relate to thoughts, emotions, relationships, senses, states of being, and measurements.

Modal Verbs

Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs that are used to express abilities, possibilities, permissions, and obligations.

Phrasal Verbs

Phrasal verbs aren’t single words; instead, they are combinations of words that are used together to take on a different meaning to that of the original verb.

Irregular Verbs

Irregular verbs are those that don’t take on the regular spelling patterns of past simple and past participle verbs.
Here are further guidelines.
Here are further guidelines.


http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/verbs.html
What are examples of determiners in English language?
A
A Few
A Little
A Lot Of
All
An
Another
Any area
Both
Each
Either
Enough
Every
Half
Her
His
It
Many
Most
Much
My
Neither
Ten (numbers)
Other
Our
Quite
Rather
Some
Such
The
That
Their
These
This
Those
What
Your

What is a Conjunction?
What are the different types of conjunctions?
What are coordinating and subordinating conjunctions?

What do they do?
Conjunctions join words or groups of words.

How many types of conjunctions are there?
Coordinating conjunctions
Subordinating conjunctions
Correlative conjunctions
Conjunctive adverbs

A Handy List of Subordinating Conjunctions

Types of Conjunctions

There are several different types of conjunctions that do various jobs within sentence structures. These include: •Subordinating conjunctions – Also known as subordinators, these conjunctions join dependent clauses to independent clauses.

•Coordinating conjunction – Also known as coordinators, these conjunctions coordinate or join two or more sentences, main clauses, words, or other parts of speech which are of the same syntactic importance.

•Correlative conjunction – These conjunctions correlate, working in pairs to join phrases or words that carry equal importance within a sentence.

•Conjunctive adverbs – While some instructors do not teach conjunctive adverbs alongside conjunctions, these important parts of speech are worth a mention here. These adverbs always connect one clause to another, and are used to show sequence, contrast, cause and effect, and other relationships.

Remember FANBOYS: ? F: For ? A: And ? N: Nor ? B: But ? O: Or ? Y: Yet ? S: So A Handy List of Subordinating Conjunctions

after
although
as
as if
as long as
as much as
as soon as
as though
because
before
by the time
even if
even though
if
in order that
in case
in the event that
lest
now that
once
only
only if
provided that
since
so
supposing
that
than
though
till
unless
until, when
whenever
where
whereas
wherever
whether or not
while

Here are some of the most common subordinating conjunctions:

after
albeit
although
as
because
before
except
if
once
since that
though
unless
until
when
whenever
where
whether
while

Some phrases also function as subordinating conjunctions. Here are some of the most common ones:

as if
as far as
as long as
as well as
even if
even though that
inasmuch as
in order to
in order that
so that
such that

Subordinating Conjunctions

There are many subordinating conjunctions. This list does not include all of them.
Example: I will eat broccoli after I eat this cookie.
A: after, although, as, as if, as long as, as much as, as soon as, as though
B: because, before, by the time
E: even if, even though
I: if, in order that, in case
L: lest
O: once, only if
P: provided that
S: since, so that
T: than, that, though, till
U: unless, until
W: when, whenever, where, wherever, while

Conjunctive Adverbs (these are only a few):

Accordingly
Also
Anyway
Besides
Consequently
Finally
For Example
For Instance
Further
Furthermore
Hence
However
Incidentally
Indeed
In Fact
Instead
Likewise
Meanwhile
Moreover
Namely
Now
Of Course
On the Contrary
On the Other Hand
Otherwise
Nevertheless
Next
Nonetheless
Similarly
So Far
Until Now
Still
Then
Therefore
Thus

Part of Speech Explanation Examples
Nouns A word that names a person, a place or a thing Boy, Sam, cat, Paris
Pronouns A word that is used instead of a noun He, my, yourself
Adjectives A word that describes a person or thing pretty, easy, fat
Verbs A word or group of words that express an action or a state go, jump, be, think
Adverbs A word that describes or gives more information about a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or even the entire sentence quickly, tomorrow, outside
Prepositions A word that is used before a noun or a pronoun to connect it to another word in the sentence. It is usually used to show location, direction, time, and so forth. on, in, to, from, of
Conjunctions A word that joins parts of a sentence together and, or, but
Interjections A short sound, word or phrase used to express the speaker's emotion. Wow, hmm, well, oh dear
English Language Grammar Guide

English Grammar
English Grammar Classes of Words
What English grammar textbook do you use?
How many classes of words are in the English language?

There are eight classes of words.

What are the various classes of words in the English language?
Adjective
Adverb
Conjunction
Noun
Pronoun
Preposition
Interjection
Verb
Is there any difference between classes of words and parts of speech in the English language?
No, there is not.
A word belongs to one of the parts of speech in the English language.
At the same time, it can be used in other forms as well.
Many words in English have more than one function. Sometimes a word is a subject, sometimes a verb, sometimes a modifier. As a result, you must often analyze the job a word is doing in the sentence.
You must remember that verbs can have more than one part. In fact, a verb can have as many as four parts. A multi-part verb has a base or main part as well as additional helping or auxiliary verbs with it.
How many types of pronouns, verbs, nouns, prepositions, adverbs, adjectives, conjunctions, and interjections are there?
You should focus on context and thought a person needs to communicate.
A word can be capitalized in one context and thought and similar word cannot be capitalized in another context and thought.
Adjective
What is an adjective?
What are adjectives?
What are various examples of adjectives?
What are the different types of adjectives?
Kinds
What is the difference between types and forms of adjectives?
Function of Adjectives
What are the different types of determiners?
There are eight classes of determiners
Descriptive Adjectives
Adjective Quiz
Demonstrative adjectives

What is a demonstrative adjective?
What are examples of demonstrative adjectives?
What is the difference between a demonstrative pronoun and a demonstrative adjective?
A demonstrative pronoun stands alone.
A demonstrative adjective qualifies a noun.
That smells. (That is a demonstrative pronoun.)
That book is good. (That is a demonstrative adjective, book is a noun.)

Possessive Adjectives

What are examples of possessive adjectives?

Verb
What is a verb?
What are various examples of verbs?
What should you be able to identify and know about a verb?
What is the difference between types and forms of verbs?
What are various verb forms?
How many verb forms are there?
Is there a difference between verb conjugation and verb forms?
Verb conjugation and verb tenses: what is the difference?
Verbs - Spelling Rules
The spelling for the verb in the third person differs depending on the ending of that verb:
Verb Conjugation Table

What is the form of the verb?
Is it infinitive, base, past simple, past participle, present participle, present simple, or third person singular?
All verbs have four principal forms.
The be verb has nine forms.
Not all verbs have nine forms.

What are various verb forms?
How many verb forms are there?
-
- infinitive base past simple past participle present participle (Gerund) present simple, 3rd person singular
regular (to) work work worked worked working works
irregular (to) be* be was were been being am are is
- (to) do do did done doing do/does
- (to) have have had had having have / has
Name of verb
Infinitive
Base form
work
write
Past form
worked
wrote
Past participle
worked
written
Present participle
working
writing
regular to workI can work.
I work.
I worked. I have worked.I am working.
irregular to writeI can write.
I write.
I wrote.I have written. I am writing.
What are the headings under which verb forms are classified?
Is there a difference between verb conjugation and verb forms?
No.
Verb conjugation and verb tenses: what is the difference?
What is an infinitive?
Base Form
What is a participle?
What is a past participle?
What is the present participle?
Question (Interrogative sentence)
What is an irregular verb?
What is the difference between regular verbs and irregular verbs?
What is a transitive verb?
What is an intransitive verb?
What is an infinitive?
Infinitive or -ing Quiz
What should you be able to identify and know about a verb?
How do you classify verbs?
There are many different classifications of verbs.
You need to follow the classification that solves real-world problems.
You need to follow those details so that you can write declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences.

There are eight types of verbs:
Helping (Auxiliary) Verbs
    1. Primary helping (Auxiliary) verbs (3 verbs)
      The primary auxiliary verbs are 'be', 'do', and 'have'.
    2. Modal helping (Auxiliary) verbs (10 verbs)
Main Verbs
    Action verbs
    3. Transitive verbs ( Transitive, intransitive, and ditransitive Verbs)
    4. Intransitive verbs
    5. Linking verbs
    6. Dynamic and stative verbs
    7. Regular verbs
    8. Irregular verbs
Auxiliary Verbs

What are auxiliary verbs?
Primary Auxiliary Verbs

What are primary auxiliary verbs?
The primary auxiliaries are: be, have, and do.
How many primary auxiliary verbs are there?
Be - Am - Is - Are -Was - Were
Do - Does - Did
Have - Has -Had
Verb Quiz
Modal Auxiliary Verbs

What are modal auxiliary verbs?
How many modal auxiliary verbs are there?

Common Modal Verbs
Can Ought to
Could Shall
May Should
Might Will
Must Would
Please make an action verb sentence and linking verb senence with each.
1.)appear
2.)sound
3.)smell
Pronoun
What is a pronoun?
What are various examples of pronouns?
What are the different types of pronouns?
What is the difference between first, second, and third person?
What should you include next to an interrogative pronoun to make it an interrogative sentence?
Subject and Object Pronouns
Quiz: Pronoun or Adjective
Quiz on Pronoun Usage
Adverb
What is an adverb?
What are various examples of adverbs?
What are the types of adverbs?
What is the difference between types and forms of adverbs?
How do you make adverb from an adjective?
Do all adverbs end in ly?
What are examples of adverbs that do not end in ly?
Preposition
What is a preposition?
What are various examples of prepositions?
Prepositions of Movement
Prepositions of Place
Prepositions of Time
Conjunction
What is a conjunction?
What are various examples of conjunctions?
Interjection
What is an Interjection?
What are various examples of interjections?

Sentence Structure
Sentence Structure
What are English language word inflections?
Why do we need English language word inflections?
What are examples of English language word inflections?
What are the types of English language word inflections?
Here are further guidelines.
Exercises
English Grammar Inflections
English Grammar Word Functions
English Grammar Relations in Sentence
List of english homographs
English Grammar Rules Inversion of subject and verb
What's the subject, verb and object in the sentence?
What is a complement?
What is an object complement?
What's the difference between complement and adjunct?
What is a direct object?
Modifying Phrase
What is a subject complement?
Vocabulary
What are active and passive sentences?
What is the difference between active and passive sentences?
There are active and passive sentences in every tense.
Passive tenses have be verbs in various forms.

Active and Passive Voice
The Verb and its Modifiers
Types of Complements
Adjuncts
The Modifier
What is the difference between a direct object and an indirect object?
What is an adverb clause?
What is an adjective clause?
Does the subject always come before the predicate?
What is a prepositional phrase?
What is an appositive?
English Grammar Rules of Writing Sentences
Subject Verb Agrrement
Sentences

Do you know the classification of sentences?
How do you classify English language sentences?
How should you classify English language sentences?
English language sentence classification by purpose.
What is English language sentence classification by purpose?
Some also call this classification as sentences by structures or variety.
English language sentence classification depending on the number and type of clauses.
What is English language sentence classification depending on the number and type of clauses?
English language sentence classification by verb tense of sentence.
What is English language sentence classification by verb tense of sentence?
Adjective Adjectives describe nouns and pronouns.
Adverb Adverbs modify (describe) verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.
Conjunction A conjunction is a word that joins two or more words, phrases, or clauses.
Noun Nouns name people, places, things, or ideas.
Interjection Interjections are usually one to two words that come at the beginning of a sentence.
Preposition Prepositions are words that show the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and some other word or element in the rest of the sentence.
Pronoun A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun.
Verb A verb can express a physical action, a mental action, or a state of being.


Parts of this book.
What are the parts of this book?
Preface (about the author).
Acknowledgments.
Appendices
Bibliography or references.
Table of contents.
Copyright page.
Cover Image/title/back matter.
Front matter.
Foreword.
Glossary.
Index.
Introduction.
List of abbreviations or chronology.
Resources.
Reviews.
Sentence Examples
Series title page.
Title page.

Preface (about the author of this book).
My Name: Asif Qureshi
Attached photograph:
Abilities, skills details: Executive level abilities, executive guide.
Achievements: Take a look at this. Http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/aboutthefounder.html
Address: Asif Qureshi, 5042 N. Winthrop Ave. #237, Chicago, Illinois 60640. (1999-2014)
Behavior: Always well behaved.
Competence: Able to guide 611 professions.
Date of Birth: March 30, 1967
Date of entry into the service: April 14, 1991
Educational Qualification: 1986-1991, medical college; 1971-1986, high school, doctorate level experience.
Email: admin@qureshiuniversity.com
Emergency in case: You need to update state of Illinois
Eye color: Brown
Favorite color: White, green, yellow,
Favorite food: Plain rice, Kashmiri wazwan.
Fax: (773)337-9107
Gender: Male
Hair color: Brown to black
Height: 5 feet 10 inches.
Hobbies: Body Building
Home address: Asif Qureshi, 5042 N. Winthrop Ave. #237, Chicago, Illinois 60640. (1999-2014)
Home phone: (773)561-6102
Identification number: (various regions have social security, ID number)
Internet Address: www.qureshiuniversity.com
Languages spoken: English
Last updated: June 14, 2014.
My specific details (about me): This is about 300 words.
Number of children: Up to June 14, 2014 I did not have any children.
Occupation/Profession: Medical doctor, executive guide.
Office address: Home office.
Orientation: State orientation, global orientation.
Profession: Doctor of medicine, Executive.
Professional post: Executive Guide
Publications: I have authored more than 40 books.
Relationship status: www.nazianazirqazi.org
Religion: Islam
Shoe size: 8 1/2
Skin Color: Brown
Truthfulness: Always truthful
Weight: 175 lbs.
Work Experience: Doctor of medicine with 7 years hospital experience. This has taken 13 years (2001-2014) to establish www.qureshiuniversity.com.
Work phone: (773)561-6102 (Home office)
Publications:I have authored more than 30 books.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/catalog.html
Major Achievements: I am Asif Qureshi.
I am the founder of Qureshi University and the Global Democratic party.

I am a medical doctor.
Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/healthcareworld.html

What type of doctor of medicine am I?
I am a forensic psychiatrist.
I can guide all medical specialties.
I can guide 611 professions.
If courts need my expertise as a forensic psychiatrist, let me know.
The standard of psychiatry I follow is displayed at this resource: www.qureshiuniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html

Forensic Psychiatrist

Here are further guidelines.

This is in addition to being a medical doctor.
What are the key products and services?
Search engine, consultancy services, professional training, books, other products and services.

Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/programs.html

Take a look at this.
http://www.humanservicesglobe.com

I have authored more than 30 books.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/catalog.html

Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/colleges.html

It has taken me from the year 2001 to 2014 to establish www.qureshiuniversity.com with 600 guidelines to abilities/skills, 2,186 books, 611 professions, 800 product guidelines, 148 subjects, 27 services, and one search engine resource.

How many competent teachers, engineers, medical doctors, lawyers, administrators, news editors, judges, legislators, police officers, correctional officers, entrepreneurs, governors, and other workers do you need me to educate?
I can educate them in a short period of time.
Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com
This education resource can educate them in short period of time.

I can educate them within a short period of time.

Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/economics.html
What did you understand?

Take a look at this.
http://www.humanservicesglobe.com
What is it?
It is a search engine.

Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com
What is it?
It is an education resource.
Would you like to get educated?
Do you have any educational needs?
This resource will help you.
Do you know anyone with educational needs?
Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/academicadmission.html
About me. What do I like?
I like helping people.

What services do I provide?
I guide others worldwide.

What products have I designed, developed, or are in the process?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/productsworld.html

What professions do I guide?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/professionsworld.html

What subjects do I guide?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/subjects.html

What abilities can I help?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/skillsworld.html

What age groups do I work with?
I work with all age groups.
Children should approach me with their parents or guardians.

What is my education and experience?
I have 12 years of high school education.
I have 5 years of medical college education.
I have 7 years of in-hospital experience as a doctor.
It has taken me 14 years to create www.qureshiuniversity.com with existing resources and format.

How long do I plan to live?
90 years.

What should happen to www.qureshiuniversity.com in case of premature death of founder Asif Qureshi due to any sabotage?
www.qureshiuniveristy will become a world public university free for all.
All states must nominate representatives to receive guidelines/instructions/authorized data from this university.

What language do I prefer to speak?
The English language.

What language should you speak?
The English language.

How have educational programs been organized?

Professions

Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/professionsworld.html
This resource has guidelines for more then 611 professions required in essential ingredients of the economy of every state.

Products

Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/productsworld.html
This resource has guidelines for manufacturing of more than 1,222 essential products.

Subjects

Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/subjects.html
This resource has guidelines for instruction of more than 158 subjects that are available, ranging from English language, math, science, and social studies to public health, law, engineering, and education.

Skills

Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/skillsworld.html
This resource has guidelines for thousands of skills ranging from general purpose skills to work-specific skills.

Services

Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/services.html
This resource has guidelines for more than 22 essential services.

http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/preface.html
Here are further guidelines

Title Cover Image Format Price ISBN
English language grammar Book. Hardcover $100.00 978-0-9906983-3-3
Media
State department of media.
Media Reports

Occupations relevant to this department in the state.
Jobs List
What You Can Do With An English Degree? Note: This list does not cover every possibility; and some jobs listed require education beyond the bachelor’s degree.

A
  1. Account Executive

  2. Administrative Assistant

  3. Administrator

  4. Advertising Copywriter

  5. Advertising Sales Manager

  6. Analyst

  7. Assistant Scientific Writer

  8. Attorney

  9. Author – Non-Fiction

  10. B
  11. Biographer

  12. Book Critic

  13. Book Store Manager

  14. Broadcaster of the English Language.

  15. C
  16. Circulation Assistant

  17. College Professor

  18. Columnist/Commentator

  19. Communications Manager

  20. Consumer Researcher

  21. Convention Planner

  22. Copywriter

  23. Corrective Therapist

  24. Creative Director

  25. Creative Writer

  26. Critic, Art/Book

  27. Crossword Puzzle Creator

  28. Curriculum Planner

  29. Customer Service Rep

  30. D
  31. Desktop Publisher

  32. Director

  33. Documentation Specialist

  34. E
  35. Editor, Film/Video

  36. Editor, Magazine

  37. Editor, News

  38. Editor, Publications

  39. Editorial Assistant

  40. Educational Program Specialist

  41. English language editor

  42. English professor

  43. English teacher

  44. English editor, advertising

  45. English editor, consulting

  46. English editor, film

  47. English editor, sound

  48. English editor, technical

  49. English editor, television news video

  50. English editor, video

  51. English editor, print daily newspaper, weekly, monthly, six monthly, occasional, yearly publications

  52. English editor, electronic publications

  53. English editor, project-based editor

  54. English education administrator

  55. ESL Teacher

  56. F
  57. Film Researcher

  58. Foreign Correspondent

  59. Freelance Writer/Consultant

  60. G
  61. Greeting Card Writer

  62. H
  63. Hearing Officer

  64. Human Resource Specialist

  65. Human Service Practitioner

  66. I
  67. Information Abstractor/Indexer

  68. Instructional Designer

  69. Interior Designer

  70. Interpreter & Translator

  71. J
  72. Journalist of the English Language.

  73. L
  74. Labor Relations Specialist

  75. Lawyer

  76. Legal Assistant

  77. Librarian

  78. Literary Agent

  79. Literary Assistant

  80. M
  81. Magazine Writer

  82. Management Trainee

  83. Manuscript Reader

  84. Mass Media

  85. Media Planner

  86. Medical Records Specialist

  87. N
  88. Narrator

  89. P
  90. Patient education director of HMO

  91. Paralegal

  92. Personnel Manager

  93. Playwright

  94. Poet

  95. Probation and Parole Officer

  96. Printing machine operators

  97. Product Manager

  98. Program Manager

  99. Project Director

  100. Promotion Specialist

  101. Proofreader

  102. Psychometrist

  103. Public Administrator

  104. Public Relations Specialist

  105. Public Speaker

  106. Publications Researcher

  107. Publicity Assistant

  108. Publisher

  109. Publishing Assistant

  110. R
  111. Radio-TV Researcher

  112. Radio-TV Commentator

  113. Radio-TV Newscaster

  114. Reading Consultant

  115. Reading Specialist

  116. Reporter

  117. Research Assistant

  118. Researcher/Pollster

  119. S
  120. State Police Public Relations Offices

  121. Script Reader

  122. Script Writer

  123. Singer/Voice

  124. Social Worker

  125. Special Events Coordinator

  126. Speech Writer

  127. T
  128. Talent Agent

  129. Teacher (All Levels)

  130. Technical Consultant

  131. Technical Writer

  132. Training Consultant

  133. Training Specialist

  134. Translator

  135. Tutor

  136. U
    Underwriter
    V
  137. Video Scriptwriter/Producer

  138. Volunteer Coordinator

  139. W
  140. Web Publication Designer

  141. Web Site Developer

  142. Writer

  143. Writer in Residence

Non-essential occupations inside and outside the state.
  1. Artist

  2. Actor/Actress

  3. Associate Buyer, Retail Store

  4. Bank Officer

  5. Business Manager

  6. City Manager

  7. Comedy Writer

  8. Consumer-goods Salesperson

  9. Corporate Communications Specialist

  10. Corporate Attorney

  11. Curator

  12. Drama Critic

  13. Educational Sales Representative

  14. Entertainment Agent

  15. Fashion Merchandiser

  16. Film Critic

  17. Fundraiser

  18. Hotel & Motel Manager

  19. Humorist/Comedian

  20. Industrial Trust Analyst

  21. Investment Counselor/Manager

  22. Insurance Agent

  23. Loan Officer

  24. Lobbyist

  25. Market Researcher

  26. Marketing Assistant

  27. Marketing Manager

  28. Marketing Specialist

  29. Marketing Writer

  30. Media Buyer

  31. Novelist

  32. Policy and Procedures Analyst

  33. Politician

  34. Property Manager

  35. Real Estate Agent

  36. Retail Sales

  37. Sales Representative

  38. Sales/Service Manager

  39. Social Welfare Examiner

  40. Sports Writer

  41. Stockbroker

Entry Level Jobs Well-Suited for English Majors

Publishing Assistant
Web Content Creator
Editorial
Assistant/Copy-Editor
Majors
Paralegal
Public Relations
Education

Publishing Assistant

Median Pay: $27,000

Publishing makes good use of the English major’s spectrum of communication skills: writing for promotional materials and publication descriptions as well as written and oral communication with authors, distributors, printers, transporters, and everyone else that contributes to book production. Knowledge of Adobe InDesign or similar publishing software is vital to many parts of the publishing process. Publishing companies also frequently rely on new hires to increase the digital presence of the publisher through social media and book and author websites.

Web Content Creator

Median Pay: $26,000

Many modern businesses (One Day, One Job included) thrive by generating unique and interesting content for the internet on a regular basis. This content gets people on to the site from search engines, and since just about every business wants more search engine traffic, content writers are in high-demand these days. Learning a little about Search Engine Optimization can go a long way in terms of getting a job writing for the internet. Traditional print advertising and direct mail marketing also continue to need talented writers, although most writing jobs involve writing web content these days.

Editorial Assistant/Copy-Editor

Median Pay: $35,000

The English major’s editing skills can be put to work for almost any publication that reaches a wide audience. There’s copy-editing, for those good at catching punctuation and grammar mistakes, fact-checking for the more research oriented, and also higher level editorial work, usually at the assistant level to start. Editorial work can include managing writers, suggesting stories, working with writers on shaping a piece for publication and more. All of these responsibilities make use of the English major’s excellent communication skills and conceptual thinking born from choosing paper topics from vague criteria.

Types of Sentences in English Language
How do you define English grammar in 11 words?
English grammar consists of classes of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences.

How many types of sentences are there in English language?
There are more than 12 types of sentences in English language.
There are 4 categories of sentences in English language.
A word followed by a colon and then a description is considered one type of sentence in English language.

What are the types of sentences in English language?
  1. Simple declarative sentence in English language.

  2. Compound declarative sentence in English language.

  3. Complex declarative sentence in English language.

  4. Compound complex declarative sentence in English language.

  5. Questions in English language as per categories. Question word question, helping verbs, choice, tag questions.

  6. Questions in English language as per the alphabetical list of 40 types.

  7. Imperative sentence in English language.

  8. Exclamatory sentence in English language.

  9. Quoted speech sentence in English language.

  10. Reported speech sentence in English language.

  11. Categories like address, salutations, signs/marks (for example, on aircraft/vessels or airports).

  12. A word followed by a colon and then a description is considered one type of sentence in English language.

  13. Question-and-answer Presentation in English Language
There are many categories of English language sentences that are elaborated above.
Declarative, imperative, exclamatory, and questions.

Where are tenses applicable among types of sentences in English language?
In simple declarative sentences in English language, for example, subject-verb-object pattern tenses are applicable.
Compound, complex, and compound complex sentences have at least one independent clause/simple declarative sentence with tenses.
Question in English language tenses are applicable.

Simple declarative sentence in English language.
Subject + Verb + Object

What are examples of sentences in 12 tenses with the verb investigate and its conjugated forms?
Present tenses
Present simple tense Rule: subject + investigate / investigates + object
Doctor Asif Qureshi investigates this case.
Present continuous tense Rule: subject + is/am/are + Investigating + object
Doctor Asif Qureshi is investigating this case.
Present perfect tense Rule: subject + has/have + Investigated + object
Doctor Asif Qureshi has investigated this case.
Present perfect continuous tense Rule: subject + has/have been + communicating + object
Doctor Asif Qureshi has been investigating this case.
Past tenses
Past Simple tense Rule: subject + investigated + object
Doctor Asif Qureshi investigated this case.
Past continuous tense Rule: subject + was/were + investigating + object
Doctor Asif Qureshi was investigating this case.
Past perfect tense Rule: subject + had + investigated + object
Doctor Asif Qureshi had investigated this case.
Past perfect continuous tense Rule: subject + had been + investigating + object
Doctor Asif Qureshi had been investigating this case.
Future tenses
Future simple tense Rule: subject + shall/will investigate + object
Doctor Asif Qureshi will investigate this case.
Future continuous tense Rule: subject + shall/will be + investigating + object
Doctor Asif Qureshi will be investigating this case.
Future perfect tense Rule: subject + shall/will have + investigated + object
Doctor Asif Qureshi will have investigated this case.
Future perfect continuous tense Rule: subject + shall/will have been + investigating + object
Doctor Asif Qureshi will have been investigating this case.

Quoted speech sentence in English language.
Reported speech sentence in English language.
Quoted speech sentence in English language.

How do you write a quoted speech sentence in English language?
“I will be investigating this case,” he said.

Reported speech sentence in English language.

How do you write a reported speech sentence in English language?
He said that he would be investigating this case.

There are many more examples.

Statement of a person or persons
How does one write someone's statement as a news report?
He/she should use a specific combination of words while writing someone's statement as news report.
1. (Name of the person) has said that (Statement).
2. (Name of the person) said, “ (Statement)."
3. (Namw of the person) added that (Statement).
4. (Name of the person), in a statement issued in (Name of the place), called upon the people to remain vigilant and united at this crucial juncture.
5. (Name of the person) reiterated that “(Statement).”
6. "(Statement)," he/she said.
7. "(Statement),” he/she asserted.
8. "(Statement),” he/she added.
9. "(Statement)," he/she stated.
10. "(Statement),” he/she claimed.
11. "(Statement),” the statement said.
12. "(Statement),” the spokesperson said.
13. "(Statement),” insiders said.
14. (Statement), an official handout said.
15. "(Statement),” a statement issued here said.
16. “(Statement),” he/she says.
17. “(Statement),” (Name of the person) says.
18. "(Statement),”(Name of the person) said.
19. (Statement), (Name of the person) told a meeting.
20. "(Statement),” (Name of the person) added.
21. "(Statement),” (Name of the person) maintained.
22. "(Statement),” (Name of the person) adds.
23. "(Statement),” says (Name of the person) of (Place).
24. “(Statement)," it added.
25. "(Statement)," a ______ spokesperson told ______.
26. He added that (Statement).
27. He added, ”(Statement)."
28. He said the truth is that the (Statement)
29. He asked the people to ensure that the (Statement).
30. As one colleague said, “(Statement)."
31. In a statement issued here, (Designation), (Place),(Name of the person) said: “Statement)".
32. In a statement, a spokesman for the forum said, “(Statement)."
33. In addition, (Statement).
34. “(Question?),” he asked.

Question-and-answer Presentation in English Language
How should you do a presentation in English language?
In a question-and-answer format in English language.

Why should you do a question-and-answer presentation in English language?
Findings can be utilized for investigation, research, and further research.

What is an ISBN?
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a 13-digit number that uniquely identifies books and book-like products published internationally.
Last Updated: May 13, 2017